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Can Metformin Cause Liver Or Kidney Damage

Metformin And Kidney Damage - Medhelp

Metformin And Kidney Damage - Medhelp

Common Questions and Answers about Metformin and kidney damage Hi, So sorry to hear about your kidney damage . Metformin does not damage kidneys, that damage is done by high blood sugars. The biggest concern is when metformin is used and it doesn't adequately control blood sugars. In such case other medications or insulin should be started to get good blood sugar control. The sooner blood sugars can be under tight control the better, as far as preventing / healing damage. I just have to be really careful. So far so good. I have read that the metformin can cause liver and kidney damage so was worried about it, especially since my liver is damaged.Then when I got so sick had so many side effects I got scared that I might be doing damage to my already damaged liver. I have been taking metformin for a week and have lost 19 pounds i am taking it for pcos and it has worked wonders i also have a normal cycle now i dont know if you have one or not but if you dont hopefully it will help Metformin has been known to cause kidney and liver problems, but this does not happen in all patients, and there is some evidence there is a co-factor, in development of damage, such as alcoholism, or a combination of other drugs. The national database PUBMED has the studies. All in all, the drug has a relatively good safety record. I would not fear taking Metformin if your physician recommends or concurs with your suggestion. I have taken Metformin 500 Mg x 2 times /day for nearly 3 years, but a year ago until now my feet are swollen, and I have bone spur on the left heel of my foot that is more growing bigger. This foot is in pain when I walk. Everyday when I take Metformin I usually have constipation and the top of my feet are swollen up. My fingers are so numb, and my urine is dark yellow an Continue reading >>

Metformin Effects On The Liver

Metformin Effects On The Liver

Physicians commonly prescribe Metformin if you have Type 2 diabetes and need help controlling your blood sugar. It reduces how much glucose you absorb from food and the amount your liver produces. On rare occasions, however, Metformin causes liver dysfunction and a serious metabolic condition involving the liver. For this reason, physicians exercise caution when prescribing Metformin to patients with liver disease. Video of the Day In healthy individuals, the liver produces glucose to keep blood sugar stable when you haven't eaten for several hours. Uncontrolled glucose production in the liver may cause high blood sugar in individuals with Type 2 diabetes. Researchers discovered that Metformin blocks critical enzymes involved in signaling the liver to produce glucose, thereby decreasing blood sugar levels. Their work was reported in the February 2013 edition of the journal "Nature." Lactic Acid Production Your muscles, brain, skin and other tissues produce a substance called lactic acid. Under normal circumstances, your liver and kidneys remove lactic acid from the blood and convert some of it to glucose. If a life-threatening metabolic condition known as lactic acidosis occurs, lactic acid levels increase faster than the liver can keep up with. Though its mechanism is unclear, Metformin causes lactic acidosis in a small segment -- up to 1 percent -- of patients, according to NYU Langone Medical Center. Almost all reported cases occurred in patients with underlying metabolic issues, such as liver or kidney disease. According to LiverTox, a publication of the U.S. National Library of Science drug database, Metformin may occasionally cause mild liver toxicity, characterized by minor elevations in liver enzymes. It occurs in less than 1 percent of the patients taking Metfo Continue reading >>

Diabetes: How Do I Help Protect My Liver?

Diabetes: How Do I Help Protect My Liver?

