Metformin (glucophage) Side Effects & Complications
The fascinating compound called metformin was discovered nearly a century ago. Scientists realized that it could lower blood sugar in an animal model (rabbits) as early as 1929, but it wasn’t until the late 1950s that a French researcher came up with the name Glucophage (roughly translated as glucose eater). The FDA gave metformin (Glucophage) the green light for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in 1994, 36 years after it had been approved for this use in Britain. Uses of Generic Metformin: Glucophage lost its patent protection in the U.S. in 2002 and now most prescriptions are filled with generic metformin. This drug is recognized as a first line treatment to control blood sugar by improving the cells’ response to insulin and reducing the amount of sugar that the liver makes. Unlike some other oral diabetes drugs, it doesn’t lead to weight gain and may even help people get their weight under control. Starting early in 2000, sales of metformin (Glucophage) were challenged by a new class of diabetes drugs. First Avandia and then Actos challenged metformin for leadership in diabetes treatment. Avandia later lost its luster because it was linked to heart attacks and strokes. Sales of this drug are now miniscule because of tight FDA regulations. Actos is coming under increasing scrutiny as well. The drug has been banned in France and Germany because of a link to bladder cancer. The FDA has also required Actos to carry its strictest black box warning about an increased risk of congestive heart failure brought on by the drug. Newer diabetes drugs like liraglutide (Victoza), saxagliptin (Onglyza) and sitagliptin (Januvia) have become very successful. But metformin remains a mainstay of diabetes treatment. It is prescribed on its own or sometimes combined with the newer d Continue reading >>
Metformin: Uses, Action, Dosage, Side Effect And Brand Information
What is metformin used for? Controlling blood sugar levels in adults, adolescents and children aged 10 years and over with type 2 diabetes. Metformin is used when diet alone has failed to fully control blood sugar. It may be used on its own, in combination with other oral antidiabetic medicines, or with insulin. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This is an off-licence use of metformin, so you won't find it mentioned in the information leaflets that come with the medicine. However, metformin is a widely used and established treatment option for this condition. How does metformin work? In type 2 diabetes the cells in the body, particularly muscle, fat and liver cells, become resistant to the action of insulin. Insulin is the main hormone responsible for controlling the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood. It makes cells in the body remove sugar from the blood. When the cells are resistant to insulin this makes blood sugar levels rise too high. Metformin hydrochloride is a type of antidiabetic medicine called a biguanide. It works in a number of ways to lower blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes. Firstly, it increases the sensitivity of muscle cells to insulin. This enables these cells to remove sugar from the blood more effectively. Secondly, it reduces the amount of sugar produced by cells in the liver. Finally, it delays the absorption of sugar from the intestines into the bloodstream after eating so that there is less of a spike in blood sugar levels after meals. Metformin is taken regularly every day to help control blood sugar levels both between and directly after meals. In polycystic ovary syndrome or PCOS many women have high insulin levels, and as a result their cells become resistant to the action of insulin. The high insulin levels also cause an Continue reading >>
Uses Metformin is used with a proper diet and exercise program and possibly with other medications to control high blood sugar. It is used in patients with type 2 diabetes. Controlling high blood sugar helps prevent kidney damage, blindness, nerve problems, loss of limbs, and sexual function problems. Proper control of diabetes may also lessen your risk of a heart attack or stroke. Metformin works by helping to restore your body's proper response to the insulin you naturally produce. It also decreases the amount of sugar that your liver makes and that your stomach/intestines absorb. How to use Metformin HCL Read the Patient Information Leaflet if available from your pharmacist before you start taking metformin and each time you get a refill. If you have any questions, consult your doctor or pharmacist. Take this medication by mouth as directed by your doctor, usually 1-3 times a day with meals. Drink plenty of fluids while taking this medication unless otherwise directed by your doctor. The dosage is based on your medical condition, response to treatment, and other medications you may be taking. Be sure to tell your doctor and pharmacist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products). To reduce your risk of side effects (such as upset stomach), your doctor may direct you to start this medication at a low dose and gradually increase your dose. Follow your doctor's instructions carefully. Take this medication regularly in order to get the most benefit from it. Remember to use it at the same times each day. If you are already taking another diabetes drug (such as chlorpropamide), follow your doctor's directions carefully for stopping/continuing the old drug and starting metformin. Check your blood sugar regularly a Continue reading >>
Common Diabetes Drug Metformin Could Cause Thyroid And Heart Problems, Experts Warn
