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Can Genetic Tests Be Performed To Determine An Individual's Risk For Getting Diabetes?

What Can Genetic Testing Really Tell You?

What Can Genetic Testing Really Tell You?

What can genetic testing really tell you? By Aparna Nathan posted Aug 14th, 2017 at 12:13pm All your genetic information is within reach. Once difficult and expensive even for the most technologically advanced labs, genetic testing is fast becoming a cheap and easy consumer product. With a little spit and 200 dollars, you can find out your risk for everything from cystic fibrosis to lactose intolerance. But its important to remember that not all genetic tests are created equal. And even the best clinical genetic test, carried out in a medical lab under a doctor's supervision, isn't perfectgenes are important, but they don't seal your fate. Genetic tests are diagnostic, so anyone who is curious about their health can get one done. But they're more informative if you think you might be at risk for a genetic disorder. Heavy-duty genetic tests have been used as a clinical tool for almost half a centurylong before 23andMe and Ancestry.com began offering direct-to-consumer tests. Lets say that many women in your family have had breast cancer. You can get a genetic test to see if you may have inherited an abnormal version of the BRCA gene, known to increase your risk for breast cancer. Heidi Rehm, associate professor of pathology at Harvard Medical School, is the director of the Laboratory for Molecular Medicine, where patients get tested for diseases that can be traced to specific genetic roots. She says it is most common for people to get tested when they either suspect or know that they have a genetic disease; it may have affected multiple people in their family or they could show symptoms of something widely known to be genetic, like sickle cell anemia . For these people, genetic tests can provide a much-needed explanation for an illness and help doctors determine the bes Continue reading >>

Is Diabetes Genetic? Facts About Hereditary Risk

Is Diabetes Genetic? Facts About Hereditary Risk

Diabetes is a complex set of diseases with no single cause. Genetic factors make some people more vulnerable to diabetes, particularly with the right environment. In addition, certain lifestyle factors can cause type 2 diabetes in individuals with no known family history. This complex interaction between genes, lifestyle, and environment points to the importance of taking steps to minimize individual diabetes risk. Is type 1 diabetes hereditary? Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease, which means that it causes the body's immune system to attack healthy cells. It is often called juvenile diabetes because most people are diagnosed in childhood, and the condition then lasts their lifetime. Doctors used to think type 1 diabetes was wholly genetic. Newer studies have shown, however, that children develop type 1 diabetes 3 percent of the time if their mother has the condition, 5 percent of the time if their father has it, or 8 percent if a sibling has type 1 diabetes. Consequently, researchers now believe that something in the environment has to trigger type 1 diabetes. Some risk factors include: Cold weather. People develop type 1 diabetes in winter more frequently than summer. It is also more common in places with cool climates. Viruses. Researchers think some viruses might activate type 1 diabetes in people who are otherwise vulnerable. Measles, mumps, coxsackie B virus, and rotavirus have been linked to type 1 diabetes. Research suggests that people who develop type 1 diabetes may have autoimmune antibodies in their blood for many years before showing symptoms. As a result, the disease may develop over time, or something may have to activate the autoimmune antibodies for symptoms to appear. Is type 2 diabetes hereditary? Type 2 diabetes is the more common form of the d Continue reading >>

Dtc Genetic Testing: Empowerment Or Endangerment | Learn Science At Scitable

Dtc Genetic Testing: Empowerment Or Endangerment | Learn Science At Scitable

There are many interesting things our DNA can tell us. Scientists have developed several different ways of querying our DNA for information. For example, they can look at the arrangement of our DNA in chromosomes (a karyotype). They can look for patterns in tiny portions of our genome called short tandem repeats (STRs), which can reveal our paternity and our ancestry. They can test for specific changes within a gene, or perform more comprehensive DNA sequencing of particular genes to look for changes that may cause disease. They can also scan our entire genome for single base changes and try to estimate what effect, if any, these changes will have on our health. As exciting as this new technology is, it must be noted that the technical ease with which any of these tests can be performed is inversely proportional to the power of the test result information. This, in turn, raises an important question: Just because testing can be done without the involvement of a health care provider, does that mean it should be done? This controversy lies at the heart of the burgeoning field of direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing. DTC genetic testing is a method of marketing genetic tests to consumers without the direct involvement of a health care provider, and it is gaining in popularity for a variety of reasons. Some consumers of DTC testing view it as another method of gathering medical information about themselves. Moreover, fears of genetic discrimination make DTC testing an attractive alternative to undergoing testing in a doctor's office, because it allows individuals to keep their test results out of their medical records. In the United States, it is hoped that passage of the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA) in May 2008 will reduce consumer fears in this ar Continue reading >>

