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Can Iron Deficiency Anemia Cause Diabetes?

Implications Of Iron Deficiency/anemia On The Classification Of Diabetes Using Hba1c

Implications Of Iron Deficiency/anemia On The Classification Of Diabetes Using Hba1c

Nonglycemic factors like iron deficiency (ID) or anemia may interfere with classification of diabetes and prediabetes using hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). However, few population-based studies of diabetes in areas with endemic ID/anemia have been conducted. We aimed to determine how mutually exclusive categories of ID alone, anemia alone and iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) were each associated with prediabetes and diabetes prevalence using fasting blood glucose (FBG) versus HbA1c in a population-based study of adults with endemic ID/anemia. We used data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, a longitudinal, population-based study across 228 communities within nine provinces of China. This analysis included 7308 adults seen in the 2009 survey aged 18–75 years. We used descriptive and covariate-adjusted models to examine relative risk of prediabetes and diabetes using FBG alone, HbA1c alone, HbA1c and FBG, or neither (normoglycemia) by anemia alone, ID alone, IDA or normal iron/hemoglobin. Approximately 65% of individuals with diabetes in our sample were concordantly classified with diabetes using both FBG and HbA1c, while 35% had a discordant diabetes classification: they were classified using either FBG or HbA1c, but not both. Fewer participants with ID alone versus normal iron/hemoglobin were classified with diabetes using HbA1c only. From covariate-adjusted, multinomial regression analyses, the adjusted prevalence of prediabetes using HbA1c only was 22% for men with anemia alone, but 13% for men with normal iron/hemoglobin. In contrast, the predicted prevalence of prediabetes using HbA1c only was 8% for women with ID alone, compared with 13% for women with normal iron/hemoglobin. These findings suggest potential misclassification of diabetes using HbA1c in areas of endem Continue reading >>

Impact Of Iron Deficiency Anemia On Prevalence Of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Impact Of Iron Deficiency Anemia On Prevalence Of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

OBJECTIVE—Increased Hb and ferritin have been associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). This study was performed to determine whether the prevalence of GDM is influenced by iron deficiency anemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—In a retrospective case-control study, 242 women with iron deficiency anemia (Hb <10 g/dl with features of iron deficiency) were compared with 484 nonanemic women matched for year of birth, who were delivered within the same 24-month period in our hospital, with respect to maternal demographics, infant outcome, and the prevalence of GDM diagnosed according to the World Health Organization criteria. RESULTS—There was no difference in the prepregnancy weight or BMI, but the anemic group had more multiparas and significantly lower gestational weight and BMI increments and prevalence of GDM (odds ratio [OR] 0.52, 95% CI 0.27–0.97), which was inversely correlated (P = 0.045) with the duration of anemia. To determine the independent effect of anemia on GDM, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed adjusting for the effects of multiparity and BMI, and anemia was confirmed to be significantly associated with decreased prevalence of GDM (adjusted OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.23–0.90). CONCLUSIONS—The prevalence of GDM is reduced in iron deficiency anemia, which probably served as a surrogate for other factors such as nutritional inadequacy and reduced gestational weight gain. Further studies on the relationship between nutritional improvement and the increasing prevalence of GDM in the developing world are warranted. Many studies have shown that high as well as low maternal antenatal Hb concentrations are associated with increased pregnancy complications and adverse outcome (1–6), but none had included gestational diabetes mellitus ( Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Anemia: Are They Related?

Diabetes And Anemia: Are They Related?