A drug widely prescribed to those with diabetes could cause thyroid, heart and a host of other health problems, a study has warned. Metformin is commonly used to treat type 2 diabetes. It lowers blood sugar levels by reducing glucose production in the liver. But new research, published in the Canadian Medical Association Journal, found the drug is linked to having an underactive thyroid. And the increased risk of producing low levels of the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), can lead to complications, scientists have warned. The condition can cause heart disease, goitre - a lump in the throat caused by a swollen thyroid - pregnancy problems and a life-threatening condition called myxoedema coma. Both men and women can have an underactive thyroid, though the condition is more common in women. In the UK, it affects 15 in every 1,000 women and one in 1,000 men. The condition can also develop in children. The amount of metformin an individual needs to control blood sugar levels is worked out by a person's doctor or diabetes team. However, some previous research has raised concerns that the drug may lower thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. The study, published in Canadian Medical Association Journal, examined data on 74,300 patients who received metformin and sulfonylurea, another common diabetes drug, over a 25-year study period. Of these people, 5,689 were being treated for an underactive thyroid, and 59,937 had normal thyroid function. In the group with an underactive thyroid, there were 495 incidences of low thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) (119.7 per 1000) per year compared with 322 in the normal group (4.5 per 1000). In patients with a treated underactive thyroid, metformin was associated with a 55 per cent increased risk of low TSH levels compared with treatment wit Continue reading >>
How Does Metformin Work?
Metformin is a type of oral medication used to treat type 2 diabetes — and according to Gary Scheiner, CDE, in his book, “Until There is a Cure,” metformin is the most prescribed medication for type 2 diabetes, and one of those most widely used drugs in the world. But type 1 diabetics can take metformin, too, explains Scheiner, if they’re struggling with insulin resistance and persistent high blood sugars. The brand names for metformin are Glucophage, Glucophage XR, Glumetza, Fortamet, and Riomet. Metformin has also been combined with other medications, giving you two diabetes treatment methods in one medication. Those combo-medications are: glyburide (Glucovance), glipizide (Metaglip), rosiglitazone (Avandamet), pioglitazone (Actoplus Met), sitagliptin (Janumet) and repaglinide (PrandiMet). [Download our free Guide to Type 2 Diabetes Medications] Metformin is taken in pill-form. It is generally taken twice per day, at breakfast and at dinner. For those with higher levels of insulin resistance, your doctor may prescribe metformin to be taken at all three meals: breakfast, lunch, and dinner. Benefits of Metformin: While there are a variety of oral medications to help people with type 2 diabetes reduce their blood sugar levels, they all work very differently in the body. Scheiner explains exactly how metformin works in the body: Metformin does not increase insulin levels and does not cause hypoglycemia. Instead, it decreases the amount of sugar produced by the liver and tends to suppress appetite. – “Until There is a Cure,” page 81 In every human body, the liver releases small amounts of glucose throughout the day. The primary effect of taking metformin is that this release of glucose from the liver is lessened, resulting in lower blood sugars. Metformin als Continue reading >>
Effect Of Metformin On Different Non-diabetes Related Conditions, A Special Focus On Malignant Conditions: Review Of Literature
Go to: Metformin is one of the most commonly used diabetes treating agents . It has proved to be very effective, with a wide spectrum of efficacy, safety, as well as being an agent that works at different spots in diabetes pathogenesis paradigm . Metformin is now being used for over 60 years in many parts of the world. During these six decades, plenty of data showed beneficial effects of metformin apart from diabetes. Many diabetes associated conditions, like polycystic ovary disease and fatty liver disease, showed remarkable improvement upon using metformin [2, 3]. Data showed a protective effect of metformin in reducing cardiovascular complications, not only in diabetes patients but even those with a prediabetes state on the long term [4-6]. Moreover, metformin showed a beneficial effect in some studies in reducing the prevalence of different malignant conditions, and it helped in treating some of them when concomitantly used with other agents. From an endocrine perspective, some studies pointed towards the effect of the metformin on the thyroid function test, even in euthyroid patients. Nonetheless, metformin reduced the size of the thyroid nodule in some small papers in the literature. In this review, we shall highlight the systemic effects of metformin. We will focus mainly on the non-diabetes-related effects. Reviewed literature included randomized controlled trials, observational trials, and review articles. We have reviewed papers with the primary objective of assessing the non-diabetes related health issues. We have classified the results according to the area of metformin effect. These areas included the effect on inflammation modulation, weight reduction, and thyroid diseases and so on. In the cancer section, since it is the most studied area with metfo Continue reading >>
How Much Do You Know About Metformin?
