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Can Lithium Cause Diabetes

Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

Not to be confused with Neurogenic diabetes insipidus. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (also known as renal diabetes insipidus) is a form of diabetes insipidus primarily due to pathology of the kidney. This is in contrast to central/neurogenic diabetes insipidus, which is caused by insufficient levels of antidiuretic hormone (ADH, that is, arginine vasopressin or AVP). Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is caused by an improper response of the kidney to ADH, leading to a decrease in the ability of the kidney to concentrate the urine by removing free water. Signs and symptoms[edit] The clinical manifestation is similar to neurogenic diabetes insipidus, presenting with excessive thirst and excretion of a large amount of dilute urine. Dehydration is common, and incontinence can occur secondary to chronic bladder distension.[1] On investigation, there will be an increased plasma osmolarity and decreased urine osmolarity. As pituitary function is normal, ADH levels are likely to be abnormal or raised. Polyuria will continue as long as the patient is able to drink. If the patient is unable to drink and is still unable to concentrate the urine, then hypernatremia will ensue with its neurologic symptoms.[citation needed] Causes[edit] Acquired[edit] Nephrogenic DI (NDI) is most common in its acquired forms, meaning that the defect was not present at birth. These acquired forms have numerous potential causes. The most obvious cause is a kidney or systemic disorder, including amyloidosis,[2] polycystic kidney disease,[3] electrolyte imbalance,[4][5] or some other kidney defect.[2] The major causes of acquired NDI that produce clinical symptoms (e.g. polyuria) in the adult are lithium toxicity and high blood calcium. Chronic lithium ingestion – appears to affect the tubules by enterin Continue reading >>

Lithium-induced Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus: Renal Effects Of Amiloride

Lithium-induced Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus: Renal Effects Of Amiloride

Lithium-induced Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus: Renal Effects of Amiloride Jennifer J. Bedford ,* Susan Weggery ,* Gaye Ellis ,* Fiona J. McDonald , Peter R. Joyce , John P. Leader ,* and Robert J. Walker * Departments of *Medical and Surgical Sciences and Physiology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; and Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand Departments of *Medical and Surgical Sciences and Physiology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; and Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand Departments of *Medical and Surgical Sciences and Physiology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; and Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand Departments of *Medical and Surgical Sciences and Physiology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; and Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand Departments of *Medical and Surgical Sciences and Physiology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; and Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand Departments of *Medical and Surgical Sciences and Physiology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; and Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand Departments of *Medical and Surgical Sciences and Physiology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; and Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand Departments of *Medical and Surgical Sciences and Physiology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; and Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand Correspondence: Prof. Robert J. Walker, Continue reading >>

Lithium And Chronic Kidney Disease

Lithium And Chronic Kidney Disease

BMJ 2009; 339 doi: (Published 03 July 2009) Cite this as: BMJ 2009;339:b2452 1Tees, Esk and Wear Valleys NHS Foundation Trust, St Lukes Hospital, Middlesbrough TS4 3AF 2South Tees Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, James Cook University Hospital, Middlesbrough TS4 3BW 3Durham University, School for Medicine and Health, Wolfson Research Institute, Stockton on Tees TS17 6BH Correspondence to: J Reilly j.g.reilly{at}durham.ac.uk Lithium use is associated with renal disorder and renal failure; this article offers guidance on monitoring, drug interactions, and when to consider stopping the drug Lithium remains a key drug in the treatment of bipolar disorder1 and recurrent depressive disorder, and renal monitoring is essential for safe prescribing. The recent guidance from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) on early identification and management of chronic kidney disease mentions lithium as a nephrotoxin and emphasises active management of hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors.2 Lithium prescribers in the United Kingdom already receive estimated glomerular filtration rate results when monitoring renal function in lithium users,3 and the inclusion of lithium monitoring in the primary care quality and outcomes framework has raised awareness about its importance. This article discusses the effects of lithium on the kidney and looks at existing evidence to guide treatment when incidental chronic kidney disease is detected in those in whom lithium is being considered or when long term lithium users develop chronic kidney disease. What do we know about the effect of lithium on the kidney? Lithium use is associated with a range of glomerular and tubular disorders resulting in chronic kidney disease and more rarely established renal failure.4 5 (se Continue reading >>