Someone’s anemic if they have an abnormally low amount of red blood cells – and when there are too few red blood cells, body organs don’t get the oxygen they need. This not only strains and damages organs, but it also decreases a person’s quality of life by causing fatigue, weakness, and headaches. Red blood cells can transport oxygen because they’re full of a complex molecule called hemoglobin, which can grab, hold, and release oxygen as needed in different part of the body. A doctor may an anemic person as having “too little hemoglobin” or “a low hematocrit”. The first statement refers to the amount of concentration of hemoglobin molecules in your blood, and the second refers to the concentration of red blood cells in your blood. If that sounds redundant, you’re right! They’re both describing the same thing. That’s why it’s best to pay attention to one or the other (not both) to avoid confusion. Types of anemia There are quite a few different types of anemia (over 400 to be exact!). The most common ones are summarized below. It is very important to know the type of anemia and the cause. Without knowing the cause, you cannot treat the disease! Iron Deficiency. This is the most common type. It is caused by lack of absorption, intake, or by blood loss. Aplastic. This occurs when the body stops making new red blood cells. It is rare, but very serious. Hemolytic. This type happens when red blood cells are destroyed faster than they can be produced. Vitamin Deficiency. Poor nutrition, or impaired vitamin absorption causes this type. Pernicious. With this, the B-12 intake is okay, but the body cannot process it correctly. Fragile Red Cell. Some people inherit abnormal red blood cells that die earlier than normal, like in sickle cell or thalassemia. Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Anemia

Diabetes And Anemia

If you have diabetes, you’ll need to have your blood checked regularly for anemia. It’s common for people with diabetes to also end up with this blood condition. It happens when your body’s red blood cells can’t deliver as much oxygen as your body needs. If you spot anemia early on, you can better manage the issues causing it. Usually, it happens because you don’t have enough red blood cells. That can make you more likely to get certain diabetes complications, like eye and nerve damage. And it can worsen kidney, heart, and artery disease, which are more common in people with diabetes. Diabetes often leads to kidney damage, and failing kidneys can cause anemia. Healthy kidneys know when your body needs new red blood cells. They release a hormone called erythropoietin (EPO), which signals your bone marrow to make more. Damaged kidneys don’t send out enough EPO to keep up with your needs. Often, people don’t realize they have kidney disease until it’s very far along. But if you test positive for anemia, it can be an early sign of a problem with your kidneys. People with diabetes are more likely to have inflamed blood vessels. This can keep bone marrow from getting the signal they need to make more red blood cells. And some medications used to treat diabetes can drop your levels of the protein hemoglobin, which you need to carry oxygen through your blood. These drugs include ACE inhibitors, fibrates, metformin, and thiazolidinediones. If you take one of these, talk to your doctor about your risk for anemia. If you have kidney dialysis, you may have blood loss, and that can also cause anemia. When your brain and other organs don’t get enough oxygen, you feel tired and weak. Other signs you may have anemia include: Shortness of breath Dizziness Headache Pale Continue reading >>

Does Iron Overload Cause Diabetes And Heart Disease?

Does Iron Overload Cause Diabetes And Heart Disease?

Iron plays an essential role in many physiological processes, including oxygen transport and mitochondrial energy production. However, more iron is not necessarily better! The overaccumulation of iron in the body, a condition referred to as iron overload, has been implicated in the development of several chronic diseases, including diabetes and heart disease. Read on to learn why iron overload promotes the development of diabetes and heart disease and how iron reduction strategies can be used to beneficially alter the course of these diseases. What is iron overload? Iron overload occurs when excess iron accumulates in the body. The most common cause of iron overload is hereditary hemochromatosis (HH), an autosomal recessive genetic disorder that affects between one in 200 and one in 400 individuals and is caused by mutations in the HFE C282Y and H63D genes. (1) HH is characterized by significantly enhanced intestinal iron absorption and the abnormal accumulation of iron in bodily organs. Excess iron oxidatively damages cells and tissues, essentially “rusting” the body. This generates organ toxicity and promotes chronic disease processes. However, a negative test result for the C282Y and H63D mutations does not mean a person is “off the hook” for iron overload. In fact, carriers of HFE mutations and people with moderately elevated iron levels also have an increased risk of health complications associated with iron overload. (2) Alarmingly, research indicates that iron overload may be a significant but greatly underappreciated cause of two widely prevalent chronic diseases, diabetes and heart disease. Iron overload is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome and diabetes The association between iron overload and diabetes was first noted in people with hereditary hemoc Continue reading >>