If I have diabetes, is there anything special I need to do to take care of my liver? Answers from M. Regina Castro, M.D. You're wise to wonder about steps to protect your liver. Diabetes raises your risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, a condition in which excess fat builds up in your liver even if you drink little or no alcohol. This condition occurs in at least half of those with type 2 diabetes. It isn't clear whether the condition appears more often in people with type 1 diabetes than in the general population because obesity, which is a risk factor, occurs with similar frequency in both groups. Other medical conditions, such as high cholesterol and high blood pressure, also raise your risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Fatty liver disease itself usually causes no symptoms. But it raises your risk of developing liver inflammation or scarring (cirrhosis). It's also linked to an increased risk of liver cancer, heart disease and kidney disease. Fatty liver disease may even play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes. Once you have both conditions, poorly managed type 2 diabetes can make fatty liver disease worse. Your best defense against fatty liver disease includes these strategies: Work with your health care team to achieve good control of your blood sugar. Lose weight if you need to, and try to maintain a healthy weight. Take steps to reduce high blood pressure. Keep your low-density lipoprotein (LDL, or "bad") cholesterol and triglycerides — a type of blood fat — within recommended limits. Don't drink too much alcohol. If you have diabetes, your doctor may recommend an ultrasound examination of your liver when you're first diagnosed and regular follow-up blood tests to monitor your liver function. Continue reading >>

What Are The Long-term Effects Of Metformin?

What Are The Long-term Effects Of Metformin?

Metformin is a prescription drug that is used to help control blood glucose levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is commonly sold under the brand names Glucophage and Fortamet and is available in regular and slow-release tablets. Metformin works by acting on the liver and intestines to decrease secretion and absorption of glucose into the blood. It also increases the insulin sensitivity of muscles and tissues of the body so that they take up glucose more readily. MayoClinic.com underlines that as with any medication, metformin can cause unwanted side effects that may be common or more serious. Video of the Day Patients taking metformin, particularly women may experience general malaise, fatigue, and occasional achiness. Malaise may be caused by other effects of metformin on the liver, kidneys, stomach and intestines, as noted by Drugs.com. Vitamin B12 Malabsorption Vitamin B12 malabsorption may also occur in some patients on metformin treatment. MayoClinic.com explains that a chemical in the stomach called intrinsic factor is required for the body to absorb vitamin B12. Metformin can interfere with this chemical, causing decreased absorption of the vitamin. Over the long term, a vitamin B12 deficiency can cause significant health risks as this essential vitamin is important for synthesis of DNA, red blood cell production and other biochemical functions in the body. Decreased vitamin B12 in the blood can lead to megoblastic anemia in which the bone marrow cannot adequately manufacture red blood cells. Though this type of anemia is not common, it can occur from long-term use of metformin, causing decreased vitamin B12 levels. Long-term metformin use can cause liver or kidney problems in some individuals, according to MayoClinic.com, because the medicati Continue reading >>

Side Effects Of Metformin: What You Should Know

Side Effects Of Metformin: What You Should Know

Metformin is a prescription drug used to treat type 2 diabetes. It belongs to a class of medications called biguanides. People with type 2 diabetes have blood sugar (glucose) levels that rise higher than normal. Metformin doesn’t cure diabetes. Instead, it helps lower your blood sugar levels to a safe range. Metformin needs to be taken long-term. This may make you wonder what side effects it can cause. Metformin can cause mild and serious side effects, which are the same in men and women. Here’s what you need to know about these side effects and when you should call your doctor. Find out: Can metformin be used to treat type 1 diabetes? » Metformin causes some common side effects. These can occur when you first start taking metformin, but usually go away over time. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or cause a problem for you. The more common side effects of metformin include: heartburn stomach pain nausea or vomiting bloating gas diarrhea constipation weight loss headache unpleasant metallic taste in mouth Lactic acidosis The most serious side effect metformin can cause is lactic acidosis. In fact, metformin has a boxed warning about this risk. A boxed warning is the most severe warning from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Lactic acidosis is a rare but serious problem that can occur due to a buildup of metformin in your body. It’s a medical emergency that must be treated right away in the hospital. See Precautions for factors that raise your risk of lactic acidosis. Call your doctor right away if you have any of the following symptoms of lactic acidosis. If you have trouble breathing, call 911 right away or go to the nearest emergency room. extreme tiredness weakness decreased appetite nausea vomiting trouble breathing dizziness lighthea Continue reading >>

