Low Blood Sugar (hypoglycemia)
Low blood sugar, also known as hypoglycemia, can be a dangerous condition. Low blood sugar can happen in people with diabetes who take medicines that increase insulin levels in the body. Taking too much medication, skipping meals, eating less than normal, or exercising more than usual can lead to low blood sugar for these individuals. Blood sugar is also known as glucose. Glucose comes from food and serves as an important energy source for the body. Carbohydrates — foods such as rice, potatoes, bread, tortillas, cereal, fruit, vegetables, and milk — are the body’s main source of glucose. After you eat, glucose is absorbed into your bloodstream, where it travels to your body’s cells. A hormone called insulin, which is made in the pancreas, helps your cells use glucose for energy. If you eat more glucose than you need, your body will store it in your liver and muscles or change it into fat so it can be used for energy when it’s needed later. Without enough glucose, your body cannot perform its normal functions. In the short term, people who aren’t on medications that increase insulin have enough glucose to maintain blood sugar levels, and the liver can make glucose if needed. However, for those on these specific medications, a short-term reduction in blood sugar can cause a lot of problems. Your blood sugar is considered low when it drops below 70 mg/dL. Immediate treatment for low blood sugar levels is important to prevent more serious symptoms from developing. Explaining low blood sugar in layman's terms » Symptoms of low blood sugar can occur suddenly. They include: rapid heartbeat sudden nervousness headache hunger shaking sweating People with hypoglycemic unawareness do not know their blood sugar is dropping. If you have this condition, your blood sugar Continue reading >>
Does Hypoglycemia Cause Cardiovascular Events?
Go to: Diabetes is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and diabetes have higher mortality and morbidity than patients without diabetes. Data from studies such as the UK Prospective Diabetes Study suggest that very good glycemic control is associated with fewer cardiovascular events. However, tight glycemic control may increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia is a very common side effect of insulin therapy and, to a lesser extent, of treatment with sulfonylureas. Risk factors for severe hypoglycemia include age, duration of diabetes, strict glycemic control, sleep, impaired awareness of hypoglycemia, renal impairment, C-peptide negativity and previous history of severe hypoglycemia.[3,4] Acute hypoglycemia provokes pronounced physiological responses, the important consequences of which are to maintain the supply of glucose to brain and promote hepatic production of glucose. Blood flow is increased to the myocardium, splanchnic circulation and the brain. Hypoglycemia and the rapid changes in blood glucose have been shown to increase counter-regulatory hormones such as epinephrine and nor-epinephrine, which may induce vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation, thereby precipitating myocardial ischemia.[5,6] Autonomic activation, principally of the sympatho-adrenal system, results in end-organ stimulation and the profuse release of epinephrine which precipitates hemodynamic changes like tachycardia, increased peripheral systolic blood pressure, decreased central blood pressure and increased myocardial contractility with an increased ejection fraction.[7,8] The increased activity of sympathetic nervous system and secretion of other hormones and peptides such as the potent vasoconstrictor endothelin have pro Continue reading >>
- Early Glycemic Control and Magnitude of HbA1c Reduction Predict Cardiovascular Events and Mortality: Population-Based Cohort Study of 24,752 Metformin Initiators
- Postprandial Blood Glucose Is a Stronger Predictor of Cardiovascular Events Than Fasting Blood Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Particularly in Women: Lessons from the San Luigi Gonzaga Diabetes Study
- Why does diabetes cause headaches?