Metformin is a drug commonly used in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. It is sold as a generic and under several brand names, including Glucophage, Glumetza, Riomet, and Fortamet. Both the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) recommend metformin as a cornerstone of therapy for Type 2 diabetes when exercise and dietary changes aren’t enough to keep blood glucose levels in target range. The low cost of the generic forms along with a long history of use make it a good choice for many individuals with Type 2 diabetes. Although metformin has helped many people lower their blood glucose levels, it does have some potential side effects that are worth knowing about. Understanding the risks and benefits of metformin is key to using it successfully. Take this quiz to test your knowledge of this popular diabetes medicine. (You can find the answers later in the article.) Q 1. How does metformin work to lower blood glucose levels? A. It stimulates the pancreas to make more insulin. B. It decreases the amount of glucose produced by the liver and makes it easier for cells to accept glucose from the bloodstream. C. It slows the digestive system’s breakdown of carbohydrates into glucose, allowing more time for insulin to work. D. It suppresses appetite, slows stomach emptying, and inhibits the release of glucagon (a hormone that raises blood glucose levels). 2. In addition to lowering blood glucose, metformin sometimes causes moderate weight loss. TRUE FALSE 3. In research studies, metformin use was associated with which of the following benefits in people with Type 2 diabetes? A. Reduced risk of morning high blood glucose. B. Reduced neuropathy (nerve damage). C. Reduced retinopathy (damage to the retina, a membrane in Continue reading >>
Metformin Linked To Dementia, Parkinson's In Patients With T2dm
Metformin Use Linked to Increased Dementia, Parkinson's Risk in Patients With Diabetes VIENNA, Austria — Long-term use of the diabetes medication metformin may increase the risk for neurodegenerative disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), new research suggests. In a cohort study that followed about 9300 patients with T2DM in Taiwan for up to 12 years, the risk for Parkinson's disease (PD) or Alzheimer's dementia was more than double during a 12-year period for those who took metformin vs those who did not — even after adjusting for multiple confounders. In addition, outcome risks increased progressively with higher dosage and longer duration of treatment. The results were presented here at AD/PD 2017: The 13th International Conference on Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Diseases by Yi-Chun Kuan, MD, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, New Taipei City, Taiwan. Interestingly, recent research has suggested that use of metformin may protect against neurodegenerative diseases. When asked about that, Dr Kuan told Medscape Medical News that "some studies have actually found positive [outcomes] but some have been negative ." So the researchers wanted to look into this using their own data. "We'd heard about a possible protective effect from metformin. However, we found the reverse," she said, but stressed that large-scale, prospective studies in other countries are needed to clarify the results. The investigators note that past research has shown a link between T2DM and increased risk for neurodegenerative diseases, but there's been "some question" about the association with specific diabetes medications. They examined records for patients with T2DM from the National Health Insurance research database of Taiwan, including 4651 who had metformin pre Continue reading >>
Metformin (oral Route)
Precautions Drug information provided by: Micromedex It is very important that your doctor check your progress at regular visits, especially during the first few weeks that you take this medicine. Blood and urine tests may be needed to check for unwanted effects. This medicine may interact with the dye used for an X-ray or CT scan. Your doctor should advise you to stop taking it before you have any medical exams or diagnostic tests that might cause less urine output than usual. You may be advised to start taking the medicine again 48 hours after the exams or tests if your kidney function is tested and found to be normal. Make sure any doctor or dentist who treats you knows that you are using this medicine. You may need to stop using this medicine several days before having surgery or medical tests. It is very important to carefully follow any instructions from your health care team about: Alcohol—Drinking alcohol may cause severe low blood sugar. Discuss this with your health care team. Other medicines—Do not take other medicines unless they have been discussed with your doctor. This especially includes nonprescription medicines such as aspirin, and medicines for appetite control, asthma, colds, cough, hay fever, or sinus problems. Counseling—Other family members need to learn how to prevent side effects or help with side effects if they occur. Also, patients with diabetes may need special counseling about diabetes medicine dosing changes that might occur with lifestyle changes, such as changes in exercise or diet. Counseling on birth control and pregnancy may be needed because of the problems that can occur in pregnancy for patients with diabetes. Travel—Keep a recent prescription and your medical history with you. Be prepared for an emergency as you would norm Continue reading >>
How To Treat Diabetic Diarrhea?
