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Can Hyperlipidemia Be Caused By Diabetes?

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Everything You Need To Know About Hyperlipidemia

Everything You Need To Know About Hyperlipidemia

Hyperlipidemia, or high cholesterol, refers to high levels of fat proteins in the blood. The condition can affect one fat protein or several. Most people will have no symptoms, but having hyperlipidemia increases the risk of developing heart disease. It affects 1 in 3 Americans. Genetic predisposition, cigarette smoking, obesity, poor diet, and an inactive lifestyle can all lead to hyperlipidemia. There are two types of cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL). LDL is considered unhealthy, while HDL is "good" cholesterol. Cholesterol and lipoproteins are not the same, although they work together. Lipoproteins carry cholesterol to the cells. Usually, there are no symptoms with hyperlipidemia, but it can be detected by a simple blood test. Here are some key points about hyperlipidemia. More detail is in the main article. Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor for heart disease, the leading cause of death in the U.S. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is known as bad cholesterol, while high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is considered good. Regular physical activity can raise levels of HDL and lower LDL. What is hyperlipidemia? Hyperlipidemia means there is too much cholesterol in the blood. Cholesterol is a waxy fat protein made by the liver. It is essential for healthy cell membranes, brain functioning, hormone production, and vitamin storage. Cholesterol becomes a problem when too much bad cholesterol, or low-density lipoprotein (LDL), is produced or ingested through unhealthy foods. Lipoproteins transport cholesterol through the blood to the cells. HDL is good because it carries extra cholesterol back to the liver where it can be eliminated. LDL is bad because it enables excess cholesterol to build up in the blood. Triglycerides are a type o Continue reading >>

Cholesterol Abnormalities & Diabetes

Cholesterol Abnormalities & Diabetes

Cholesterol is a waxy substance that is made by the body and found in some animal-based foods. Blood cholesterol levels describe a group of fats also known as lipoproteins which includes HDL-C, or "good" cholesterol and LDL-C or "bad" cholesterol. Cholesterol is important to overall health, but when levels are too high, cholesterol can be harmful by contributing to narrowed or blocked arteries. Unfortunately, people with diabetes are more prone to having unhealthy high cholesterol levels, which contributes to cardiovascular disease (CVD). By taking steps to manage cholesterol, individuals can reduce their chance of cardiovascular disease and premature death. Using a blood sample taken after a brief period of fasting by the patient, a lipoprotein profile reveals the following lipid measures: Low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol = "bad" cholesterol A high LDL-C level is associated with a higher risk for CVD. However, your LDL number should no longer be the main factor in guiding treatment to prevent heart attack and stroke, according to the latest guidelines from the American Heart Association. For patients taking statins, it’s important to work with your doctor to manage your LDL appropriately. A diet high in saturated and trans fats can raise your LDL cholesterol. High-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol = "good" cholesterol With HDL-C, higher levels are associated with a lower risk for CVD. Low HDL cholesterol puts you at higher risk for heart disease. People with high blood triglycerides usually also have lower HDL cholesterol. Genetic factors, type 2 diabetes, and certain drugs, such as beta-blockers and anabolic steroids, also lower HDL cholesterol levels. Smoking, being overweight and being sedentary can all contribute to lower HDL cholesterol. Triglycerid Continue reading >>

Diabetic Dyslipidemia: Causes And Consequences

Diabetic Dyslipidemia: Causes And Consequences

Diabetic Dyslipidemia: Causes and Consequences Division of Preventive Medicine and Nutrition, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032 Search for other works by this author on: The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 86, Issue 3, 1 March 2001, Pages 965971, Ira J. Goldberg; Diabetic Dyslipidemia: Causes and Consequences, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 86, Issue 3, 1 March 2001, Pages 965971, More cardiovascular disease occurs in patients with either type 1 or 2 diabetes. The link between diabetes and atherosclerosis is, however, not completely understood. Among the metabolic abnormalities that commonly accompany diabetes are disturbances in the production and clearance of plasma lipoproteins. Moreover, development of dyslipidemia may be a harbinger of future diabetes. A characteristic pattern, termed diabetic dyslipidemia, consists of low high density lipoprotein (HDL), increased triglycerides, and postprandial lipemia. This pattern is most frequently seen in type 2 diabetes and may be a treatable risk factor for subsequent cardiovascular disease. The pathophysiological alterations in diabetes that lead to this dyslipidemia will be reviewed in this article. Causes of lipoprotein abnormalities in diabetes Defects in insulin action and hyperglycemia could lead to changes in plasma lipoproteins in patients with diabetes. Alternatively, especially in the case of type 2 diabetes, the obesity/insulin-resistant metabolic disarray that is at the root of this form of diabetes could, itself, lead to lipid abnormalities exclusive of hyperglycemia. Type 1 diabetes, previously termed insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, provides a much clearer understanding of the relationship among diabetes, ins Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Atherosclerosis: Is There A Role For Hyperglycemia?

