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Can Hypoglycemia Cause Diabetes?

Nondiabetic Hypoglycemia

Nondiabetic Hypoglycemia

What is non-diabetic hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia is the condition when your blood glucose (sugar) levels are too low. It happens to people with diabetes when they have a mismatch of medicine, food, and/or exercise. Non-diabetic hypoglycemia, a rare condition, is low blood glucose in people who do not have diabetes. There are two kinds of non-diabetic hypoglycemia: Reactive hypoglycemia, which happens within a few hours of eating a meal Fasting hypoglycemia, which may be related to a disease Glucose is the main source of energy for your body and brain. It comes from what we eat and drink. Insulin, a hormone, helps keep blood glucose at normal levels so your body can work properly. Insulin’s job is to help glucose enter your cells where it’s used for energy. If your glucose level is too low, you might not feel well. What causes non-diabetic hypoglycemia? The two kinds of non-diabetic hypoglycemia have different causes. Researchers are still studying the causes of reactive hypoglycemia. They know, however, that it comes from having too much insulin in the blood, leading to low blood glucose levels. Types of nondiabetic hypoglycemia Reactive hypoglycemia Having pre-diabetes or being at risk for diabetes, which can lead to trouble making the right amount of insulin Stomach surgery, which can make food pass too quickly into your small intestine Rare enzyme deficiencies that make it hard for your body to break down food Fasting hypoglycemia Medicines, such as salicylates (such as aspirin), sulfa drugs (an antibiotic), pentamidine (to treat a serious kind of pneumonia), quinine (to treat malaria) Alcohol, especially with binge drinking Serious illnesses, such as those affecting the liver, heart, or kidneys Low levels of certain hormones, such as cortisol, growth hormone, glu Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Low Blood Sugar Symptoms

Type 1 Diabetes Low Blood Sugar Symptoms

Type 1 diabetes in an autoimmune disease where a person’s pancreas doesn’t produce insulin—a hormone needed to convert food into energy. It affects children and adults, comes on suddenly, and it cannot be prevented or cured. Hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, is a common and dangerous occurance with type 1 diabetes. If your blood sugar gets too low it may lead to insulin shock, which is life-threatening if not cared for. Low blood sugar can happen when your body has too little food—or glucose—or when it produces too much insulin. Type 1 diabetes hypoglycemia symptoms So what are the low blood sugar symptoms you should look out for? It’s important to realize that the signs of low blood sugar will vary depending on the person. However, people with type 1 diabetes—whether it’s been diagnosed or not—may experience one or more of the following: -Sweating and shaking -Blurry vision -Poor coordination -Dizziness or feeling lightheaded -Difficulty concentrating -Feeling anxious or irritable -Hunger or nausea -Erratic changes in behavior What to do if you experience low blood glucose symptoms Severely low blood-sugar levels can lead to hypoglycemic seizures, unconsciousness, coma, and death if left untreated. That’s why it’s important to see a doctor if you think you have low blood sugar so he or she can check your blood-glucose levels—look into whether type 1 diabetes may be a cause—and provide the necessary treatment. Your support is more critical than ever Continue reading >>

4 Clues You Have Non-diabetic Hypoglycemia

4 Clues You Have Non-diabetic Hypoglycemia

Hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, is often thought about as part of diabetes, but there is also non-diabetic hypoglycemia. Non-diabetic hypoglycemia is just as equally problematic. When blood sugar is too low, the cause is not as important as realizing the impact. Some of the effects of hypoglycemia are immediate while others take time to manifest, resulting in long term deficits in your health. What is Non-Diabetic Hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia, which again is the same as low blood sugar, is most often thought about in diabetics. This group of individuals often uses medications, including insulin, to lower their glucose, which is often high. When their glucose drops too low as a result of the medication, they are considered in a hypoglycemic state. However, an entire different segment of the population deals with non-diabetic hypoglycemia. Non-diabetic hypoglycemia occurs for reasons that are almost the exact opposite of why someone would develop diabetes. While diabetes arises as a result of excess carbohydrates in the diet, non-diabetic hypoglycemia occurs from a lack of carbohydrates in the diet. Carbohydrates are essential as the preferred energy source for our body. Yes, the total amount of carbohydrate and the source should factor in, but carbohydrates are necessary. In addition to not eating enough carbohydrates, insufficient production of hormones and neurotransmitters (nervous system communicators) can lead to non-diabetic hypoglycemia. Contrary to common medical thought, this does not require the presence of a named disease of the glands that produce the chemicals that helps us keep glucose balanced. 4 Clues that You May Have Non-Diabetic Hypoglycemia Fatigue: The Number One Symptom of Non-Diabetic Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia is the same as low blood sugar. Blood Continue reading >>