Lithium-induced Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

Lithium-induced Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

March, 2005 >> Syed Khalid Imam, Asim Hasan, Syed Khurram Shahid ( Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Liaquat National Hospital, Karachi ) Read PDF Abstract We report a case of a 43 year-old female who presented with lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. This patient had history of bipolar disorder for which she had been taking lithium carbonate for last 16 years. Appropriate work up was done and she was diagnosed with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, secondary to lithium toxicity, and was managed accordingly. Introduction Diabetes insipidus is a disorder resulting from deficient anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) action and is characterized by the passage of copious amounts of very dilute urine. This disorder must be differentiated from other polyuric states such as primary polydipsia, osmotic diuresis, and diabetes mellitus. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus results when kidneys fail to respond to circulating ADH. This causes cellular and extra-cellular dehydration, which stimulates thirst and results in polydipsia.1 As many as 20 to 40 % of patients taking lithium have had symptoms related to a concentrating defect, and 12 percent have frank nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.2 Case Report The presented patient was a 43 year-old female, with a history of bipolar disorder for 16 years and was treated with lithium carbonate 1200 mg per day, risperidone Table 1. Serum Na+ 169 mmol/l Serum K+ 4.6 mmol/l Serum Cl- 105 mmol/l Serum HCO3- 26 mmol/l Serum Urea 70 mg/dl Serum Creatinine 2.0 mg/dl Blood Glucose Random 120 mg/dl Serum Ca++ 8.45 mg /dl Serum Osmolality 345 mosm/kg Urine Osmolality 158 mosm/kg Thyroid Stimulating Hormone 0.74 mu/ml (0.4-4.0 mu/ml) Serum Lithium 3.2 ng/dl ( 0.5-1.2 ng/dl) and carbamazepine. She had symptoms of compulsive water drinking and Continue reading >>

Lithium-induced Diabetes Insipidus: Prevention And Management

Lithium-induced Diabetes Insipidus: Prevention And Management

Lithium-induced diabetes insipidus: Prevention and management Current Psychiatry. 2013 July;12(7):42-45 John Gideon Searle Professor of Clinical and Translational Pharmacy University of Michigan College of Pharmacy and School of Medicine 1. Ecelbarger CA. Lithium treatment and remodeling of the collecting duct. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2006;291(1):F37-38. 2. Christensen BM, Kim YH, Kwon TH, et al. Lithium treatment induces a marked proliferation of primarily principal cells in rat kidney inner medullary collecting duct. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2006;291(1):F39-48. 3. Francis SG, Gardner DG. Basic and clinical endocrinology. 7th ed. New York, NY: McGraw Hill; 2003:154-158. 4. Stone KA. Lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. J Am Board Fam Pract. 1999;12(1):43-47. 5. Grnfeld JP, Rossier BC. Lithium nephrotoxicity revisited. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2009;5(5):270-276. 6. Wesche D, Deen PM, Knoers NV. Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: the current state of affairs. Pediatr Nephrol. 2012;27(12):2183-2204. 7. Rose BD, Post TW. Clinical physiology of acid-base and electrolyte disorders. 5th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2001:754-759,782-783. 8. Batlle DC, von Riotte AB, Gaviria M, et al. Amelioration of polyuria by amiloride in patients receiving long-term lithium therapy. N Engl J Med. 1985;312(7):408-414. 9. Earley LE, Orloff J. The mechanism of antidiuresis associated with the administration of hydrochlorothiazide to patients with vasopressin-resistant diabetes insipidus. J Clin Invest. 1962;41(11):1988-1997. 10. Kim GH, Lee JW, Oh YK, et al. Antidiuretic effect of hydrochlorothiazide in lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is associated with upregulation of aquaporin-2, Na-Cl co-transporter, and epithelial sodium channel. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004;1 Continue reading >>