Diabetes And Atherosclerosis: Is There A Role For Hyperglycemia?

Abstract Atherosclerosis is accelerated in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The hallmark of diabetes is the presence of hyperglycemia. In this article, we review the role of glucose in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Evidence obtained from epidemiological, in vitro, and animal studies will be reviewed in an attempt to understand the complex relationship between hyperglycemia and cardiovascular risk that is emerging from clinical trials. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE SUPPORTS AN ASSOCIATION BETWEEN GLYCEMIC CONTROL AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE Strong epidemiological evidence supports an association between glycemic control and CVD risk (4). The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) provided additional insights into the relationship between glycemic control and CVD in patients with type 2 diabetes, indicating a linear relationship between HbA1c and CVD endpoints, particularly myocardial infarction (5). However, the slope of the relationship between HbA1c and microvascular complications is much steeper that than for myocardial infarction, raising the question of whether glucose plays a greater role in the pathogenesis of microvascular than cardiovascular complications of diabetes. Similar but less-robust relationships have been observed in patients with type 1 diabetes (6). However, epidemiological studies only indicate associations, and provide no evidence of causality. Therefore, other approaches are necessary to understand the potential role of hyperglycemia in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. STUDIES ON ISOLATED VASCULAR CELLS SUGGEST THAT ELEVATED GLUCOSE LEVELS CAUSE A PLETHORA OF PROATHEROGENIC RESPONSES, BUT THE IN VIVO RELEVANCE OF MOST OF THESE FINDINGS AWAIT VERIFICATION Although in vitro studies have provided important insights into potenti Continue reading >>

Diseases Linked To High Cholesterol

Diseases Linked To High Cholesterol

High cholesterol is associated with an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease. That can include coronary heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. High cholesterol has also been linked to diabetes and high blood pressure. To prevent or manage these conditions, work with your doctor to see what steps you need to take to lower your cholesterol. The main risk from high cholesterol is coronary heart disease. If the cholesterol level is too high, cholesterol can build up in the walls of your arteries. Over time, this build-up -- called plaque -- causes hardening of the arteries or atherosclerosis. This causes arteries to become narrowed, which slows the blood flow to the heart muscle. Reduced blood flow can result in angina (chest pain) or in a heart attack if a blood vessel gets blocked completely. Atherosclerosis causes arteries that lead to the brain to become narrowed and even blocked. If a vessel carrying blood to the brain is blocked completely, you could have a stroke High cholesterol also has been linked to peripheral vascular disease. This refers to diseases of blood vessels outside the heart and brain. In this condition, fatty deposits build up along artery walls and affect blood circulation. This occurs mainly in arteries that lead to the legs and feet. Diabetes can upset the balance between HDL and LDL cholesterol levels. People with diabetes tend to have LDL particles that stick to arteries and damage blood vessel walls more easily. Glucose (a type of sugar) attaches to lipoproteins (a cholesterol-protein package that enables cholesterol to travel through blood). Sugarcoated LDL remains in the bloodstream longer and may lead to the formation of plaque. People with diabetes tend to have low HDL and high triglyceride (another kind of blood fat) leve Continue reading >>

Patient Education: High Cholesterol And Lipids (hyperlipidemia) (beyond The Basics)

Patient Education: High Cholesterol And Lipids (hyperlipidemia) (beyond The Basics)

INTRODUCTION Hyperlipidemia refers to increased levels of lipids (fats) in the blood, including cholesterol and triglycerides. Although hyperlipidemia does not cause symptoms, it can significantly increase your risk of developing cardiovascular disease, including disease of blood vessels supplying the heart (coronary artery disease), brain (cerebrovascular disease), and limbs (peripheral vascular disease). These conditions can in turn lead to chest pain, heart attacks, strokes, and other problems. Because of these risks, treatment is often recommended for people with hyperlipidemia. This topic reviews the risk factors for coronary artery disease (sometimes called just “coronary disease”), the types of lipids, and when cholesterol testing should begin. The treatment of high cholesterol is discussed separately. (See "Patient education: High cholesterol treatment options (Beyond the Basics)".) RISK FACTORS FOR CORONARY DISEASE In addition to hyperlipidemia, there are a number of other factors that increase the risk of coronary artery disease: Diabetes mellitus, type 1 and 2 (see "Patient education: Diabetes mellitus type 1: Overview (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: Diabetes mellitus type 2: Overview (Beyond the Basics)") Hypertension (people with hypertension include those with a blood pressure at or above 140/90 and those who use blood pressure medication) (see "Patient education: High blood pressure in adults (Beyond the Basics)") Cigarette smoking Family history of coronary disease at a young age in a parents or sibling (young, in this case, means younger than 55 years for men and younger than 65 years for women) Gender – Men have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease than women at every age Age – There is an increasing risk of cardiovascular disea Continue reading >>