Hypoglycemia And Cardiovascular Risks
Although hypoglycemia is the most common side effect of insulin therapy in diabetes and its morbidity is well known, for many years, the potentially life-threatening effects of hypoglycemia on the cardiovascular (CV) system have either been overlooked or have been dismissed as inconsequential to people with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes. This scenario may possibly be a consequence of the persisting misconception that this population is seldom exposed to severe hypoglycemia, defined as any episode that requires external assistance for recovery, whereas self-treated events are classified as “mild” (1). This myth was firmly repudiated by the findings of the large prospective study by the U.K. Hypoglycemia Study Group (2), which demonstrated that severe hypoglycemia is a common problem in insulin-treated type 2 diabetes and that the incidence increases with duration of insulin therapy. However, evidence for CV morbidity associated with hypoglycemia has been predominantly hypothetical and anecdotal (1,3). The potential dangers of intensive treatment regimens and strict glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes who have CV disease (CVD) have now been highlighted by the disconcerting outcomes of recent studies (4–6), in which hypoglycemia was implicated in the excess mortality that was observed in some of these trials. It is therefore timely to review the effects of hypoglycemia on the CV system, how this major metabolic stress could precipitate major vascular events such as myocardial infarction and stroke, and its potential role in these recent clinical studies. In the adult human, acute hypoglycemia causes pronounced physiological responses as a consequence of autonomic activation, principally of the sympatho-adrenal system, and results in end-organ stimulatio Continue reading >>
Symptoms Of High Blood Sugar
Topic Overview High blood sugar (hyperglycemia) is most often seen in people who have diabetes that isn't well controlled. The symptoms of high blood sugar can be mild, moderate, or severe. Mild high blood sugar If your blood sugar levels are consistently higher than your target range (usually 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) to 350 mg/dL in adults and 200 mg/dL to 240 mg/dL in children), you may have mild symptoms of high blood sugar. You may urinate more than usual if you are drinking plenty of liquids. Some people who have diabetes may not notice any symptoms when their blood sugar level is in this range. The main symptoms of high blood sugar are: Increased thirst. Increased urination. Weight loss. Fatigue. Increased appetite. Young children are unable to recognize symptoms of high blood sugar. Parents need to do a home blood sugar test on their child whenever they suspect high blood sugar. If you don't drink enough liquids to replace the fluids lost from high blood sugar levels, you can become dehydrated. Young children can become dehydrated very quickly. Symptoms of dehydration include: A dry mouth and increased thirst. Warm, dry skin. Moderate to severe high blood sugar If your blood sugar levels are consistently high (usually above 350 mg/dL in adults and above 240 mg/dL in children), you may have moderate to severe symptoms of high blood sugar. These symptoms include: Blurred vision. Extreme thirst. Lightheadedness. Flushed, hot, dry skin. Restlessness, drowsiness, or difficulty waking up. If your body produces little or no insulin (people with type 1 diabetes and some people with type 2 diabetes), you also may have: Rapid, deep breathing. A fast heart rate and a weak pulse. A strong, fruity breath odor. Loss of appetite, belly pain, and/or vomiting. If your Continue reading >>
How Can I Tell If I Have Hypoglycemia And Can It Happen Without Warning Symptoms?
Yahoo!-ABC News Network | 2018 ABC News Internet Ventures. All rights reserved. How Can I Tell If I Have Hypoglycemia And Can It Happen Without Warning Symptoms? VIRGINIA COMMONWEALTH UNIVERSITY MEDICAL CENTER Question: How can I tell if I have hypoglycemia and can it happen without warning symptoms? Answer: When blood sugar levels fall below their usual values, the body elicits a hormonal response to try to bring those blood sugar levels back up to normal. Those same hormonal responses also lead to a number of symptoms. Those symptoms include palpitations, rapid heart rate, nervousness, and sweating. For some individuals, the sweating predominates. For other individuals, it's the rapid heart rate and palpitations, but what distinguishes hypoglycemia and the symptoms associated with hypoglycemia from those same symptoms by other causes, is that when you take carbohydrate to bring blood sugar levels back up, the symptoms resolve. So, we normally understand that patients with hypoglycemia will respond quickly to carbohydrate, and their blood sugar returns to normal. There are a very few individuals who, over time -- and I stress that this is really over time in a very rare number of patients -- the symptoms of hypoglycemia that we just talked about don't occur. In those individuals, blood sugar levels fall to a level where their ability to respond normally to their activities of daily living is impaired. We call that hypoglycemic unawareness. Continue reading >>