Genetics Of Type 2 Diabetes

Genetics Of Type 2 Diabetes

Abstract BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex disorder that is affected by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Extensive efforts have been made to identify the disease-affecting genes to better understand the disease pathogenesis, find new targets for clinical therapy, and allow prediction of disease. CONTENT: Our knowledge about the genes involved in disease pathogenesis has increased substantially in recent years, thanks to genomewide association studies and international collaborations joining efforts to collect the huge numbers of individuals needed to study complex diseases on a population level. We have summarized what we have learned so far about the genes that affect T2D risk and their functions. Although more than 40 loci associated with T2D or glycemic traits have been reported and reproduced, only a minor part of the genetic component of the disease has been explained, and the causative variants and affected genes are unknown for many of the loci. SUMMARY: Great advances have recently occurred in our understanding of the genetics of T2D, but much remains to be learned about the disease etiology. The genetics of T2D has so far been driven by technology, and we now hope that next-generation sequencing will provide important information on rare variants with stronger effects. Even when variants are known, however, great effort will be required to discover how they affect disease risk. Type 2 diabetes (T2D)2 is a common complex disorder with an increasing prevalence worldwide. In 2010 it was estimated that 6.6% of the world population of individuals 20–79 years old have diabetes, and that T2D constitutes approximately 90% of diabetes cases (1). This number is expected to increase epidemically as a consequence of an aging population and changes Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease, characterized by an error in the immune system. The immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing pancreatic cells. The hormone insulin is required to enable the transfer of sugar from blood into the cells. The consequence of the lack of insulin is a disturbed metabolism of sugars in the body and an increased blood glucose concentration. Why should you have your DNA analysed for predisposition to diabetes mellitus? We check your genome in numerous sites. The analysis tells you whether you have an increased risk of developing this common metabolic disorder. How is type 1 diabetes mellitus prevented or treated? The treatment regimen of diabetes mellitus depends on insulin. The main treatment goal is to maintain a blood sugar within the normal range, thereby preventing the complications of the disease. Various insulin products are used. Insulin is administered subcutaneously by insulin injection or insulin pump. More detailed description about type 1 diabetes Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common diseases in the world. 2.8% of the world's population is affected by it; 10-20% of the affected individuals have type 1 diabetes mellitus and the remaining 80-90% suffers from type 2 diabetes mellitus. The white race is more commonly affected by the juvenile form, and men and women are equally affected. Type 1 diabetes mellitus is characterized by an error in the body's immune system. Under normal conditions, our body defends itself against bacteria and viruses by activating the immune system; in juvenile diabetes, however, the immune system attacks and destroys the body's own pancreatic cells which produce and secrete insulin. Consequently, the body begins to lack insulin, glucose cannot enter the cells and Continue reading >>

Genetic Screening For The Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes

Genetic Screening For The Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes

The prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes, representing >90% of all cases of diabetes, are increasing rapidly throughout the world. The International Diabetes Federation has estimated that the number of people with diabetes is expected to rise from 366 million in 2011 to 552 million by 2030 if no urgent action is taken. Furthermore, as many as 183 million people are unaware that they have diabetes (www.idf.org). Therefore, the identification of individuals at high risk of developing diabetes is of great importance and interest for investigators and health care providers. Type 2 diabetes is a complex disorder resulting from an interaction between genes and environment. Several risk factors for type 2 diabetes have been identified, including age, sex, obesity and central obesity, low physical activity, smoking, diet including low amount of fiber and high amount of saturated fat, ethnicity, family history, history of gestational diabetes mellitus, history of the nondiabetic elevation of fasting or 2-h glucose, elevated blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and different drug treatments (diuretics, unselected β-blockers, etc.) (1–3). There is also ample evidence that type 2 diabetes has a strong genetic basis. The concordance of type 2 diabetes in monozygotic twins is ~70% compared with 20–30% in dizygotic twins (4). The lifetime risk of developing the disease is ~40% in offspring of one parent with type 2 diabetes, greater if the mother is affected (5), and approaching 70% if both parents have diabetes. In prospective studies, we have demonstrated that first-degree family history is associated with twofold increased risk of future type 2 diabetes (1,6). The challenge has been to find genetic markers that explain the excess risk associated with family history of diabetes Continue reading >>