Lithium Nephropathy: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology

Lithium Nephropathy: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology

Author: Eleanor Lederer, MD, FASN; Chief Editor: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FASN more... Lithium is currently a drug of choice for treating persons with bipolar depression and is widely used in this population. Approximately 0.1% of the US population is undergoing lithium treatment for psychiatric problems. Approximately 30% of patients taking lithium experience at least one episode of lithium toxicity. Lithium toxicity can be acute, acute-on-chronic, or chronic. [ 1 ] The acute lithium nephrotoxicity picture is dominated by evidence of volume depletion, obtundation, and the potential for cardiovascular collapse. The chronic lithium nephrotoxicity picture is dominated by polyuria and evidence of chronic kidney disease. See Presentation . Treatment of acute toxicity involves correction of electrolyte abnormalities, volume repletion followed by forced diuresis, and dialysis in severe cases. In patients with chronic toxicity, polyuria can be treated with medication and the chronic renal insufficiency can be treated with the measures routinely used for chronic kidney disease. See Treatment . The medicinal use of lithium has a long and illustrious history. Galen recommended bathing in alkaline mineral waters, which might have contained lithium, for the treatment of mania as early as 200 AD. In the mid-1800s, lithium was proposed as a treatment of uric acid calculi and gout, as uric acid crystals are highly soluble in solutions containing lithium carbonate. This therapy proved ineffective, but lithium was noted to be a highly effective treatment of psychiatric disorders in the late nineteenth century. Unfortunately, the toxicity of lithium severely limited its widespread acceptance at that point. Lithium was used as a substitute and added to the soft drink 7 Up in the early twentie Continue reading >>

Causes

Causes

Diabetes insipidus is caused by problems with a chemical called vasopressin (AVP), which is also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH) . AVP is produced by the hypothalamus and stored in the pituitary gland until needed. The hypothalamus is an area of the brain that controls mood and appetite. The pituitary gland is located below your brain, behind the bridge of your nose. AVP regulates the level of water in your body by controlling the amount of urine your kidneys produce. When the level of water in your body decreases, your pituitary gland releases AVP to conserve water and stop the production of urine. In diabetes insipidus, AVP fails to properly regulate your body's level of water, and allows too much urine to be produced and passed from your body. There are two main types of diabetes insipidus: cranial diabetes insipidus – where the body doesn't produce enough AVP, so excessive amounts of water are lost in large amounts of urine nephrogenic diabetes insipidus – where AVP is produced at the right levels but, for a variety of reasons, the kidneys don't respond to it in the normal way. Possible underlying causes for both types of diabetes insipidus are described below. Cranial diabetes insipidus The three most common causes of cranial diabetes insipidus are: a brain tumour that damages the hypothalamus or pituitary gland a severe head injury that damages the hypothalamus or pituitary gland complications that occur during brain or pituitary surgery No cause can be found for about a third of all cases of cranial diabetes insipidus. These cases, known as idiopathic, appear to be related to the immune system attacking the normal, healthy cells producing AVP. It's unclear what causes the immune system to do this. Less common causes of cranial diabetic insipidus include: Continue reading >>

Lithium Induced Diabetes Insipidus: Symptoms & Treatment

Lithium Induced Diabetes Insipidus: Symptoms & Treatment

This lesson goes over a relatively complex situation involving one drug and two completely different medical conditions. You'll learn how bipolar disorder, lithium, and diabetes insipidus are all tied together. One Disorder After Another The last thing you want or need when you're sick is another disease or disorder, right? And the last thing you'd expect is that the new disease is caused by the treatment for the first. Unfortunately, this is a possibility in some cases. You'll learn how this is the case in this lesson on lithium-induced diabetes insipidus. What Is Lithium-Induced Diabetes Insipidus? Bipolar disorder, also called bipolar affective disorder or manic-depressive illness, is a type of mental illness characterized by a period of extreme depression followed by a period of elevated or irritable mood called mania. One possible treatment option is a medication called lithium. The problem is lithium has the potential to be nephrotoxic, or poisonous to the kidneys. The kidneys are responsible for regulating the water balance in your body. They do so, in part, by responding to a hormone called antidiuretic hormone (ADH). This hormone is produced in your brain. Once it reaches the kidneys, ADH tells the kidneys to stop making urine and to start preserving water within the body. If the lithium ends up damaging the kidneys, they may no longer respond to ADH as well as they should. This disorder is called nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, or diabetes insipidus whose genesis ('-genic') is a problem in the kidneys ('nephro-'). Symptoms Diabetes insipidus, of any cause, is characterized by two main signs and symptoms: Polyuria - which is production of an excessive volume of urine Polydipsia - which refers to an excessive feeling of thirst and thus the consumption of abnorma Continue reading >>