I have a problem that I never see addressed. I've had type 1 diabetes for 36 years and been diagnosed as having diabetic diarrhea. Numerous tests have ruled out all other gastrointestinal problems. Is there any treatment for this problem? Continue reading >>
Can You Drink Alcohol While Taking Metformin?
Metformin is a medication that helps manage type 2 diabetes and occasionally prediabetes. In general, drinking alcohol while taking metformin is not helpful and not recommended by doctors. The side effects of metformin can be life-threatening with excessive alcohol consumption. Metformin and alcohol both put stress on the liver, so intensifying the harmful effects and increasing the risk of liver complications. How does metformin and alcohol affect the body? Metformin is a popular, effective, and inexpensive management medication, prescribed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In 2014, some 14.4 million people in the United States were prescribed metformin. Metformin is also being used more and more frequently in prediabetes cases. Metformin use in overweight people with type 1 diabetes may also reduce insulin requirements and increase metabolic control. The drug works by improving insulin sensitivity, promoting the uptake of glucose into tissues and lowering sugar levels in the bloodstream. By increasing how effectively the existing glucose is used, metformin reduces the amount of glucose the liver produces and the intestines absorb. Alcohol also affects blood sugars significantly. Alcohol digestion puts stress on the liver, an organ dedicated to the removal of poisons from the body. When the liver is forced to process high amounts of alcohol, it becomes overworked and releases less glucose. Long-term alcohol use can also make cells less sensitive to insulin. This means that less glucose is absorbed from the blood and levels in the bloodstream increase. Over time, alcohol consumption damages the liver, especially when it is consumed in excess. It reduces the liver's ability to produce and regulate glucose. Conditions like alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis of the live Continue reading >>
Breaking: Diabetes Drugs Linked To Alzheimers And Dementia
If you’re diabetic and you’re taking medication, you’re probably putting your brain at great risk. Their calling the new study from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine a “Diabetes Game-Changer." It proves that prolonged use of diabetes drugs puts you at risk for a deficiency which can cause neurological problems, including dementia, and even brain shrinkage. This study used data that was funded by the National Institute of Diabetes. This was a 5-year study that ran from 1996 until 2001. It followed more than 3,000 people who were “at risk” for diabetes. Participants were divided into three groups. Group #1 was assigned a special lifestyle change method. They were put on a very specific diet and performed light exercises. Group #2 was given the diabetes drug metformin. Group #3 was given a placebo. The purpose of this study was to see which group had the lowest rates of diabetes and took the longest to develop it. Group #1 beat the others by a landslide. The study authors were so astounded by their findings that the program morphed into a follow-up study, in which the original participants were followed for several more years. The researchers found that Group #2 (those taking metformin) were twice as likely as to have a B12 deficiency, and more likely to become anemic. More shocking yet, it was discovered that they were also more likely to develop neurological problems like Alzheimer’s and Dementia. Yet, for unknown reasons, the Diabetes-Institute-funded research didn’t follow up on the special diet procedure completed by Group #1. It’s everywhere, dangerous, and under-diagnosed While we don’t hear much about it, it’s common knowledge that B12 deficiency causes dementia. And data from a large study by Tufts University* suggests that low B12 leve Continue reading >>
Glucophage (metformin) And Diabetes
Tweet Glucophage and Metformin are often mentioned in relation to diabetes treatment. But what exactly is Glucophage and how does Glucophage help control type 2 diabetes? The following guide to Glucophage should help you to understand more about this medication, its side effects and its value. What is Glucophage? Glucophage tablets (and Glucophage SR tablets) each have an active ingredient called Metformin hydrochloride. Metformin is widely used to aid in the control of blood glucose levels amongst people with type 2 diabetes. How does Glucophage help people with type 2 diabetes? Amongst people with type 2 diabetes, the pancreas fails to produce sufficient levels of insulin. Furthermore, the cells in the body may be resistant to any insulin that