Hypoglycemia (low Blood Sugar) In People Without Diabetes - Topic Overview

Hypoglycemia (low Blood Sugar) In People Without Diabetes - Topic Overview

Hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, is most common in people who have diabetes. If you have already been diagnosed with diabetes and need more information about low blood sugar, see the topics: You may have briefly felt the effects of low blood sugar when you've gotten really hungry or exercised hard without eating enough. This happens to nearly everyone from time to time. It's easy to correct and usually nothing to worry about. But low blood sugar, or hypoglycemia, can also be an ongoing problem. It occurs when the level of sugar in your blood drops too low to give your body energy. Ongoing problems with low blood sugar can be caused by: Medicines. Metabolic problems. Alcohol use. Symptoms can be different depending on how low your blood sugar level drops. Mild hypoglycemia can make you feel hungry or like you want to vomit. You could also feel jittery or nervous. Your heart may beat fast. You may sweat. Or your skin might turn cold and clammy. Moderate hypoglycemia often makes people feel short-tempered, nervous, afraid, or confused. Your vision may blur. You could also feel unsteady or have trouble walking. Severe hypoglycemia can cause you to pass out. You could have seizures. It could even cause a coma or death. If you've had hypoglycemia during the night, you may wake up tired or with a headache. And you may have nightmares. Or you may sweat so much during the night that your pajamas or sheets are damp when you wake up. To diagnose hypoglycemia, your doctor will do a physical exam and ask you questions about your health and any medicines you take. You will need blood tests to check your blood sugar levels. Some tests might include not eating (fasting) and watching for symptoms. Other tests might involve eating a meal that could cause symptoms of low blood sugar seve Continue reading >>

Non-diabetic Hypoglycemia

Non-diabetic Hypoglycemia

WHAT IS NON-DIABETIC HYPOGLYCEMIA? Hypoglycemia is the condition when your blood glucose (sugar) levels are too low. It happens to people with diabetes when they have a mismatch of medicine, food, and/or exercise. Non-diabetic hypoglycemia, a rare condition, is low blood glucose in people who do not have diabetes. There are two kinds of non-diabetic hypoglycemia: Reactive hypoglycemia, which happens within a few hours of eating a meal Fasting hypoglycemia, which may be related to a disease Glucose is the main source of energy for your body and brain. It comes from what we eat and drink. Insulin, a hormone, helps keep blood glucose at normal levels so your body can work properly. Insulin's job is to help glucose enter your cells where it's used for energy. If your glucose level is too low, you might not feel well. You can have symptoms of hypoglycemia, but unless your blood glucose level is actually low when you have symptoms, you don't have hypoglycemia. WHAT CAUSES NON-DIABETIC HYPOGLYCEMIA? The two kinds of non-diabetic hypoglycemia have different causes. Researchers are still studying the causes of reactive hypoglycemia. They know, however, that it comes from having too much insulin in the blood, leading to low blood glucose levels. Type of Non-diabetic Hypoglycemia Possible Causes Reactive hypoglycemia Having pre-diabetes or being at risk for diabetes, which can lead to trouble making the right amount of insulin Stomach surgery, which can make food pass too quickly into your small intestine Rare enzyme deficiencies that make it hard for your body to break down food Fasting hypoglycemia Medicines, such as - salicylates (a type of pain reliever) - sulfa drugs (an antibiotic) - pentamidine (to treat a serious kind of pneumonia) - quinine (to treat malaria) Alcohol, esp Continue reading >>

Can You Have Hypoglycemia Without Having Diabetes?

Can You Have Hypoglycemia Without Having Diabetes?