Metformin - Oral, Glucophage

Metformin - Oral, Glucophage

are allergic to dapagliflozin or any of the ingredients in FARXIGA. Symptoms of a serious allergic reaction may include skin rash, raised red patches on your skin (hives), swelling of the face, lips, tongue, and throat that may cause difficulty in breathing or swallowing. If you have any of these symptoms, stop taking FARXIGA and contact your healthcare provider or go to the nearest hospital emergency room right away have severe kidney problems or are on dialysis. Your healthcare provider should do blood tests to check how well your kidneys are working before and during your treatment with FARXIGA Dehydration (the loss of body water and salt), which may cause you to feel dizzy, faint, lightheaded, or weak, especially when you stand up (orthostatic hypotension). You may be at a higher risk of dehydration if you have low blood pressure; take medicines to lower your blood pressure, including water pills (diuretics); are 65 years of age or older; are on a low salt diet, or have kidney problems Ketoacidosis occurred in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes during treatment with FARXIGA. Ketoacidosis is a serious condition which may require hospitalization and may lead to death. Symptoms may include nausea, tiredness, vomiting, trouble breathing, and abdominal pain. If you get any of these symptoms, stop taking FARXIGA and call your healthcare provider right away. If possible, check for ketones in your urine or blood, even if your blood sugar is less than 250 mg/dL Kidney problems. Sudden kidney injury occurred in people taking FARXIGA. Talk to your doctor right away if you reduce the amount you eat or drink, or if you lose liquids; for example, from vomiting, diarrhea, or excessive heat exposure Serious urinary tract infections (UTI), some that lead to hospitalization, occu Continue reading >>

Could Metformin Actually Protect The Kidneys?

Could Metformin Actually Protect The Kidneys?

The drug metformin is not recommended for people with kidney disease. For this reason, some people think that metformin causes kidney disease. But new evidence suggests that metformin might actually protect the kidneys. For many people with type 2 diabetes, metformin is a very effective drug. In everyone, the liver is a sort of “mother” organ. When blood glucose (BG) levels go down, the liver releases some glucose into the blood to make sure all the other organs get enough glucose energy to work properly. When you eat and your BG levels start going up, the liver is supposed to stop pushing all this glucose out into the bloodstream. But for some reason, in people with type 2 diabetes, like an oversolitous mother, the liver doesn’t stop feeding the bloodstream after meals. “Eat eat” I can hear it say to a bloodstream already stuffed with glucose. And this continued release of glucose into the bloodstream after meals is one reason people with type 2 go high after meals. Metformin helps to stop this process, and this is its main action. But it also reduces insulin resistance. In addition, generic metformin is pretty cheap. So overall, it’s a good drug for type 2s or even for type 1s who have developed insulin resistance. Metformin can also cause side effects, especially gastrointestinal distress. Most people find that these side effects are reduced if they start with a low dose and work up to an effective dose. Taking the drug with meals also helps. Others have found that things like yogurt and milk thistle help with the GI symptoms. The extended-release form seems to cause fewer of these problems. But for those with kidney disease, metformin is not so great. This is because metformin is excreted through the kidneys. If the kidneys aren’t functioning well, the Continue reading >>

Metformin, The Liver, And Diabetes

Metformin, The Liver, And Diabetes

Most people think diabetes comes from pancreas damage, due to autoimmune problems or insulin resistance. But for many people diagnosed “Type 2,” the big problems are in the liver. What are these problems, and what can we do about them? First, some basic physiology you may already know. The liver is one of the most complicated organs in the body, and possibly the least understood. It plays a huge role in handling sugars and starches, making sure our bodies have enough fuel to function. When there’s a lot of sugar in the system, it stores some of the excess in a storage form of carbohydrate called glycogen. When blood sugar levels get low, as in times of hunger or at night, it converts some of the glycogen to glucose and makes it available for the body to use. Easy to say, but how does the liver know what to do and when to do it? Scientists have found a “molecular switch” called CRTC2 that controls this process. When the CRTC2 switch is on, the liver pours sugar into the system. When there’s enough sugar circulating, CRTC2 should be turned off. The turnoff signal is thought to be insulin. This may be an oversimplification, though. According to Salk Institute researchers quoted on RxPG news, “In many patients with type II diabetes, CRTC2 no longer responds to rising insulin levels, and as a result, the liver acts like a sugar factory on overtime, churning out glucose [day and night], even when blood sugar levels are high.” Because of this, the “average” person with Type 2 diabetes has three times the normal rate of glucose production by the liver, according to a Diabetes Care article. Diabetes Self-Management reader Jim Snell brought the whole “leaky liver” phenomenon to my attention. He has frequently posted here about his own struggles with soarin Continue reading >>