A Genetic Test For Diabetes Risk

A Genetic Test For Diabetes Risk

Will it help make people healthier? When I was a destitute graduate student several years ago, I decided to earn a quick $75 by signing up for what sounded like a relatively innocuous clinical study. An I.V. in my left arm would feed precise amounts of glucose and insulin into my bloodstream, while from my right arm a nurse would periodically draw blood to test for glucose. The study would assess how effectively my body responded to sugar, a measure that predicts risk for developing type 2 diabetes. As someone with a family history of the disease, I had long had a shapeless fear of it. A phone call from the nurse a few days later turned that vague anxiety into something much more concrete. The blood tests showed I was “insulin resistant,” meaning that my muscle, fat, and liver cells were not responding to insulin as efficiently as they should–significantly boosting my risk of diabetes. About 20.8 million people in the United States have diabetes, and another 50 million or more are at risk. Although the onset of the disease can be delayed–sometimes even prevented–with diet and exercise, efforts by doctors and public-health agencies to encourage healthy habits are making marginal progress at best. In the last several months, however, a potential new tool for diabetes prevention has come to market. A test developed by the Icelandic genomics company deCode Genetics and marketed to consumers by San Francisco-based DNA Direct determines whether people carry copies of a genetic variation that can greatly increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. It’s available for $500 through a website, and DNA Direct’s marketing material suggests that positive results will give people extra motivation to get fit. But critics say there is no evidence that this test will s Continue reading >>

Genetic Testing - Wikipedia

Genetic Testing - Wikipedia

This article is about genetic tests for disease and ancestry or biological relationships. For use in forensics, see DNA profiling . Genetic testing, also known as DNA testing, allows the determination of bloodlines and the genetic diagnosis of vulnerabilities to inherited diseases . In agriculture , a form of genetic testing known as progeny testing can be used to evaluate the quality of breeding stock . In population ecology , genetic testing can be used to track genetic strengths and vulnerabilities of species populations . In humans, genetic testing can be used to determine a child's parentage (genetic mother and father) or in general a person's ancestry or biological relationship between people. In addition to studying chromosomes to the level of individual genes, genetic testing in a broader sense includes biochemical tests for the possible presence of genetic diseases, or mutant forms of genes associated with increased risk of developing genetic disorders. Genetic testing identifies changes in chromosomes, genes, or proteins. [1] The variety of genetic tests has expanded throughout the years. In the past, the main genetic tests searched for abnormal chromosome numbers and mutations that lead to rare, inherited disorders. Today, tests involve analyzing multiple genes to determine the risk of developing specific diseases or disorders, with the more common diseases consisting of heart disease and cancer. [2] The results of a genetic test can confirm or rule out a suspected genetic condition or help determine a person's chance of developing or passing on a genetic disorder . Several hundred genetic tests are currently in use, and more are being developed. [3] [4] Because genetic mutations can directly affect the structure of the proteins they code for, testing for sp Continue reading >>

Effect Of Genetic Testing For Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus On Health Behaviors And Outcomes: Study Rationale, Development And Design

Effect Of Genetic Testing For Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus On Health Behaviors And Outcomes: Study Rationale, Development And Design

Abstract Type 2 diabetes is a prevalent chronic condition globally that results in extensive morbidity, decreased quality of life, and increased health services utilization. Lifestyle changes can prevent the development of diabetes, but require patient engagement. Genetic risk testing might represent a new tool to increase patients' motivation for lifestyle changes. Here we describe the rationale, development, and design of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) assessing the clinical and personal utility of incorporating type 2 diabetes genetic risk testing into comprehensive diabetes risk assessments performed in a primary care setting. Patients are recruited in the laboratory waiting areas of two primary care clinics and enrolled into one of three study arms. Those interested in genetic risk testing are randomized to receive either a standard risk assessment (SRA) for type 2 diabetes incorporating conventional risk factors plus upfront disclosure of the results of genetic risk testing ("SRA+G" arm), or the SRA alone ("SRA" arm). Participants not interested in genetic risk testing will not receive the test, but will receive SRA (forming a third, "no-test" arm). Risk counseling is provided by clinic staff (not study staff external to the clinic). Fasting plasma glucose, insulin levels, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference are measured at baseline and 12 months, as are patients' self-reported behavioral and emotional responses to diabetes risk information. Primary outcomes are changes in insulin resistance and BMI after 12 months; secondary outcomes include changes in diet patterns, physical activity, waist circumference, and perceived risk of developing diabetes. The utility, feasibility, and efficacy of providing patients with genetic risk information for commo Continue reading >>