Hypoglycemia is a condition that occurs when the sugar levels in your blood are too low. Many people think of hypoglycemia as something that only occurs in people with diabetes. However, it can also occur in people who don’t have diabetes. Hypoglycemia is different from hyperglycemia, which occurs when you have too much sugar in your bloodstream. Hypoglycemia can happen in people with diabetes if the body produces too much insulin. Insulin is a hormone that breaks down sugar so that you can use it for energy. You can also get hypoglycemia if you have diabetes and you take too much insulin. If you don’t have diabetes, hypoglycemia can happen if your body can’t stabilize your blood sugar levels. It can also happen after meals if your body produces too much insulin. Hypoglycemia in people who don’t have diabetes is less common than hypoglycemia that occurs in people who have diabetes or related conditions. Here's what you need to know about hypoglycemia that occurs without diabetes. Everyone reacts differently to fluctuations in their blood glucose levels. Some symptoms of hypoglycemia may include: You may have hypoglycemia without having any symptoms. This is known as hypoglycemia unawareness. Hypoglycemia is either reactive or non-reactive. Each type has different causes: Reactive hypoglycemia Reactive hypoglycemia occurs within a few hours after a meal. An overproduction of insulin causes reactive hypoglycemia. Having reactive hypoglycemia may mean that you’re at risk for developing diabetes. Non-reactive hypoglycemia Non-reactive hypoglycemia isn't necessarily related to meals and may be due to an underlying disease. Causes of non-reactive, or fasting, hypoglycemia can include: some medications, like those used in adults and children with kidney failure any d Continue reading >>

All About Hypoglycemia (low Blood Sugar)

All About Hypoglycemia (low Blood Sugar)

Hypoglycemia refers to an abnormally low level of sugar, or glucose, in the blood. Hypoglycemia is not a disease in itself, it is a sign of a health problem. The brain uses a lot of energy and needs glucose to function. Because the brain cannot store or manufacture glucose, it needs a continuous supply. Signs of low blood sugar include hunger, trembling, heart racing, nausea, and sweating. Hypoglycemia is commonly linked with diabetes, but many other conditions can also cause low blood sugar. This article will discuss the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of hypoglycemia, and the difference between hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. We will also look at how to prevent it. Here are some key points about hypoglycemia. More detail is in the main article. Hypoglycemia is not a disease but a symptom of another condition. Early symptoms include hunger, sweating, and trembling. A common cause is diabetes. Alcohol abuse and kidney disorders can also lower blood sugar levels. What is hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia is a condition where there is not enough glucose, or sugar, in the blood. Levels of blood sugar are below 4 mmol/L (72mg/dL). Adults and children with mild hypoglycemia may experience the following early symptoms: hunger tremor or trembling sweating irritability a pale face heart palpitations accelerated heart rate tingling lips dizziness weakness Severe hypoglycemia is sometimes called diabetic shock. It may involve: concentration problems confusion irrational and disorderly behavior, similar to intoxication inability to eat or drink Complications If a person does not take action when symptoms of hypoclycemia appear, it can lead to: A person who regularly experiences hypoglycemia may become unaware that it is happening. They will not notice the warning signs, and this can lea Continue reading >>

10 Warning Signs Of Low Blood Sugar

10 Warning Signs Of Low Blood Sugar

Hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, is common among people with diabetes and can occur even when you're carefully managing the condition. "Hypoglycemia happens when the amount of blood glucose (sugar in the blood) drops to a level that's too low to sustain normal functioning," says Erin Palinski-Wade, RD, CDE, author of 2 Day Diabetes Diet. "In most people, this is defined as a blood-sugar level below 70 milligrams per deciliter." A review published in June 2015 in the journal PLoS One found that among people with type 2 diabetes, this is a far too common occurrence. Individuals with the condition had an average of 19 mild episodes of hypoglycemia per year, and nearly one severe episode per year on average. Low blood sugar was particularly common among those taking insulin. This decrease in blood sugar levels can cause both short-term complications, like confusion and dizziness, as well as more serious, long-term complications. Left untreated, it can lead to a coma and even death. To prevent hypoglycemia and its dangerous side effects, it's crucial to monitor your glucose levels and treat low blood sugar as soon as you become aware of it. Pay attention to these telltale signs of dipping blood sugar levels to make sure yours stays under control: 1. Ravenous Hunger If you've already eaten but still aren't satisfied, or if you suddenly, inexplicably feel as if you're starving, your body is signaling that it needs more glucose. Work with your healthcare team to determine the exact amount of sugar your body needs. A good starting point is the American Diabetes Association's recommendation to eat between 15 and 20 grams (g) of sugar or carbohydrates with each snack, and between 40 and 65 g at each meal. Some good options include 2 tablespoons of raisins, 4 ounces of fruit juice Continue reading >>