Low Blood Sugar May Affect Heartbeat In People With Diabetes
Study found abnormal rhythms when blood sugar dipped at night in people with type 2 disease Please note: This article was published more than one year ago. The facts and conclusions presented may have since changed and may no longer be accurate. And "More information" links may no longer work. Questions about personal health should always be referred to a physician or other health care professional. HealthDay Reporter TUESDAY, April 22, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Low blood sugar levels -- known as hypoglycemia -- in people with diabetes may cause potentially dangerous changes in heart rate, according to a small new study. This study's findings may help explain why a large-scale study found that very tight control of blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes led to higher-than-expected death rates. It may also help explain why some otherwise healthy people with type 1 diabetes die during their sleep -- sometimes called "dead-in-bed syndrome" -- without an apparent cause, researchers say. "We found that hypoglycemia was fairly common and that nocturnal episodes in particular were generally marked by a pattern whereby glucose levels dropped to low levels for some hours during which patients slept," said Dr. Simon Heller, senior study author and a professor of clinical diabetes and honorary consultant physician at the University of Sheffield, in England. "These periods of hypoglycemia were associated with a high risk of marked slow heart rates [bradycardia] accompanied by [abnormal] beats. We have therefore identified a mechanism which might contribute to increased mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk during intensive insulin therapy," Heller said. Low blood sugar levels are not uncommon in people with diabetes, a disease that can Continue reading >>
When Blood Sugar Is Too Low
en españolCuando la concentración de azúcar en sangre es demasiado baja No matter what we're doing — even when we're sleeping — our brains depend on glucose to function. Glucose is a sugar that comes from the foods we eat, and it's also formed and stored inside the body. It's the main source of energy for the cells of our body, and it's carried to each cell through the bloodstream. The blood glucose level is the amount of glucose in the blood. When blood glucose levels (also called blood sugar levels) drop too low, it's called hypoglycemia (pronounced: hi-po-gly-SEE-me-uh). Very low blood sugar levels can cause severe symptoms that need to be treated right away. People with diabetes can have low blood sugar levels because of the medicines they have to take to manage their diabetes. They may need a hormone called insulin or diabetes pills (or both) to help their bodies use the sugar in their blood. These medicines help take the sugar out of the blood and get it into the body's cells, which makes the level of sugar in the blood go down. But sometimes it's a tricky balancing act and blood sugar levels can get too low. People with diabetes need to keep their blood sugars from getting too high or too low. Part of keeping blood sugar levels in a healthy range is having good timing, and balancing when and what they eat and when they exercise with when they take medicines. Some things that can make low blood sugar levels more likely to happen are: not eating enough food at a meal or snack exercising longer or harder than usual without eating some extra food not timing the insulin doses properly with meals, snacks, and exercise Also, certain things may increase how quickly insulin gets absorbed into the bloodstream and can make hypoglycemia more likely to occur. For ex Continue reading >>
- Too much bad food, too little exercise is leading to devastating diabetes for kids | Miami Herald
- Tiny sensor placed under the skin to replace finger prick tests for diabetes: Smartphone app will alert patients if their blood sugar level drops or is too high
- What Are the Signs of Too High Blood Sugar?