The Liver Disease Epidemic You Need To Know About

The Liver Disease Epidemic You Need To Know About

Metformin Because of the central role of insulin resistance in development of NAFLD and NASH, it makes sense to evaluate insulin-sensitizing drugs for their prevention.36,37 No oral antidiabetic drug has as broad a spectrum of action, and as hefty a safety record, as the drug metformin, which is finding a host of new applications outside of diabetes itself.38,39 Studies of metformin for NAFLD and NASH have multiplied in the past few years with almost uniform success. Metformin in the amount of 500 mg three times daily for 6 months produced dramatic improvements in liver blood flow and velocity as detected by Doppler ultrasound exams.40 A similar dose of metformin (20 mg/kg body weight for one year, or approximately 1,450 mg/day for a 160-pound person) produced reductions in blood markers of liver cell death, though the improvement lasted only 3 months.41 On the other hand, improved insulin sensitivity has repeatedly been shown in patients with NASH and NAFLD who take metformin, and many studies have now shown sustainable improvements in liver chemistry measurements.36,42 And a recent study showed significant reduction in the prevalence and severity of fatty liver after 6 months’ treatment with 850 mg metformin twice daily in obese adolescents, an extremely challenging group of patients.43 Metformin is an ideal drug for combination studies because of its safety and compatibility with other therapies. A 2008 study revealed that the combination of metformin with the potent antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) for 12 months improved both liver chemistry results and measurements of insulin resistance.44 Liver tissue evaluated by biopsy also showed improved appearance for the earlier signs of disease. Finally, in 2010 we learned of an entirely new mechanism by which metformi Continue reading >>

Liver Disease Affects Metformin Metabolism

Liver Disease Affects Metformin Metabolism

Increased diabetes drug exposure may increase risk of adverse reactions in type 2 patients with NASH… Obesity increases the risk of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which occurs when there is too much fat in the liver. NASH is often asymptomatic and because testing for it requires a liver biopsy, many cases go undiagnosed. It is estimated that between 6 and 17 percent of Americans currently have NASH. With obesity on the rise, that number will continue to grow. While it is known that NASH can affect hepatic clearance of drugs, researchers at the University of Arizona College of Pharmacy decided to study how NASH affects kidney transporters such as Oct1, Oct2, and Mate1, which are primarily responsible for the elimination of metformin. Using mouse models of obesity, diabetes, NASH, and a choline and methionine deficient diet, the researchers found that this caused decreases in Oct2 and Mate1 expression in the kidneys, leading to a 4.8-fold increase in serum metformin levels. “This study, in addition to several of our other recent studies shows that NASH, either alone or in combination with genetic differences in drug transporters, can have a profound effect on drug exposure,” said research associate John Clarke. Nathan Cherrington, professor at the university’s Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, adds that the next step is to continue the research to demonstrate that NASH can lead to metformin retention in humans. While metformin is considered a relatively safe and effective drug, increased exposure may increase the risk of adverse reactions. “If any clinician is going to provide precision medicine, they’ll need to know the ability of the liver and kidneys to metabolize and eliminate drugs,” says Cherrington. He believes this study will lead to b Continue reading >>

Review Metformin-associated Lactic Acidosis: Current Perspectives On Causes And Risk