Hypoglycemia

Hypoglycemia

Print Overview Hypoglycemia is a condition characterized by an abnormally low level of blood sugar (glucose), your body's main energy source. Hypoglycemia is commonly associated with the treatment of diabetes. However, a variety of conditions, many of them rare, can cause low blood sugar in people without diabetes. Like fever, hypoglycemia isn't a disease itself — it's an indicator of a health problem. Immediate treatment of hypoglycemia involves quick steps to get your blood sugar level back into a normal range — about 70 to 110 milligrams per deciliter, or mg/dL (3.9 to 6.1 millimoles per liter, or mmol/L) — either with high-sugar foods or medications. Long-term treatment requires identifying and treating the underlying cause of hypoglycemia. Symptoms Similar to the way a car needs gas to run, your body and brain need a constant supply of sugar (glucose) to function properly. If glucose levels become too low, as occurs with hypoglycemia, it can cause these signs and symptoms: Heart palpitations Fatigue Pale skin Shakiness Anxiety Sweating Hunger Irritability Tingling sensation around the mouth Crying out during sleep As hypoglycemia worsens, signs and symptoms may include: Confusion, abnormal behavior or both, such as the inability to complete routine tasks Visual disturbances, such as blurred vision Seizures Loss of consciousness People with severe hypoglycemia may appear as if they're intoxicated. They may slur their words and move clumsily. Many conditions other than hypoglycemia may cause these signs and symptoms. A blood sample to test your blood sugar level at the time of these signs and symptoms is how to know for sure that hypoglycemia is the cause. When to see a doctor Seek a doctor's help immediately if: You have what may be symptoms of hypoglycemia an Continue reading >>

Non-diabetic Hypoglycemia

Non-diabetic Hypoglycemia

WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW: What is non-diabetic hypoglycemia? Non-diabetic hypoglycemia is a condition that causes the sugar (glucose) in your blood to drop too low. This can happen in people who do not have diabetes. The 2 types of non-diabetic hypoglycemia are fasting hypoglycemia and reactive hypoglycemia. Fasting hypoglycemia often happens after the person goes without food for 8 hours or longer. Reactive hypoglycemia usually happens about 2 to 4 hours after a meal. When your blood sugar level is low, your muscles and brain cells do not have enough energy to work well. What causes non-diabetic hypoglycemia? Fasting hypoglycemia: Certain medicines or herbal supplements such as fenugreek, ginseng, or cinnamon Alcohol Exercise Medical conditions such as liver disease, hypothyroidism, and tumors Eating disorders or malnutrition Stomach surgery or hemodialysis Reactive hypoglycemia: The causes of reactive hypoglycemia may be unknown. Hyperinsulinism Meals high in refined carbohydrates such as white bread or foods high in sugar Prediabetes Any surgery of the digestive system What are the signs and symptoms of non-diabetic hypoglycemia? Blurred vision or changes in vision Dizziness, lightheadedness, or shakiness Fatigue and weakness Fast or pounding heartbeat Sweating more than usual Headache Nausea or hunger Anxiety, Irritability, or confusion How is non-diabetic hypoglycemia diagnosed? Blood tests are done to measure your blood sugar levels. These tests may also be done to find the cause of your hypoglycemia. Fasting tests may be done. You may have an overnight fasting test or a 72-hour fasting test. After you have fasted overnight, your blood sugar levels will be tested 2 times. For a 72-hour fasting test, you will not be given food for a period of up to 72 hours. During th Continue reading >>