Lithium Induced Diabetes Insipidus

Lithium Induced Diabetes Insipidus

For those diagnosed with a mental illness or disorder, one of the most effective medications used for treatment is lithium. It is particularly useful when treating conditions such as bipolar disorder. It controls moods effectively, keeps people stable and active, and generally allows for a good quality of life. Over time, however, lithium can also create an unwanted side effect: diabetes insipidus. Lithium induced diabetes insipidus will typically first be discovered on a routine checkup or walk-in appointment, either at the doctor’s office or with the individual’s psychiatrist. The most common complaint is an increased level of thirst, but there may also be unusual daytime fatigue, problems sleeping at night, and even muscle tremors. Why Does Lithium Cause Diabetes Insipidus? Medical science doesn’t actually know why lithium will sometimes cause diabetes insipidus to form. What is known is that lithium works in some way as a counter-agent to the hormone Vasopressin, which acts as an anti-diuretic hormone [ADH]. When lithium is used for an extended period of time, it will desensitize or reduce the ability of the kidney to respond to the ADH that is being produced by the body. This means the kidneys stop listening to the hormones, which is a trademark sign of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. This creates the need to get up frequently at night to go to the bathroom, which creates insomnia and daytime fatigue. Lithium induced diabetes insipidus is rather common. For those who are receiving long-term lithium therapies, the incidence rate of diabetes insipidus is 40%. How Is Lithium Induced Diabetes Insipidus Diagnosed? Upon presentation, the individual with DI will have an interview that examines their entire medical history. If the disease is supsected, then a water r Continue reading >>

Lithium-induced Polyuria And Diabetes Insipidus

Lithium-induced Polyuria And Diabetes Insipidus

Lithium-induced polyuria and diabetes insipidus Polyuria is excessive production of urinemore than 2.5 L/day and even up to 8 L/day.Polyuria may progress to diabetes insipidus. Both polyuria and diabetes insipidus are among the most common side effects of lithium. Polyuria occurs in up to 70% of patients on lithium and diabetes insipidus occurs in between 10 to 20% of patients. These conditions are troublesome to the patient, may affect medication adherence, and in rare cases may lead to irreversible tubular dysfunction. However, active efforts to screen for and manage polyuria/diabetes insipidus are not commonly undertaken. Normally, antidiuretic hormone (ADH; also known as vasopressin) acts on the distal and collecting tubules of the kidney to reabsorb most of the water that was filtered out into the urine. By increasing or decreasing this reabsorption, the body controls the amount of urine produced. But, this process may be impaired due to two main reasons: impaired production of ADH by the pituitary (called central diabetes insipidus) or impairment in the kidneys responsiveness to ADH (called nephrogenic diabetes insipidus). Lithium impairs the effect of antidiuretic hormone on the distal and collecting tubules. This leads to excessively dilute urine. So, what lithium can cause isnephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Trivia: The term Diabetes means excessive urination which is present in both diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus. But diabetes mellitus involves excessive production ofurine that is sweet (mellitus) while in diabetes insipidus, the urine is bland in taste (insipid). Lithium-induced polyuria and diabetes insipidus: Treatment Allen HM, Jackson RL, Winchester MD, Deck LV, Allon M. Indomethacin in the treatment of lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipi Continue reading >>

Why Does Lithium Use Cause Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus?

Why Does Lithium Use Cause Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus?