Iron: How This Supplement Could Impact Your A1c

Iron: How This Supplement Could Impact Your A1c

We need iron. Without enough iron, we’ll get sick. But too much iron can kill us. As with so many things relating to our health, it’s a balancing act. Most people who eat meat get sufficient iron. Some foods these days are also supplemented with iron. The chocolate syrup Bosco was designed to get children to consume more iron. Cooking in iron pots, especially cooking acid foods, adds iron to our diet. Multivitamins designed for younger people contain iron (especially those for pregnant women, as the fetus consumes a lot of iron). Hence nonpregnant Western people who aren’t vegetarians usually get enough iron from their diet. People in Third World countries who don’t get much meat, however, are often iron deficient. Heme iron, or the iron that is in hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying molecule in red blood cells, is absorbed even more efficiently than the nonheme iron that you get when you eat vegetables or take an iron-containing multivitamin pill. So eating meat, especially red meat and liver, should ensure that you get enough iron. Vitamin C will increase the absorption of iron, and large amounts of calcium or whole grains will decrease it. Those of us over 60 probably remember all those ads for “tired blood” in the 1950s and 1960s that implied that older people were tired because they didn’t have enough iron and needed to supplement with Geritol. So should we all try to get as much iron as possible? Nope. There is some evidence that high iron levels contribute to heart disease, and most “senior vitamins,” designed for people who are at an age at which heart disease is more likely, don’t have any added iron. Some people think that losing blood every month helps to protect younger women from heart disease. This protection is lost after menopause. Iron l Continue reading >>

(pdf) Effect Of Treatment Of Iron Deficiency Anemia Onhemoglobin A1c In Type 2 Diabetic Patients

(pdf) Effect Of Treatment Of Iron Deficiency Anemia Onhemoglobin A1c In Type 2 Diabetic Patients

Eect of treatment of iron deciency anemia on hemoglobin A1c in type 2 diabetic patients Ensieh NASLI-ESFAHANI1, Bagher LARIJANI1,2, Peyvand AMINI3, Robabeh GHODSSI-GHASSEMABADI4, Rezvan RAZMANDEH1,* 1Diabetes Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 2Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical 3Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA 4Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medical Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran * Correspondence: [email protected] Anemia is a common problem in the world. Approximately one-third of patients with anemia have iron deciency. Previous studies suggested that iron deciency anemia (IDA) aects hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels (1). e most important factor that determines HbA1c concentration is the blood glucose level. HbA1c is the standard for monitoring long-term glycemic control and estimating complications in diabetes mellitus (2,3). When plasma glucose is consistently raised, nonenzymatic glycation of hemoglobin is increased. Erythrocytes have an average lifespan of 120 days; this alteration reects the glycemic history over the previous 23 months (4). HbA1c is increased in patients with diabetes (5). Several studies have shown that some trace elements such as zinc and chromium are involved in the management of the secretion and function of insulin (68). Iron is an important cation in many metabolic actions, and it plays a key role in many physiological functions and especially in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Rising Fe levels inhibit the metabolism of glucose and lead to increases in blood glucose (9). ere have be Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis Distorted Through Hba1c Due To Anemia

Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis Distorted Through Hba1c Due To Anemia

New research shows that anemia could lead to a false diagnosis of type 2 diabetes if HbA1c is used as the diagnostic method. In the UK, HbA1c is advocated by the World Health Organisation (WHO) for diagnosing type 2 diabetes at a value of 6.5 per cent (48 mmol/mol). Anemia is a common condition in which a lack of iron in the body leads to decreased red blood cell count or hemoglobin in patients. An estimate from 2011 found that 29 per cent of non-pregnant women had anemia, while the latest WHO figures suggest this figure is 13 per cent in men. Researchers at the University of Nottingham investigated studies between 1990 and 2014 in which HbA1c and glucose were measured, as well as an index of anemia involving non-pregnant women not diagnosed with diabetes. 12 studies found that iron deficiency with or without anemia resulted in increased HbA1c values, while no corresponding blood glucose rise occurred. Subsequently, a diagnosis of diabetes would require further testing. The researchers recommend that when glucose and HbA1c levels differ in diabetic patients, anemia or iron deficiency should be considered. If these abnormalities are identified, correction of high hemoglobin levels should be corrected before HbA1c is again used for diagnosis or monitoring. "HbA1c is likely to be affected by iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia with a spurious increase in HbA1c values. This may lead to confusion when diagnosing diabetes using HbA1c," the authors say. "This review clearly identifies the need for more evidence, especially in identifying the types and degrees of anaemia likely to have significant impact on the reliability of HbA1c." Tweet Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that results in hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels) due to the body: Being in Continue reading >>