All About Hypoglycemia (low Blood Sugar)
Hypoglycemia refers to an abnormally low level of sugar, or glucose, in the blood. Hypoglycemia is not a disease in itself, it is a sign of a health problem. The brain uses a lot of energy and needs glucose to function. Because the brain cannot store or manufacture glucose, it needs a continuous supply. Signs of low blood sugar include hunger, trembling, heart racing, nausea, and sweating. Hypoglycemia is commonly linked with diabetes, but many other conditions can also cause low blood sugar. This article will discuss the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of hypoglycemia, and the difference between hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. We will also look at how to prevent it. Here are some key points about hypoglycemia. More detail is in the main article. Hypoglycemia is not a disease but a symptom of another condition. Early symptoms include hunger, sweating, and trembling. A common cause is diabetes. Alcohol abuse and kidney disorders can also lower blood sugar levels. What is hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia is a condition where there is not enough glucose, or sugar, in the blood. Levels of blood sugar are below 4 mmol/L (72mg/dL). Adults and children with mild hypoglycemia may experience the following early symptoms: hunger tremor or trembling sweating irritability a pale face heart palpitations accelerated heart rate tingling lips dizziness weakness Severe hypoglycemia is sometimes called diabetic shock. It may involve: concentration problems confusion irrational and disorderly behavior, similar to intoxication inability to eat or drink Complications If a person does not take action when symptoms of hypoclycemia appear, it can lead to: A person who regularly experiences hypoglycemia may become unaware that it is happening. They will not notice the warning signs, and this can lea Continue reading >>
Early Detection Of Low Blood Sugar Made Possible With Heart Rate Monitor
Early Detection of Low Blood Sugar Made Possible with Heart Rate Monitor For people with type 1 diabetes, being unaware of a hypoglycemic (low blood sugar) event could be very dangerous. To help people detect these type of events, researchers have adopted a commercially-available heart rate biosensor. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease where the immune system mistakenly attacks the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas, called beta cells. People with this condition have to self-administer injections of insulin to make up for this loss. Hypoglycemia can lead to seizures, loss of consciousness, and death. And many people with type 1 diabetes do not experience the same warning signs as other people. This impaired awareness of hypoglycemia prevents people from recognizing the state of their blood sugar and can lead to dangerous events. Some people with impaired hypoglycemia awareness use glucose sensors, but these devices often produce delayed results, skewing the accuracy of glucose measurements. Because of this, scientists found reason for an additional monitor technology. At the beginning of a hypoglycemic event, the sympathetic nervous system, also known as the fight or flight response is activated, which results in increased heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate, and pupil size. On the other hand, the parasympathetic nervous system, which mostly performs the opposite actions, is suppressed. The new device works on an algorithm designed to detect beat-to-beat variation in heartbeats that occurs during hypoglycemia. Researchers used a commercially-available heart rate and single-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) biosensor, the HealthPatch made by VitalConnect. They tested this biosensor in 27 men and women with type 1 diabetes and self-reported issues with impai Continue reading >>
- Identification of novel biomarkers to monitor β-cell function and enable early detection of type 2 diabetes risk
- Diabetes: Heart attack risk due to loss of small blood vessels around the heart
- The incredible colour changing tattoos that monitor the blood sugar levels of people with diabetes in real-time
Effects Of Low Blood Sugar On The Body
The Effects of low blood sugar on the Body Every cell in your body needs sugar (glucose) to function. When your blood sugar levels drop too low, your cells become starved for energy. Initially, that can cause minor symptoms, but if you don’t get your blood sugar levels up soon, you’re at risk of serious complications. When your blood sugar (glucose) levels fall below the normal range, it’s called hypoglycemia, or insulin shock. Low blood sugar can happen when you skip a meal. It can also happen if your pancreas releases more insulin than it should after you’ve eaten. The most common reason for low blood sugar is diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas can no longer produce insulin. In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas doesn’t make enough, or your body can’t use it properly. To keep blood sugar levels from rising too much (hyperglycemia), you need the right amount of insulin. With insufficient insulin, your blood sugar levels rise. Too much, and your blood sugar levels can plummet. Another possible cause of low blood sugar is drinking too much alcohol, especially on an empty stomach. This can interfere with the liver’s ability to release stored glucose into your bloodstream. Hepatitis and other problems with your liver can also lead to low blood sugar. Other causes include kidney disorders, anorexia nervosa, a pancreatic tumor, or adrenal gland disorders. There are a variety of symptoms of low blood sugar, but the only way to be sure what your blood glucose levels are is by taking a blood glucose test. Generally, blood sugar levels below 70 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) are considered too low, according to the American Diabetes Association. If you have diabetes, it’s important to monitor your blood sugar levels often. Low blood sugar can come on quickly Continue reading >>