Review Metformin-associated Lactic Acidosis: Current Perspectives On Causes And Risk

Abstract Although metformin has become a drug of choice for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, some patients may not receive it owing to the risk of lactic acidosis. Metformin, along with other drugs in the biguanide class, increases plasma lactate levels in a plasma concentration-dependent manner by inhibiting mitochondrial respiration predominantly in the liver. Elevated plasma metformin concentrations (as occur in individuals with renal impairment) and a secondary event or condition that further disrupts lactate production or clearance (e.g., cirrhosis, sepsis, or hypoperfusion), are typically necessary to cause metformin-associated lactic acidosis (MALA). As these secondary events may be unpredictable and the mortality rate for MALA approaches 50%, metformin has been contraindicated in moderate and severe renal impairment since its FDA approval in patients with normal renal function or mild renal insufficiency to minimize the potential for toxic metformin levels and MALA. However, the reported incidence of lactic acidosis in clinical practice has proved to be very low (< 10 cases per 100,000 patient-years). Several groups have suggested that current renal function cutoffs for metformin are too conservative, thus depriving a substantial number of type 2 diabetes patients from the potential benefit of metformin therapy. On the other hand, the success of metformin as the first-line diabetes therapy may be a direct consequence of conservative labeling, the absence of which could have led to excess patient risk and eventual withdrawal from the market, as happened with earlier biguanide therapies. An investigational delayed-release metformin currently under development could potentially provide a treatment option for patients with renal impairment pending the resu Continue reading >>

Metformin

Metformin

DRUG RECORD Introduction Metformin is a first line agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes that can be used alone or in combination with sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones or other hypoglycemic agents. Metformin has not been linked to serum enzyme elevations during therapy and is an exceeding rare cause of idiosyncratic clinically apparent acute liver injury. Background Metformin (met for' min) is a biguanine and acts as an insulin sensitizing agent, probably through activation of adenosine monophosphate dependent (AMP) kinase in liver and muscle tissue. Metformin is often associated with weight loss making it a preferred, first line agent for management of overweight patients with type 2 diabetes. Initial concerns about the possibility that metformin (like the related biguanine phenformin) could induce lactic acidosis have been largely resolved, although the agent is contraindicated in patients with renal dysfunction because of this reason and should be used with caution in patients with significant liver disease. Metformin was approved for use in the United States in 1995 and is currently one of the most commonly used drugs for the therapy of diabetes, with more than 30 million prescriptions filled in the United States yearly. Metformin is available in many generic forms in tablets of 500, 850 or 1000 mg, the recommended regimen being to start with 500 or 850 mg once daily and increase based upon tolerance to 1000 to 2550 mg daily taken in two divided doses. Commercial formulations include Glucophage, Glumetza, Fortamet and Riomet. Metformin is also available in extended release formulations and in combinations with sulfonylureas such as glipizide (Metaglip) or glyburide (Glucovance), DDP-4 inhibitors such as alogliptin (Kazano), linagliptin (Jentadueto), saxaglipti Continue reading >>

The Liver Disease Epidemic You Need To Know About

The Liver Disease Epidemic You Need To Know About

Extracts of milk thistle have long been used for liver protection. It is estimated that 30-40% of American liver disease patients use the active ingredient, silymarin.60 Silymarin is itself composed of six major active molecules such as silybin, which are known as flavolignans, with exceptional antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity.60,61 Modern science is rediscovering the use of milk thistle extracts for reduction of the impact of NAFLD and preventing its progression to NASH. One very effective combination is silymarin plus vitamin E and phospholipids (such as phosphatidylcholine); this approach improves the overall antioxidant activity of the compound.62 In animal studies the combination limited liver depletion of the natural antioxidant glutathione, and reduced mitochondrial stress damage.63 Human trials have shown that a preparation providing 376 mg silybin, 776 mg phosphatidylcholine, and 360 mg vitamin E produces therapeutic effects in patients with a variety of different forms of liver damage, improving insulin resistance, reducing liver fat accumulation, and reducing blood levels of markers of liver scarring.22,23,64 Open studies have shown that silymarin also significantly increased survival rates in patients with alcohol-induced liver cirrhosis.61 Phospholipids—fat molecules with phosphate groups attached—are major constituents of cell membranes in mammals.65 One of the most important phospholipids in humans is phosphatidylcholine (PC), which is available in small amounts in the diet. Higher ratios of PC to other phospholipids in cell membranes help to assure membrane integrity in the face of oxidative and other stresses; they also help limit the progression of NAFLD into NASH.65 A particularly rich source of PC molecules is a mixture called polyenyl Continue reading >>