Anemia In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Anemia In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

1Regional University of Northwestern Rio Grande do Sul (UNIJUÍ), Ijuí, RS, Brazil 2Program in Respiratory Sciences, the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil 3Department of Life Sciences, the Regional University of Northwestern Rio Grande do Sul (UNIJUÍ), Rua do Comércio No. 3000, Bairro Universitário, 98700 000 Ijuí, RS, Brazil 4Program in Integral Attention to Health (PPGAIS-UNIJUI/UNICRUZ), Ijuí, RS, Brazil 5Program in Pharmacology of the Health Sciences Center, The Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM), RS, Brazil 6Cenecista Institute for Higher Education, Rua Dr. João Augusto Rodrigues 471, 98801 015 Santo Ângelo, RS, Brazil Academic Editor: Eitan Fibach Copyright © 2015 Jéssica Barbieri et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of anemia in DM2 patients and its correlation with demographic and lifestyle and laboratory variables. This is a descriptive and analytical study of the type of case studies in the urban area of the Ijuí city, registered in programs of the Family Health Strategy, with a total sample of 146 patients with DM2. A semistructured questionnaire with sociodemographic and clinical variables and performed biochemical test was applied. Of the DM2 patients studied, 50 patients had anemia, and it was found that the body mass items and hypertension and hematological variables are significantly associated with anemia of chronic disease. So, the prevalence of anemia is high in patients with DM2. The set of observed changes characterizes the anemia of chronic dis Continue reading >>

Iron Deficiency May Increase Hba1c Levels

Iron Deficiency May Increase Hba1c Levels

Iron deficiency in adults with or without anemia may increase HbA1c levels, potentially leading to misdiagnosis of type 2 diabetes… How helpful was this article? (Please vote.) {mainvote} In a systematic review of studies that included measurements for HbA1c, glucose and at least one index of hematinic deficiency in adults without diabetes, researchers noted the presence of iron deficiency led to an increase in HbA1c when compared with controls, with no corresponding rise in blood glucose, rendering a diagnosis of diabetes unreliable without further tests. HbA1c is likely to be affected by iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia with a spurious increase in HbA1c values, the researchers wrote. This may lead to confusion when diagnosing diabetes using HbA1c. This review clearly identifies the need for more evidence, especially in identifying the types and degrees of anemia likely to have significant impact on the reliability of HbA1c. Emma English, PhD, of the University of Nottingham, U.K., and colleagues analyzed data from 12 cohort studies completed between January 1990 and May 2014 that measured HbA1c and glucose values in nondiabetic, nonpregnant adults aged at least 18 years. Researchers excluded case-control, case report and case series studies. Most studies linked a high HbA1c level in adults to iron deficiency, when compared with other markers of glycemia, according to researchers; several studies recommended correcting the iron deficiency to help regulate HbA1c levels. WHO defines anemia in adults as 120 g/L hemoglobin in nonpregnant women and 130 g/L in men. The researchers recommend clinicians consider abnormalities related to iron deficiency when glucose and HbA1c results are different, as well as consider iron supplementation in patients with anemia to Continue reading >>