Genetic Risk Profiling For Prediction Of Type 2 Diabetes

Genetic Risk Profiling For Prediction Of Type 2 Diabetes

Legend Table 2 : CLIA, Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988; DTC, direct-to-consumer. T2D is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. Diabetes is a leading cause of blindness, renal failure and limb amputation, and a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. [10] It is estimated that approximately 285 million people worldwide will have diabetes in 2010. This number is expected to increase by more than 50% in the next 20 years if no preventive strategies are implemented. [11] Diabetes is responsible for almost four million deaths worldwide in the 20-79 age group in 2010, representing 6.8% of global all-cause mortality in this age group. [11] Preventive interventions for T2D, including medication, weight loss and increased physical activity, can slow or even reverse the disease process. [12] For example, the United States Diabetes Prevention Program trial investigated the efficacy of intensive lifestyle interventions or metformin treatment compared to standard lifestyle recommendations. [13] Lifestyle intervention resulted in 58% T2D risk reduction compared to the placebo arm, at 2.8 years of follow-up. For the same follow-up, metformin resulted in 31% T2D risk reduction. [13] Genetic tests are claimed by the DTC companies to improve risk prediction and increase adherence to preventive interventions (e.g., Knowledge is self-empowering and it can motivate you towards taking steps that reduce other risk factors, which have been found to contribute to your genetic predisposition risk [14] ), thus helping to improve outcomes and reduce the costs and burden of disease for society (e.g., The conditions included in Navigenics analysis are those that are clinically actionable and th Continue reading >>

Is Diabetes Genetic?

Is Diabetes Genetic?

Diabetes is a complex disease. Several factors must come together for a person to develop Type 2 Diabetes. While genetics may influence whether you’ll get this disease or not, other factors like environmental risk factors and a sedentary lifestyle also play a huge role. So, is type 2 diabetes genetic? And if not, which type of diabetes is genetic? Those are the questions we are faced with today. And unfortunately, the answer is not that simple. Yes, genetics can play a role in increasing the risk for both Diabetes Type 1 as well as Diabetes Type 2, but genes alone will not determine whether you will develop diabetes or not. Will You Get Diabetes If It Runs In Your Family? If you’ve just been diagnosed with diabetes, chances are that you’re not the first person in your family who has diabetes. The details of whether diabetes can be inherited, and how this occurs, are not clear yet. About 10% of patients diagnosed with insulin-dependent Type 1 diabetes have a first degree relative with this type of diabetes. By first degree relative, we mean father, mother, sibling, twin and child. However, when it comes to the more common type of diabetes, which is Diabetes Type 2, it has a tendency to occur in families, but this is also not very strong and not predictable. A Swedish study on Metabolic Consequences of a Family History of Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus concluded that abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, and decreased resting metabolic rate are characteristic features of first-degree relatives of patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (in other words, Diabetes Type 2). And that the decrease in resting metabolic rate is partially related to the degree of abdominal obesity. Many doctors with clinical practice treating diabetes believe that thi Continue reading >>

Genetic Screening For The Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes

Genetic Screening For The Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes

Genetic Screening for the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Valeriya Lyssenko , MD, PHD1,2 and Markku Laakso , MD, PHD3 1Department of Clinical Sciences, Diabetes and Endocrinology, Lund University, Malm, Sweden 2Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark 1Department of Clinical Sciences, Diabetes and Endocrinology, Lund University, Malm, Sweden 2Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark 3Department of Medicine, University of Eastern Finland and Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland Corresponding author: Valeriya Lyssenko, [email protected] . Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer Copyright 2013 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. See for details. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. The prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes, representing >90% of all cases of diabetes, are increasing rapidly throughout the world. The International Diabetes Federation has estimated that the number of people with diabetes is expected to rise from 366 million in 2011 to 552 million by 2030 if no urgent action is taken. Furthermore, as many as 183 million people are unaware that they have diabetes ( www.idf.org ). Therefore, the identification of individuals at high risk of developing diabetes is of great importance and interest for investigators and health care providers. Type 2 diabetes is a complex disorder resulting from an interaction between genes and environment. Several risk factors for type 2 diabetes have been identified, including age, sex, obesity and central obesity, low physical activity, smoking, diet including low amount of fiber and high amount of saturated fat, ethnicity, family his Continue reading >>