Diabetic Hyperlipidemia: High Cholesterol When You Have Diabetes

Diabetic Hyperlipidemia: High Cholesterol When You Have Diabetes

Diabetic hyperlipidemia sounds a bit intimidating, doesn’t it? As we always do here on EndocrineWeb, we’re going to break down that concept for you, and that’s why we’ve put together this Patients’ Guide to Treating High Cholesterol and Diabetes. Diabetic hyperlipidemia is, in fact, having high cholesterol when you have diabetes. The parts of the word hyperlipidemia break into: hyper: high lipid: scientific term referring to fat, cholesterol, and fat-like substances in the body emia: in the blood So all together, hyperlipidemia means that you have too many lipids, especially cholesterol, in your blood. High cholesterol is dangerous for anyone, but as someone with type 2 diabetes, it’s particularly important that you get treatment for high cholesterol. You’re probably aware that diabetes can come with a host of complications—if you don’t take good care of our blood glucose levels and overall health. Cardiovascular complications are common in people with type 2 diabetes, and high cholesterol can also harm your cardiovascular health. Taking care of your high cholesterol will help lower your cardiovascular risk, so in this Patients’ Guide to Treating High Cholesterol and Diabetes, we’ll be covering: cholesterol basics: What is it? What should your numbers be? How often should you be tested? cardiovascular risk in diabetes: Why are you at an increased risk? How does diabetes affect your cardiovascular health? high cholesterol risk factors: Should you be concerned about getting high cholesterol? high cholesterol treatments when you have diabetes: There are medications you can take to help bring down your cholesterol numbers. Also, lifestyle changes are important. eating well to manage cholesterol and diabetes: This lifestyle change is so important that i Continue reading >>

High Cholesterol

High Cholesterol

Hyperlipidemia is a family of disorders that are characterized by abnormally high levels of lipids (fats) in the blood. While fats play a vital role in the body’s metabolic processes, high blood levels of fats increase the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Two common lipid abnormalities are characterized either by high blood cholesterol levels (hypercholesterolemia) or high blood levels of triglycerides (hypertriglyceridemia). Cholesterol is manufactured primarily in the liver and then carried in the bloodstream by low density lipoprotein (LDL). (Because cholesterol and other fats do not dissolve in water, they cannot travel through the blood unaided. Lipoproteins are particles formed in the liver to transport cholesterol and other fats through the bloodstream.) Cholesterol is returned to the liver from other body cells by another lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein (HDL). From there, cholesterol is secreted into the bile, either unchanged or after conversion to bile acids. Cholesterol is essential for the formation of cell membranes and the manufacture of several hormones, but it is not required from the diet because the liver produces all the cholesterol the body needs. If blood cholesterol levels are elevated, large amounts of LDL (so-called “bad”) cholesterol can deposit in the arterial walls. These deposits represent the first stage in the narrowing of arteries, termed atherosclerosis. Because hypercholesterolemia causes no symptoms, preventive measures and regular measurement of cholesterol levels are important for people in high-risk categories. Hypercholesterolemia is especially dangerous when HDL (“good”) cholesterol levels are low. Left untreated, hypercholesterolemia can eventually lead to a heart attack due to CHD or a stroke due to narrowed Continue reading >>