Recurrent Hypoglycemia: When Diabetes Is Not The Cause

Recurrent Hypoglycemia: When Diabetes Is Not The Cause

Diabetes, Nutritional And Metabolic Diseases, Diabetes Type 2 ABSTRACT: Most episodes of recurrent hypoglycemia occur in patients with diabetes mellitus and can be prevented by changes in medication, diet, or activity. However, persistent, unexplained hypoglycemia can indicate a potentially grave, often treatable, underlying disorder, such as insulinoma, or adrenal or pituitary insufficiency. Medication errors are another cause of unexplained hypoglycemia. A focused laboratory workup is essential; obtain a plasma or serum glucose level and serum insulin and C-peptide levels. Insulin levels should be suppressed (less than 6 μIU/mL) when the glucose level is below 60 mg/dL. “Normal” or high insulin and C-peptide levels suggest excessive endogenous insulin production. Hypoglycemia is a common event that typically occurs in persons with diabetes mellitus. In this context, hypoglycemia usually results from an imbalance among diabetic therapy, level of activity, and dietary intake. Therefore, management of hypoglycemia has become “scripted”: glucose administration, followed by adjustments in insulin or oral medications or diet. The simplicity of this approach can be deceptive, however. Practitioners may underestimate the impact of other hypoglycemic disorders that are not the direct result of diabetes or its treatment regimen. In this setting, hypoglycemia can indicate a serious disturbance in glucose regulation and can recur with devastating consequences. Determining the cause of hypoglycemic “outliers,” therefore, is critical. The potentially life-threatening consequences of sudden, unexpected hypoglycemia may endanger not only the affected person but others as well (eg, hypoglycemia in a driver of a motor vehicle). Here are 4 cases of hypoglycemia that occurre Continue reading >>

Non-diabetic Hypoglycemia

Non-diabetic Hypoglycemia

Go to: ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the evaluation and management of hypoglycemia in patients without diabetes. Methods: Review of literature for the evaluation and management of non-diabetic hypoglycemia using Medline and PubMed. Results: Hypoglycemia (glucose <55 mg/dL) is uncommon in people without diabetes. Whipple’s triad (low plasma glucose concentration, clinical signs/symptoms consistent with hypoglycemia, and resolution of signs or symptoms when the plasma glucose concentration increases) should be documented in patients prior to embarking on evaluation. Medications should be reviewed. Critical illnesses, malnutrition, hormone deficiencies especially adrenal insufficiency, and nonislet cell tumors secreting IGF-II need be considered in those who are ill. Hypoglycemia can also follow bariatric surgery. In apparently healthy individuals, endogenous hyperinsulinism due to insulinoma, functional β-cell disorders, or the insulin autoimmune syndrome are possible, as are accidental, surreptitious or factitious causes of hypoglycemia. Tests performed during hypoglycemia can establish the cause in those whom illness or medications are not the cause. Testing may be done at the time of spontaneous development of symptoms. If this is not possible, it can be done in the setting of a prolonged supervised fast or during a mixed meal test. Endogenous hyperinsulinism is supported by insulin ≥3 uU/mL, c-peptide ≥0.2 nmol/L, proinsulin ≥5 pmol/L, β-hydroxybutyrate ≤2.7 mmol/L and undetectable sulfonylurea/meglitinide in the setting of hypoglycemia. Use of glucagon tolerance tests, c-peptide suppression tests, anti-insulin antibody testing and continuous glucose monitoring are discussed. Congenital causes of hypoglycemia, diagnosed primarily in neonates and children Continue reading >>