Genetic Testing In Diabetes: Separating Hope From Hype

Genetic Testing In Diabetes: Separating Hope From Hype

By Kelly Close, Alexander Wolf, and Maxwell Votey Twitter summary: We sit down with diabetes luminary Dr. Anne Peters to talk genetic testing, #diabetes, + an upcoming revolution in individualized care When the genetic ancestry company 23andMe was launched in 2007, it came with a bold promise: for $999 (now $99) and a mail-order saliva sample, you could learn the secrets of your genome – your ancestry, your relatives, your ethnic background – essentially information telling you about what makes you, you. Check that out! Over time, 23andMe (named after the 23 pairs of human chromosomes) focused on an even loftier promise: learning how genetic information (DNA) can affect your long-term health. For instance, do you have a risk for Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s? 23andMe offered this service directly to consumers – without the supervision from a healthcare professional. It was trailblazing for sure. But in 2013 the FDA banned the company from marketing these health reports, citing uncertainty over whether the test was safe and accurate for patients. Indeed, many doctors and researchers questioned whether genetic data could truly tell people about disease risk, and whether the results might cause more harm than good. Without a healthcare professional’s interpretation, could patients understand 23andMe’s information? This debate dovetailed with larger ethical discussions about patient privacy, genetic discrimination, and a whole host of big picture questions about the access to one’s genome – discussions that continue today. Despite this rocky history, some healthcare professionals have not been deterred. Many continue to use 23andMe to help patients understand disease risk and even to inform therapeutic decisions. While 23andMe can’t provide a full medical a Continue reading >>

Is Type 2 Diabetes Caused By Genetics?

Is Type 2 Diabetes Caused By Genetics?

Diabetes is a complex condition. Several factors must come together for you to develop type 2 diabetes. For example, obesity and a sedentary lifestyle play a role. Genetics can also influence whether you’ll get this disease. If you’ve been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, there’s a good chance that you’re not the first person with diabetes in your family. According to the American Diabetes Association, your risk of developing type 2 diabetes is: 1 in 7 if one of your parents was diagnosed before the age of 50 1 in 13 if one of your parents was diagnosed after the age of 50 1 in 2, or 50 percent, if both your parents have diabetes Several gene mutations have been linked to the development of type 2 diabetes. These gene mutations can interact with the environment and each other to further increase your risk. Type 2 diabetes is caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Scientists have linked several gene mutations to a higher diabetes risk. Not everyone who carries a mutation will get diabetes. But many people with diabetes do have one or more of these mutations. It can be difficult to separate genetic risk from environmental risk. The latter is often influenced by your family members. For example, parents with healthy eating habits are likely to pass them on to the next generation. On the other hand, genetics plays a big part in determining weight. Sometimes behaviors can’t take all the blame. Studies of twins suggest that type 2 diabetes might be linked to genetics. These studies were complicated by the environmental influences that also affect type 2 diabetes risk. To date, numerous mutations have been shown to affect type 2 diabetes risk. The contribution of each gene is generally small. However, each additional mutation you have seems to increase your Continue reading >>

Genetic Risk Score Distinguishes Between Diabetes Types

Genetic Risk Score Distinguishes Between Diabetes Types

Genetic Risk Score Distinguishes Between Diabetes Types An investigational genetic risk score for type 1 diabetes can help in determining between types of diabetes in young adults and will help predict whether they will require insulin treatment within 3 years, a new study suggests. The findings were published online November 17 in Diabetes Care by Richard A Oram, MD, of the University of Exeter Medical School, United Kingdom, and colleagues. The increase in obesity has made it often difficult to distinguish between type 1 and type 2 diabetes, particularly in young adults aged between 20 and 45. Misdiagnosis in that age range is common: About 10% are initially thought to have type 2 and then fail on multiple oral treatments because they really have type 1. At the same time, about 10% are inappropriately put straight on insulin when they do not need it because they actually have type 2 diabetes. And monogenic diabetes usually maturity-onset diabetes of youth (MODY) is commonly misdiagnosed as both types. "The wrong diagnosis leads to the wrong treatment," principal investigator Andrew T Hattersley, MD, professor of molecular medicine at Exeter, told Medscape Medical News. Currently available diagnostic tests have limitations. Antibody tests are not always specific for type 1 diabetes, and islet-cell autoantibody levels are typically lower in adults than in children and may diminish over time. And C-peptide levels may not identify type 1 diabetes if the person experiences a brief resurgence of beta-cell function, a so-called "honeymoon" period. "A big advantage is that the genetic test is unaltered over time.At present I think this testing will be very helpful when other testing or clinical criteria are opposing or equivocal," Dr Hattersley said. The new test is availabl Continue reading >>

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