Dietary And Drug Treatment Of Hyperlipidemia In Diabetes

Dietary And Drug Treatment Of Hyperlipidemia In Diabetes

Abstract Diabetics have increased risk of ASCVD and patients with ASCVD have increased incidence of diabetes. Patients with diabetes are susceptible to hypertriglyceridemia, particularly if they are obese maturity-onset diabetics. Elevated plasma triglycerides may constitute a greater risk factor for ASCVD than elevated plasma cholesterol in diabetics. The classification of hyperlipidemia can be made on the basis of plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentration measured in the fasting state. Hypercholesterolemia (type II) or hypertriglyceridemia with or without hypercholesterolemia (type IV) will comprise the great majority of hyperlipidemias. The treatment of hyperlipidemia in diabetics is uncertain because most dietary and drug studies have centered about cholesterol rather than Trigrycerides, and most such studies have excluded diabetics. It is necessary, then, to assume that treatment ppropriate for nondiabetics is also appropriate for diabetics. The first order of treatment is restoration of body weight to ideal, as Is usually the case, it exceeds ideal weight. If weight reduction fails to bring about normal lipids, modest reduction of total dietary fat, of saturated fat, and slight increase in nsaturated fat and decrease in dletary cholesterol is worth a trial regardless of type of lipidemia. Although this diet is aimed chiefly at reduction of cholesterol it either does not change or may even decrease the plasma triglyceride concentration. Carbohydrates should be in the complex form with high fiber content. If hypertriglyceridemia persists despite the above measures, limited evidence suggests that restriction of dietary carbohydrate to 40 or 30 per cent of calories with a corresponding increase in fat may be effective. If the added fat is polyunsaturated the c Continue reading >>

Mechanism Of Development Of Hyperlipidaemia In Diabetes Mellitus

Mechanism Of Development Of Hyperlipidaemia In Diabetes Mellitus

hypertriglyceridaemia dominant hyperlidaemia in diabetes mellitus lipoprotein lipase is activated by insulin - therefore insulin resistance and/or insulin deficiency may result in extremely elevated triglyceride levels (occasionally more than 100 mmol/L); diabetic patients who develop extremely high levels of triglycerides may already have a pre-existing partial defect in triglyceride catabolism e.g. apo E2 homozygote - in this case may also develop striate palmar xanthomata and tuberoeruptive xanthomata if glycaemic control is reasonable and hypertriglyceridaemia is still present then this is due to an overproduction of VLDL by the liver increased levels of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are released if there is an increased quantity of adipose tissue (obesity) which often occurs in type II diabetes - this in turn probably leads to increased VLDL production hormone-sensitive lipase (within adipocytes) is inhibited by insulin (this hydrolyses triglyceride to produce NEFA and glycerol); therefore in insulin deficiency/resistance increased levels of NEFA are released from adipocytes; also there will be lowered levels triglyceride clearance as a result of reduced activation of lipoprotein lipase insulin has a direct inhibitory effect on VLDL production by hepatocytes - thus in insulin resistance and/or insulin deficiency triglyceride release by the liver will be further faciliated - note that even in insulin treated diabetes the liver is likely to be still insulin deficient because subcutaneously administered insulin reaches the liver via the systemic circulation (and not the portal vein) type 1 diabetics are less likely to have hypertriglyceridaemia than type 2 diabetics - this is because insulin therapy is the rule in type 1 diabetes and other factors that predispose Continue reading >>

Hyperlipidaemia In Diabetes

Hyperlipidaemia In Diabetes

Atherosclerosis and its complications are a major cause of mortality and morbidity among patients with type 2 diabetes. This increased risk of cardiovascular complications has many causes including dyslipidaemia*, hypertension and smoking. Hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia may also contribute. Epidemiological evidence shows that there is a strong link between altered lipoproteins and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in diabetes.1 There is a relationship between the incidence of CHD and the concentrations of total triglycerides and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. There is an inverse relationship between CHD and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Lipid changes in diabetes Most studies show that patients with type 2 diabetes have more triglyceride and less HDL cholesterol (in particular, a lower HDL2 subfraction) than non-diabetics.2,3 These lipid abnormalities are also seen in non-diabetic individuals with increased obesity (in particular, an android or `upper body' fat distribution with increased visceral fat), hypertension and insulin resistance, hence leading to the recognition of the `metabolic syndrome' or `syndrome X'. Although the dyslipidaemia in diabetics appears to be greater, the non-diabetic people with the `metabolic syndrome' are also at an increased risk of CHD. While LDL cholesterol concentrations are usually similar in diabetic and non-diabetic populations, qualitative changes have been described. LDL particles have been shown to be smaller and denser in diabetics, which may enhance their atherogenicity.4 In non-diabetic populations, small dense LDL particles and apolipoprotein B (a component of LDL) have been shown to be independent risk factors for CHD. In type 1 diabetics, raised triglycerides (especially very low density Continue reading >>