Prediabetes Warning: Hypoglycemia Vs Diabetes

Prediabetes Warning: Hypoglycemia Vs Diabetes

A prediabetes warning can be characterized by low blood sugar symptoms like fatigue, weakness, tiredness, and more. This phenomenon, despite how common it is, is not normal, nor is it healthy. It’s the classic sign of what is known as reactive hypoglycemia and an early symptom of the prediabetes-related condition known as insulin resistance. Refined Carbs Can Cause Wild Mood Swings If you eat a meal loaded with sugar and refined carbs, you will experience wild swings in blood sugar that make you feel tired, anxious, irritable, and hungry for more quickly absorbed sugars. When you repeat this process day in and day out, eating a diet full of empty calories, refined carbohydrates (bread, pasta, rice, potatoes), sugars, and sweetened beverages (sodas, juices, sports drinks), your cells start to become resistant or numb to insulin. You end up needing more and more insulin to keep your blood sugars down. This is insulin resistance, a pre-diabetic condition that has become an epidemic. What is Reactive Hypoglycemia? Reactive hypoglycemia is characterized by low blood sugar symptoms like fatigue, weakness, tiredness, dizziness, sweating, shakiness, palpitations, anxiety, nausea, a sensation of hunger, and difficulty with concentration which occur after eating an abundance of sugar or refined carbs. These reactive hypoglycemia symptoms occur in the early stages of insulin resistance. Take a typical breakfast these days: swigging a large sweetened coffee drink and grabbing something from the Starbucks pastry case will give you a big energy surge as your sugar and insulin levels spike. What follows, however, are inevitable sugar crash symptoms as your blood sugar plummets. With this comes the low blood sugar fatigue. Insulin Levels May Be the First Sign That Something is Wrong Continue reading >>

Diabetic Hypoglycemia

Diabetic Hypoglycemia

Print Overview For people with diabetes, low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) occurs when there's too much insulin and not enough sugar (glucose) in the blood. Hypoglycemia is defined as blood sugar below 70 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 3.9 millimoles per liter (mmol/L). Several factors can cause hypoglycemia in people with diabetes, including taking too much insulin or other diabetes medications, skipping a meal, or exercising harder than usual. Pay attention to early warning signs, so you can treat low blood sugar promptly. Treatment involves short-term solutions — such as taking glucose tablets — to raise your blood sugar into a normal range. Untreated, diabetic hypoglycemia can lead to seizures and loss of consciousness — a medical emergency. Rarely, it can be deadly. Tell family and friends what symptoms to look for and what to do in case you're not able to treat the condition yourself. Symptoms Early warning signs and symptoms Early signs and symptoms of diabetic hypoglycemia include: Shakiness Dizziness Sweating Hunger Irritability or moodiness Anxiety or nervousness Headache Nighttime symptoms Diabetic hypoglycemia can also occur while you sleep. Signs and symptoms, which can awaken you, include: Damp sheets or bedclothes due to perspiration Nightmares Tiredness, irritability or confusion upon waking Severe symptoms If diabetic hypoglycemia goes untreated, signs and symptoms of severe hypoglycemia can occur. These include: Clumsiness or jerky movements Muscle weakness Difficulty speaking or slurred speech Blurry or double vision Drowsiness Confusion Convulsions or seizures Unconsciousness Death Take your symptoms seriously. Diabetic hypoglycemia can increase the risk of serious — even deadly — accidents. Identifying and correcting the factors contrib Continue reading >>

Low Blood Glucose (hypoglycemia)

Low Blood Glucose (hypoglycemia)

What is hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia, also called low blood glucose or low blood sugar, occurs when the level of glucose in your blood drops below normal. For many people with diabetes, that means a level of 70 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or less. Your numbers might be different, so check with your health care provider to find out what level is too low for you. What are the symptoms of hypoglycemia? Symptoms of hypoglycemia tend to come on quickly and can vary from person to person. You may have one or more mild-to-moderate symptoms listed in the table below. Sometimes people don’t feel any symptoms. Severe hypoglycemia is when your blood glucose level becomes so low that you’re unable to treat yourself and need help from another person. Severe hypoglycemia is dangerous and needs to be treated right away. This condition is more common in people with type 1 diabetes. Hypoglycemia Symptoms Mild-to-Moderate Severe Shaky or jittery Sweaty Hungry Headachy Blurred vision Sleepy or tired Dizzy or lightheaded Confused or disoriented Pale Uncoordinated Irritable or nervous Argumentative or combative Changed behavior or personality Trouble concentrating Weak Fast or irregular heart beat Unable to eat or drink Seizures or convulsions (jerky movements) Unconsciousness Some symptoms of hypoglycemia during sleep are crying out or having nightmares sweating enough to make your pajamas or sheets damp feeling tired, irritable, or confused after waking up What causes hypoglycemia in diabetes? Hypoglycemia can be a side effect of insulin or other types of diabetes medicines that help your body make more insulin. Two types of diabetes pills can cause hypoglycemia: sulfonylureas and meglitinides . Ask your health care team if your diabetes medicine can cause hypoglycemia. Although ot Continue reading >>

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