There are various mechanisms: 1. Li is also an Alkali metal as Na (Sodium). Sodium is useful for human body while Lithium has no use in a normal person. Lithium is not protein bound, so is wholly filtered by Glomeruli.Up to 90% of the filtered load is reabsorbed by the nephron, 60% in the proximal tubule, and the remainder in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle, the connecting tubule, and the cortical collecting duct. Now being an alkali metal, it can mimic Na in various Na reabsorption channels which are present in PCT, LoH and Collecting Duct. Thus it interferes in Na reabsorption and so causes Natriuresis causing Diuresis. 2. Lithium use partially inhibits the ability of aldosterone to increase apical membrane ENaC (Epithelial Sodium Channel on Cortical Collecting Duct) expression. This also causes Natriuresis. 3. Lithium impairs the ADH stimulatory effect on adenylate cyclase, thereby decreasing cAMP levels.This also causes diuresis. What happens is: ADH is released by postrior Pituitary when body is low in water and high in osmolals. ADH (Anti Diuretic Hormone) increases Aquaporin expression on Collecting Tubules (of Kidney) by acting on V2 receptors present there. It does so by inducing adenylate cyclase which causes ATP to convert to cAMP. Now cAMP plays antidiuretic role by following actions: It stimulates Protein Kinase A which causes more number of Aquaporins to insert on Collecting Tubules. Over extended periods of time, increased cAMP levels also increase the production of AQP2(Aquaporin) water channels at the genetic level by promoting a 5' untranslated region of the AQP2gene. Thus Kidney becomes unresponsive to ADH. So, Desmopressin is ineffective as a therapy of Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus while is Drug of Choice for Neurogenic Diabetes Insip Continue reading >>

If You Take Lithium Read This Post You Can Die From It.

If You Take Lithium Read This Post You Can Die From It.

If you take LITHIUM read this post you can die from it. Author Topic: If you take LITHIUM read this post you can die from it. (Read 4054 times) Subject; Lithium induced (NDI) (Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus) I am writing this from firsthand experience, and on behalf of a member here named dragonfly who does have this condition. I am still at this point undecided as to whether or not I am writing a book entitled; My Lithium Journey. If so I likely wont start it for some time as I have one book on the go thats a happy book about my childhood growing up fly fishing. Before we start this topic; Most Antipsychotics and mood stabilizing medications come with a warning that they can (cause or worse) Diabetes. I have not yet seen this warning in RRSIs / Antidepressants. Also Lithium is a class (B) controlled substance that by law requires side effect intervention, and blood level monitoring. If your psychiatrist is not intervening side effect wise he or she is criminally liable under assault and battery in Ontario. This year I almost died 3 times from Lithium induced (NDI) (Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus) and that is not the typical type II diabetes that you get tested for. In the type II diabetes complex there are reported to be more than 40 strains most medically induced. I cannot speak to all the drugs but I can for the case of Lithium (NDI). I will also make a list of other medications I have taken that can do this as well. Genetics; Whether diabetes is in your family line or not, if you get diabetes (insipidus) it is from taking lithium. In your DNA genetic makeup some of us have a predisposition weakness that allows this to happen. Since going to a geneticist is usually not an option till it is too late, I will post all the symptoms I had while developing this condition. Continue reading >>

Atorvastatin In The Treatment Of Lithium-induced Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus: The Protocol Of A Randomized Controlled Trial

Atorvastatin In The Treatment Of Lithium-induced Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus: The Protocol Of A Randomized Controlled Trial