Hyperlipidemia

Hyperlipidemia

A blanket term for abnormally high levels of lipids, such as cholesterol, in the bloodstream. For years, it has been known that high levels of cholesterol in the blood can raise a person’s risk of developing heart disease. Cholesterol is transported in the bloodstream by carrier proteins known as lipoproteins. Low-density lipoproteins (LDL’s) tend to deposit cholesterol-laden “plaques” in artery walls, narrowing the opening through which blood flows and increasing the risk of heart disease. This is why LDL cholesterol has been dubbed the “bad” cholesterol. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is known as the “good” cholesterol because HDL carries cholesterol to the liver, where it is broken down and removed from the blood before it can wind up on artery walls. High blood levels of triglycerides, the body’s storage form of fat and a primary source of energy, are also associated with a greater risk of heart disease, at least in some people. People with Type 2 diabetes are at especially high risk for hyperlipidemia, most commonly in the form of elevated triglyceride levels and decreased HDL levels. In recognition of the link between blood cholesterol levels and heart disease, the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP), coordinated by the National Institutes of Health, set up target blood cholesterol levels aimed at minimizing people’s risk of heart disease. According to the NCEP, a total blood cholesterol level of less than 200 mg/dl is desirable, a level of 200 mg/dl to 239 mg/dl is considered borderline, and a level of 240 mg/dl or above is regarded as high. Similarly, an LDL cholesterol level of less than 100 is optimal, a level of 100 to 129 mg/dl is near optimal, a level of 130 to 159 is borderline, and a level of more than 160 mg/dl i Continue reading >>

Diabetes, High Blood Pressure And Cholesterol: How One Condition Impacts The Other

Diabetes, High Blood Pressure And Cholesterol: How One Condition Impacts The Other

I was diagnosed with Diabetes Type II in 1999. Prior to that date my blood pressure readings were averaging 147/91. In January of 2000 my doctor put me on Lipitor. Could my HBP be considered a secondary condition that is likely to be caused in part and/or aggravated by the diabetes mellitus? Multiple readers have noted that they have one combination or another of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia (elevated cholesterol, or triglycerides, or low HDL cholesterol) and asked which came first and whether one is secondary to the other. The relationship is often complex as each can not only worsen the other but also increases the effect upon the adverse problems that can lead to heart disease. In the question that I am answering, the blood pressures were already elevated and we would at least call them “pre hypertensive” before. The reason that we use the term “pre hypertensive” is that people who run high pressure early in life are more likely than others to run even higher pressures as they age. Indeed, the likelihood of having high blood pressure is quite low before age thirty but increases with each decade of life. One of the reasons that blood pressure increases as we get older is arteriosclerosis. Our arteries are quite compliant and expand with each push of blood pumping from the heart. The arteries become a bit stiffer as we age (come to think of it, so are our joints), and no longer cushion the shock of blood coursing through under pressure from the heart. This stiffness causes the pressure within the blood vessels to rise, and this is what we actually measure. As we age, in a “Western” society our unhealthy diets lead us to deposit fat molecules (mostly forms of cholesterol) into the walls of the blood vessels building up “plaque Continue reading >>

Primary Hyperlipidemia, Acute Pancreatitis And Ketoacidosis In An Adolescent With Type 2 Diabetes

Primary Hyperlipidemia, Acute Pancreatitis And Ketoacidosis In An Adolescent With Type 2 Diabetes

Krisztina Lukacs1,2*, Laszlo Jozsef Barkai1, Nora Hosszufalusi1, Eva Palik1, Attila J Szabo2 and Laszlo Madacsy2 13rd Department of Medicine, Semmelweis University, 1125 Budapest, Hungary 21st Department of Pediatrics, Semmelweis University, 1083 Budapest, Hungary Citation: Lukacs K, Barkai LJ, Hosszufalusi N, Palik E, Szabo AJ, et al. (2016) Primary Hyperlipidemia, Acute Pancreatitis and ketoacidosis in an Adolescent with Type 2 Diabetes. J Diabetes Metab 7:651. doi:10.4172/2155-6156.1000651 Copyright: © 2016 Lukacs K, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Visit for more related articles at Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism Abstract A case is presented of a 15-year-old boy with a past medical history of hyperlipidemia and hypertension. He attended the emergency department with a 3-day history of vomiting, acute abdominal pain, and altered mental status. Laboratory data on admission revealed metabolic acidosis (pH: 7.12, BE: -20.8 mmol/L), high blood glucose level (32.1 mmol/L) and significant hyperlipidemia (cholesterol: 16.3 mmol/L, triglycerides: 21.1 mmol/L). Treatment with electrolytes and volume replacement and intravenous insulin successfully resolved the ketoacidosis, but the abdominal pain and hyperlipidemia remained. Abdominal US and CT scan showed severe necrotizing pancreatitis with a pseudocyst. The laboratory studies showed a Frederickson type V pattern hyperlipidemia. HbA1c was 14.3% (133 mmol/mol), indicating the presence of chronic glucose elevation. Based on the lack of islet cell antibodies and the normal fasting serum C-peptide level, type 2 diabete Continue reading >>

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