Metformin (glucophage) Side Effects & Complications

Metformin (glucophage) Side Effects & Complications

The fascinating compound called metformin was discovered nearly a century ago. Scientists realized that it could lower blood sugar in an animal model (rabbits) as early as 1929, but it wasn’t until the late 1950s that a French researcher came up with the name Glucophage (roughly translated as glucose eater). The FDA gave metformin (Glucophage) the green light for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in 1994, 36 years after it had been approved for this use in Britain. Uses of Generic Metformin: Glucophage lost its patent protection in the U.S. in 2002 and now most prescriptions are filled with generic metformin. This drug is recognized as a first line treatment to control blood sugar by improving the cells’ response to insulin and reducing the amount of sugar that the liver makes. Unlike some other oral diabetes drugs, it doesn’t lead to weight gain and may even help people get their weight under control. Starting early in 2000, sales of metformin (Glucophage) were challenged by a new class of diabetes drugs. First Avandia and then Actos challenged metformin for leadership in diabetes treatment. Avandia later lost its luster because it was linked to heart attacks and strokes. Sales of this drug are now miniscule because of tight FDA regulations. Actos is coming under increasing scrutiny as well. The drug has been banned in France and Germany because of a link to bladder cancer. The FDA has also required Actos to carry its strictest black box warning about an increased risk of congestive heart failure brought on by the drug. Newer diabetes drugs like liraglutide (Victoza), saxagliptin (Onglyza) and sitagliptin (Januvia) have become very successful. But metformin remains a mainstay of diabetes treatment. It is prescribed on its own or sometimes combined with the newer d Continue reading >>

Metformin Affecting The Liver

Metformin Affecting The Liver

Registration is fast, simple and absolutely free so please, join our community today to contribute and support the site. This topic is now archived and is closed to further replies. I stumbled upon this board searching for my answer about Metformin 500mg. I was on 3 mets (morning, noon, night), + 4 glyburide (5mg each) per day and my sugar levels were contained. Then I had my labs done and my doc found out that my ALT levels, which measures damage to the liver, had shot up to 111. Normally it should be < 34. My doctor asked me to stop Metformin immediately and I have a liver untrasound scheduled next week to look at the damage if any. Now i am on Glyburide (20mg total) alone and its not helping my sugar levels. My fasting remains at 200+. Just wanted to make you aware of Metformin's liver effects and to seek advice if any. It does happen - sorry to hear that it actually does happen these days. Metformin does have a pretty good record - you have reason to doubt that though. With fasting numbers at 200+ why have you not considered insulin? Insulin is as natural as you can get. Yes, there are hazards there also. Just look around and you will see how people handle them - and pretty well too. I am not on insulin but if it is a question between insulin and medications I would pick insulin. Of course, with a type 2 it is more a case of insulin and medications. I give you and your doctor credit for doing the lab work .... some doctors aren't so rigorous to follow-up. More and more prescription drugs can adversly affect liver and muscle enzymes (I'm on Lipitor Gemfibrozil, and Lamisol) and routine and periodic bloodwork is a MUST. The benefits of these drugs far outweigh the risks, which as you have witnessed, need to be closely monitored. I forgot to add What DonnieD said. M Continue reading >>

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