is present. Normally, insulin would instruct cells to remove sugar from the blood, but in people with diabetes blood sugar levels can climb too high. As we said before, Glucophage contains the ingredient Metformin. Metformin (Metformin hydrochloride) is a type of medicine known as a biguanide. This works to lower the amount of sugar in the blood of people with diabetes. It does this by lowering the amount of sugar produced in the liver, and also increasing the sensitivity of muscle cells to insulin. The cells are therefore more able to remove sugar from the blood. Metformin also slows the absorption of sugars from the intestines. Metformin lowers blood sugar levels between and after meals. Who is Glucophage prescribed to? Glucophage is usually prescribed as a treatment for people with type 2 diabetes who are overweight or obese. When diet and exercise fail to adequately control blood glucose levels, Glucophage is prescribed. Sometimes, this medicine is used in conjunction with other anti-diabetic medication. How often do people Continue reading >>
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Pcos: Insulin And Metformin
Young women with PCOS often have elevated insulin levels and are more likely to develop diabetes. Metformin is a medication often prescribed for women with PCOS to help prevent diabetes. A lifestyle that includes healthy nutrition and daily exercise is the most important part of a PCOS treatment plan. What is insulin? Insulin is a hormone made by an organ in the body called the pancreas. The food you eat is broken down into simple sugar (glucose) during digestion. Glucose is absorbed into the blood after you eat. Insulin helps glucose enter the cells of the body to be used as energy. If there’s not enough insulin in the body, or if the body can’t use the insulin, sugar levels in the blood become higher. What is insulin resistance? If your body is resistant to insulin, it means you need high levels of insulin to keep your blood sugar normal. Certain medical conditions such as being overweight or having PCOS can cause insulin resistance. Insulin resistance tends to run in families. What can insulin resistance do to me? High insulin levels can cause thickening and darkening of the skin (acanthosis nigricans) on the back of the neck, axilla (under the arms), and groin area. In young women with PCOS, high insulin levels can cause the ovaries to make more androgen hormones such as testosterone. This can cause increased body hair, acne, and irregular or few periods. Having insulin resistance can increase your risk of developing diabetes. How can I lower my insulin levels? You can help lower your insulin levels naturally by eating fewer starches and sugars, and more foods that are high in fiber and low in refined carbohydrates. Low glycemic foods, on the other hand, don’t raise your blood sugar or insulin levels as much as foods that are high in sugar or refined carbohydr Continue reading >>
Side Effects Of Metformin: What You Should Know
Metformin is a prescription drug used to treat type 2 diabetes. It belongs to a class of medications called biguanides. People with type 2 diabetes have blood sugar (glucose) levels that rise higher than normal. Metformin doesn’t cure diabetes. Instead, it helps lower your blood sugar levels to a safe range. Metformin needs to be taken long-term. This may make you wonder what side effects it can cause. Metformin can cause mild and serious side effects, which are the same in men and women. Here’s what you need to know about these side effects and when you should call your doctor. Find out: Can metformin be used to treat type 1 diabetes? » Metformin causes some common side effects. These can occur when you first start taking metformin, but usually go away over time. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or cause a problem for you. The more common side effects of metformin include: heartburn stomach pain nausea or vomiting bloating gas diarrhea constipation weight loss headache unpleasant metallic taste in mouth Lactic acidosis The most serious side effect metformin can cause is lactic acidosis. In fact, metformin has a boxed warning about this risk. A boxed warning is the most severe warning from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Lactic acidosis is a rare but serious problem that can occur due to a buildup of metformin in your body. It’s a medical emergency that must be treated right away in the hospital. See Precautions for factors that raise your risk of lactic acidosis. Call your doctor right away if you have any of the following symptoms of lactic acidosis. If you have trouble breathing, call 911 right away or go to the nearest emergency room. extreme tiredness weakness decreased appetite nausea vomiting trouble breathing dizziness lighthea Continue reading >>