Low Blood Sugar May Cause Abnormal Heart Rate Linked To Dead-in-bed Syndrome
A recent study finds low blood sugar, or hypoglycemia may cause the heart to beat abnormally. Scientists were already aware that low blood sugar might speed up heart rate by sympathoadrenal stimulation. In other words, low blood sugar may spark an epinephrine or adrenaline response in the body as part of our biological emergency alert system, that which induces “fight or flight” or in the case of diabetes, a strong urge to signal the body to “consume sugar now!” Coupled with low blood potassium, this response may lead to an irregular heart rate. An irregular rate rate caused by low blood sugar has previously been linked to “dead-in-bed syndrome” which is a rare but deadly type 1 diabetes complication. In this study, researchers studied the effect of nighttime and daytime clinical low blood sugar levels on electrocardiogram (ECG) in young people with type 1 diabetes to better understand how low blood sugar affects heart rate. Thirty-seven participants with type 1 diabetes endured 96 hours of simultaneous ambulatory ECG and blinded continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Researchers recorded when any of the participants felt low blood sugar symptoms. They measured the frequency of any arrhythmias, heart rate variability, and cardiac depolarization during low blood sugar episodes and compared this with time-matched normal blood sugar levels during the night and day. So How Much Does Low Blood Sugar Affect a Heart Beat? The researchers logged a total of 2,395 hours of ECG and CGM recordings. Of those hours, 159 were designated as low blood sugar and 1,355 as normal blood sugar. A median duration of nighttime low blood sugar was 60 minutes and was longer than the daytime low blood sugar median of 44 min. Only 24.1 percent of nocturnal and 51 percent of daytime episo Continue reading >>
Diabetes: High Blood Sugar
www.CardioSmart.org Hyperglycemia means your blood sugar is too high. It can happen if you miss your diabetes medicine, do not eat healthy foods, or do not exercise. Illness, stress, and hormones can also cause your blood sugar to rise. In some people, it occurs for no apparent reason. If you have type 2 diabetes, it may take days for your blood sugar to rise too high. With type 1 diabetes, it may happen faster. By checking your blood sugar, youmay be able to prevent this and avoid an emergency. Signs of high blood sugar You may havemild high blood sugar if you: â€¢ Feel very thirsty and urinate more. â€¢ Have warm, dry skin. You may havemoderate high blood sugar if you: â€¢ Breathe fast and deeply. â€¢ Have a fruity breath odor. â€¢ Have belly pain, poor appetite, or vomiting. â€¢ Are dizzy or weak. â€¢ Urinate less. â€¢ Have blurred vision that slowly gets worse. â€¢ Feel drowsy and have trouble waking up. You may have severe high blood sugar if you: â€¢ Have a rapid heart rate and a weak pulse. â€¢ Have rapid, deep breathing with a strong, fruity breath odor. â€¢ Feel very sleepy and weak. â€¢ Fainted or passed out. How to prevent high blood sugar â€¢ Post a list of symptoms where you can see it often. Make sure others know the symptoms and what to do in case of an emergency. â€¢ Check your blood sugar often, especially if you are sick or are not doing your normal routine. â€¢ Teach others at work and at home how to check your blood sugar. â€¢ Have a medical alert bracelet or other medical identification with you at all times. â€¢ Develop a plan. Talk with your doctor about howmuch insulin to take, depending on your blood sugar level. â€¢ Take your medicines as prescribed. Do not skip your di Continue reading >>
Low Blood Sugar? 8 Warning Signs If You Have Diabetes
Do you know the No. 1 cause of blood sugar dips? Changes in food intake. You may go too long without eating carbohydrates, or step up your activity without adding extra food. Certain diabetes medications, such as insulin, can cause low blood sugar as well. Either way, these situations can cause hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar. Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Policy And it’s sometimes difficult to tell for sure when you’re experiencing problems. Symptoms may vary from person to person; not everyone has the same warning signs. The problems are sometimes mild, but if they’re severe and left untreated, they could lead to seizures or unconsciousness. Here’s what you need to know to recognize hypoglycemia when it happens — as well as steps you can take to help avoid the problem. What are the most common signs of trouble? Health professionals typically define hypoglycemia as blood sugar in a non-pregnant adult that is lower than 70mg/dl. However, experts don’t define the severity by the number, but rather by the symptoms: Mild. In this case, low blood sugar can be treated by the person with diabetes alone. Moderate. The person experiencing low blood sugar is alert enough to ask for help, but he or she does require assistance. Severe. This person is completely unable to self-treat and may be awake or unconscious. Talk to your doctor to see what target levels are safe for you. If you suspect you’re dealing with hypoglycemia, here are the most common symptoms to watch for: Sweating– One of the first signs of hypoglycemia is sweating or clammy skin. It often occurs regardless of the temperature outside. Hunger – Continue reading >>
Are My Daily Low Blood-sugar Spells Dangerous?