The Diabetes And Anemia Connection

The Diabetes And Anemia Connection

Anemia is defined as a low red blood cell count or low hemoglobin concentration, though other indications in a CBC (Complete Blood Count) can also suggest this, including the MCV (mean corpuscular volume) and MCH (mean corpuscular hemoglobin) levels. If the MCV and/or MCH are high, it indicates macrocytic anemia, usually caused by either low B12 or low folate. If MCV and/or MCH are low, it indicates iron deficiency anemia. Symptoms of Anemia Symptoms of either type of anemia include: A rapid heart beat (tachycardia) Shortness of breath Difficulty concentrating. The Diabetes and Iron Deficiency Anemia Connection It’s common to see elevation of ferritin, the storage form of iron, in cases of insulin resistance and diabetes. This is because ferritin is also considered an acute phase reactant, which means it spikes in the presence of inflammation. Ferritin is primarily stored in the liver, and it’s common for it to elevate in cases of fatty liver disease, which is strongly connected to insulin resistance. However, serum iron levels tend to fall in diabetic patients—there’s an inverse correlation between iron levels and HbA1c (a measurement of where the glucose has been over the last 3 months). There are several possible reasons for this. Kidney complications. Elevated blood sugar will, over time, damage the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys in the same way that it can damage the vessels anywhere else (leading to cardiovascular disease). Smaller vessels show damage first, which is why kidney damage is one of the “side effects” of diabetes to watch out for. The significance here: the kidneys produce the hormone erythropoietin, which tells bone marrow to make more red blood cells. Underperforming kidneys will also decrease production of erythropoietin, leading to a Continue reading >>

Influence Of Iron Deficiency Anemia On Hemoglobin A1c Levels In Diabetic Individuals With Controlled Plasma Glucose Levels

Influence Of Iron Deficiency Anemia On Hemoglobin A1c Levels In Diabetic Individuals With Controlled Plasma Glucose Levels

Go to: Introduction: Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) reflects patient’s glycemic status over the previous 3 months. Previous studies have reported that iron deficiency may elevate A1C concentrations, independent of glycemia. This study is aimed to analyze the effect of iron deficiency anemia on HbA1c levels in diabetic population having plasma glucose levels in control. Methods: Totally, 120 diabetic, iron-deficient anemic individuals (70 females and 50 males) having controlled plasma glucose levels with same number of iron-sufficient non-anemic individuals were streamlined for the study. Their data of HbA1c (Bio-Rad D-10 HPLC analyzer), ferritin (cobas e411 ECLIA hormone analyzer), fasting plasma glucose (FPG, Roche Hitachi P800/917 chemistry analyzer), hemoglobin (Beckman Coulter LH780), peripheral smear examination, red cell indices, and medical history were recorded. Statistical analysis was carried out by student’s t-test, Chi-square test, and Pearson’s coefficient of regression. Results: We found elevated HbA1c (6.8 ± 1.4%) in iron-deficient individuals as compared to controls, and elevation was more in women (7.02 ± 1.58%). On further classification on the basis of FPG levels, A1C was elevated more in group having fasting glucose levels between 100-126 mg/dl (7.33 ± 1.55%) compared to the those with normal plasma glucose levels (<100 mg/dl). No significant correlation was found between HbA1c and ferritin and hemoglobin. Conclusion: This study found a positive correlation between iron deficiency anemia and increased A1C levels, especially in the controlled diabetic women and individuals having FPG between 100-126 mg/dl. Hence, before altering the treatment regimen for diabetic patient, presence of iron deficiency anemia should be considered. Key Words: Iron defici Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Anemia:

Diabetes And Anemia:

There are lots of articles about diabetes, as well as all kinds of information about anemia. But what if you have both? About 25 percent of people with diabetes have some level of anemia. This article explains how the two conditions interact. What Is Anemia, and Why Is It Linked to Diabetes? In anemia, there are fewer red blood cells than normal, resulting in less oxygen being carried to the body’s cells. People with anemia often feel tired or weak and may have difficulty getting through activities of daily living. Other symptoms include paleness, poor appetite, dizziness, lightheadedness, rapid heartbeat, and shortness of breath. Because these symptoms can also be associated with diabetes, they are sometimes not recognized as evidence of anemia. Anemia may occur with diabetes because the hormone that regulates red blood cell production, erythropoietin (EPO), is produced by the kidneys. Kidney damage at several levels is a complication of diabetes, and one problem often leads to the other. Changes in the kidneys that occur with diabetes range from diabetic nephropathy all the way to chronic kidney disease. Early detection and treatment is essential to prevent or delay disease progression. Information in greater detail can be found at www.kidney.niddk.nih.gov. Other causes of anemia are low levels of iron or other vitamins, as well as prolonged illness. Diagnosing Anemia A simple blood test done during a doctor visit, called a complete blood count or CBC, is used to check for anemia. The two elements of the test that reveal anemia are hemoglobin and hematocrit. Hemoglobin is the part of red blood cells that carries oxygen to the cells. Hematocrit indicates the percentage of red blood cells in the blood. How Does Anemia Affect Your Diabetes Care? If you have anemia, you Continue reading >>

Anemia Can Lead To False Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis, Research Shows

Anemia Can Lead To False Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis, Research Shows

[shareaholic app="share_buttons" id="18113159"] Anemia can lead to a false type 2 diabetes diagnosis, according to research. Anemia is a condition where there is fewer red blood cells found in the bloodstream than normal. This can be due to lack of iron which is necessary for red blood cells and can leave a person feeling low-energy, dizzy, low appetite, short of breath and with a rapid hear beat. Anemia can also be seen in diabetics because an essential hormone which regulates red blood cell production is created by the kidneys and kidney damage is a known complication of diabetes which can then contribute to anemia. New research highlights how anemia can lead to false diagnosis of diabetes A fairly recent study revealed how anemia can lead to a false diagnosis of diabetes. A common form of diagnosis for type 2 diabetes is with glycated haemoglobin (sugar-bound haemoglobin, or HbA1c) but if a person has anemia it may reveal that they have blood sugar problems even when they really don’t. For the study the researchers utilized a systemic review which included studies from 1990 to 2014. The researchers found that an iron deficiency with or without anemia increased the values of HbA1c compared to controls. Therefore a diagnosis of diabetes in these patients would be unreliable without the help of further testing. The authors explained, “HbA1c is likely to be affected by iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia with a spurious increase in HbA1c values. This may lead to confusion when diagnosing diabetes using HbA1c. This review clearly identifies the need for more evidence, especially in identifying the types and degrees of anaemia likely to have significant impact on the reliability of HbA1c.” Recommendations form the authors included: If results are different co Continue reading >>

Anemia & Glucose

Anemia & Glucose

Anemia refers to a range of problems with your red blood cells. You may have heard it called "tired" blood because one of the major symptoms of anemia is fatigue. Your glucose, or blood sugar, can indirectly contribute to anemia in a few ways. One of the most common pathways is through your kidneys. Excessive glucose can clamp down on the production of a kidney hormone that triggers the production of red blood cells. If you're worried that you are anemic, talk with your health care provider about ways to treat and prevent the recurrence of the problem. Video of the Day Although there are about 400 different types of anemia, the condition generally means you have a lower than normal number of healthy red blood cells, or you have a lower than normal amount of hemoglobin inside your red blood cells. Hemoglobin is a protein that helps deliver oxygen to the tissues within your body. About two-thirds of all the iron in your body is found in hemoglobin, making iron deficiency one of the major causes of anemia, according to the Cleveland Clinic. About one-third of the global population suffers from iron-deficiency anemia. Glucose is more commonly known as blood sugar. It is a major source of energy and fuel for your cells. Your body creates blood sugar after breaking down nutrients from some of your digested food. In blood tests, it's normal to get a reading up to 100 mg/dL of glucose, says MedlinePlus. Serious illnesses, including prediabetes and diabetes, are diagnosed when you have too much glucose in your blood. Too much glucose in your blood means not enough energy is being supplied to your cells. Complications of excessive glucose can impair the functioning of your heart and kidneys, nerves and eyes. Problems with glucose do not cause anemia, but diabetics tend to have a Continue reading >>

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