Atorvastatin in the treatment of Lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: the protocol of a randomized controlled trial Lithium is the gold-standard treatment for bipolar disorder, is highly effective in treating major depressive disorder, and has anti-suicidal properties. However, clinicians are increasingly avoiding lithium largely due to fears of renal toxicity. Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus (NDI) occurs in 1520% of lithium users and predicts a 23 times increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We recently found that use of statins is associated with lower NDI risk in a cross-sectional study. In this current paper, we describe the methodology of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to treat lithium-induced NDI using atorvastatin. We will conduct a 12-week, double-blind placebo-controlled RCT of atorvastatin for lithium-induced NDI at McGill University, Montreal, Canada. We will recruit 60 current lithium users, aged 1885, who have indicators of NDI, which we defined as urine osmolality (UOsm) < 600mOsm/kg after 10-h fluid restriction. We will randomize patients to atorvastatin (20mg/day) or placebo for 12weeks. We will examine whether this improves measures of NDI: UOsm and aquaporin (AQP2) excretion at 12-week follow-up, adjusted for baseline. Lithium remains the gold standard treatment for bipolar disorder and is associated with a better treatment response in 3040% of patients compared to other bipolar pharmacotherapies [ 1 , 2 ]. Lithium is also effective in treatment-resistant depression [ 1 ], has been associated with reduced suicidality [ 3 ], and is even being investigated in a number of neurological conditions such as dementia and stroke [ 4 , 5 ]. Lithium is valuable considering the difficulty in achieving and maintaining symptomatic remission Continue reading >>

Alternative Treatment Options For Lithium-induced Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus - Sciencedirect

Alternative Treatment Options For Lithium-induced Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus - Sciencedirect

Alternative treatment options for lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus Author links open overlay panel S.Lpez-Romeo Get rights and content Lithium is currently a drug of choice for treating persons with bipolar disorder and is widely used in this population. Approximately, 30% of patients taking lithium experience at least one episode of lithium toxicity. Treatment of acute toxicity involves correction of electrolyte abnormalities, volume repletion followed by forced diuresis, and dialysis in severe cases. A case report is described and it is reviewed some alternative treatment options before considering withdrawal of lithium treatment in lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. A 58-year-old woman diagnosed of hypertension and bipolar disorder for 20years. At first, she was controlled with valproic acid until she suffered a manic episode which required a mood stabilizer switch. She started a treatment with lithium 1200mg/day and olanzapine to 10mg/day and was completely recovered. After a year of stabilization, olanzapine was retired and she maintained stabilized with lithium 1000mg/day during last 17years. During last 8months, she suffered polydipsia and polyuria (4L/day). She was diagnosed of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Some measures like liquid restriction, lithium monodose and low sodium diet were carried out, obtaining a partial response. Taking into account, she was stabilised with lithium for many years, it was decided to introduce hydrochlorothiazide 25mg/day, clinical and analytical resolution of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus was obtained. A year later, she maintains psychopathological stabilization, without any lithium secondary effects. Some treatment options for lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus could be introducing thiaz Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

Print Overview Diabetes insipidus (die-uh-BEE-teze in-SIP-uh-dus) is an uncommon disorder that causes an imbalance of water in the body. This imbalance leads to intense thirst even after drinking fluids (polydipsia), and excretion of large amounts of urine (polyuria). While the names diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus sound similar, they're not related. Diabetes mellitus — which can occur as type 1 or type 2 — is the more common form of diabetes. There's no cure for diabetes insipidus, but treatments are available to relieve your thirst and normalize your urine output. Symptoms The most common signs and symptoms of diabetes insipidus are: Extreme thirst Excretion of an excessive amount of diluted urine Depending on the severity of the condition, urine output can be as much as 16 quarts (about 15 liters) a day if you're drinking a lot of fluids. Normally, a healthy adult will urinate an average of less than 3 quarts (about 3 liters) a day. Other signs may include needing to get up at night to urinate (nocturia) and bed-wetting. Infants and young children who have diabetes insipidus may have the following signs and symptoms: Unexplained fussiness or inconsolable crying Trouble sleeping Fever Vomiting Diarrhea Delayed growth Weight loss When to see a doctor See your doctor immediately if you notice the two most common signs of diabetes insipidus: excessive urination and extreme thirst. Causes Diabetes insipidus occurs when your body can't regulate how it handles fluids. Normally, your kidneys remove excess body fluids from your bloodstream. This fluid waste is temporarily stored in your bladder as urine, before you urinate. When your fluid regulation system is working properly, your kidneys conserve fluid and make less urine when your body water is decreased, suc Continue reading >>

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