I tend to get low blood sugar at times throughout the day. I work out on a regular basis and have difficulty knowing when to eat, what to eat, how much to eat before a workout. So, information on that would be helpful. Also I am curious what kind of internal damage, if any, am I doing each time I experience low blood sugar? Dear Beth: Thanks for your question. Many people worry about low blood sugar, but in reality this is rarely a problem for other than diabetics under tight blood sugar control. Those few nondiabetics can usually avoid it with small frequent snacks containing carbohydrates. In order to be considered hypoglycemic the person has to have: 1) Symptoms of hypoglycemia, 2) A documented low blood sugar (less than 60 mg/dl) using a laboratory measurement -- not a personal glucometer -- and 3) relief of the symptoms after consumption of sugar. The symptoms of low blood sugar are sweating, trembling, a sensation of warmth, anxiety, nausea, palpitations, a fast heart rate and hunger. Most true hypoglycemic people have three or four of these symptoms and not all of them. Very low blood sugar can cause fatigue, dizziness, headache, visual disturbances, drowsiness and ultimately loss of consciousness and seizures. Again, all people with very low blood sugar will most likely not have all symptoms. Occasionally, people get hypoglycemia because they're taking certain drugs such as aspirin-like drugs, quinine-like drugs and antipsychotics such as haloperidol, or consuming alcohol. Extreme exercise also can lead to this condition. By far the most common cause of hypoglycemia is treatment of diabetes that is too strict. Some diabetics can actually get hypoglycemic by missing a meal or having a meal with fewer starches and carbohydrates than expected. Very rarely, hypoglyc Continue reading >>
Wearable Heart Rate Monitor Could Signal Low Blood Sugar In Type 1 Diabetes
Wearable heart rate monitor could signal low blood sugar in type 1 diabetes Wearable heart rate monitor could signal low blood sugar in type 1 diabetes Associate Director, Communications and Media Relations Chicago, IL - A wearable medical patch measuring the beat-to-beat variation in heart rate is a promising device for the early detection of hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, in type 1 diabetes, according to the researchers who tested the new monitor. Results of their preliminary study will be presented Saturday at ENDO 2018, the Endocrine Societys 100th annual meeting in Chicago. Hypoglycemia is common in children and adults with type 1 diabetes. When untreated, severe hypoglycemia can lead to seizures, loss of consciousness or even death. Sometimes people with diabetes do not recognize symptoms of low blood sugar, a problem called impaired awareness of hypoglycemia. Although wearing a continuous glucose meter can help identify hypoglycemia, the glucose sensor, inserted under the skin, typically has a delay. This delay can compromise the accuracy of measuring low glucose values, said the studys principal investigator, Marleen Olde Bekkink, M.D., Ph.D., an endocrinology fellow at Radboud University Medical Center in Nijmegen, Netherlands. People with impaired awareness of hypoglycemia may need to wear an additional monitor. Past research found that hypoglycemia speeds ones heart rate and alters heart rate variability, which is the normal beat-to-beat variation in heartbeats. Olde Bekkink and her colleagues tested the feasibility detecting hypoglycemia using a commercially available biosensor called the HealthPatch (from VitalConnect, San Jose, Calif.) that measures heart rate and a single-lead electrocardiogram, or ECG. The patch continuously measured the heart rate o Continue reading >>