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Can Diabetes Cause Brain Lesions

Diabetes Increases Brain Damage Caused By Severe Hypoglycemia

Diabetes Increases Brain Damage Caused By Severe Hypoglycemia

Go to: Insulin-induced severe hypoglycemia causes brain damage. The hypothesis to be tested was that diabetes portends to more extensive brain tissue damage following an episode of severe hypoglycemia. Nine-week-old male streptozotocin-diabetic (DIAB; n = 10) or vehicle-injected control (CONT; n = 7) Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to hyperinsulinemic (0.2 U·kg−1·min−1) severe hypoglycemic (10–15 mg/dl) clamps while awake and unrestrained. Groups were precisely matched for depth and duration (1 h) of severe hypoglycemia (CONT 11 ± 0.5 and DIAB 12 ± 0.2 mg/dl, P = not significant). During severe hypoglycemia, an equal number of episodes of seizure-like activity were noted in both groups. One week later, histological analysis demonstrated extensive neuronal damage in regions of the hippocampus, especially in the dentate gyrus and CA1 regions and less so in the CA3 region (P < 0.05), although total hippocampal damage was not different between groups. However, in the cortex, DIAB rats had significantly (2.3-fold) more dead neurons than CONT rats (P < 0.05). There was a strong correlation between neuronal damage and the occurrence of seizure-like activity (r2 > 0.9). Separate studies conducted in groups of diabetic (n = 5) and nondiabetic (n = 5) rats not exposed to severe hypoglycemia showed no brain damage. In summary, under the conditions studied, severe hypoglycemia causes brain damage in the cortex and regions within the hippocampus, and the extent of damage is closely correlated to the presence of seizure-like activity in nonanesthetized rats. It is concluded that, in response to insulin-induced severe hypoglycemia, diabetes uniquely increases the vulnerability of specific brain areas to neuronal damage. Keywords: Fluoro-Jade, insulin, seizure, streptozoto Continue reading >>

Hypo's And Long Term Brain Damage

Hypo's And Long Term Brain Damage

Diabetes Forum The Global Diabetes Community Find support, ask questions and share your experiences. Join the community I don't know whether anybody can help me with this question, but I hope so. I have been type 1 since 1986, and since diagnosis I have had many hypos's. 5 years ago I was diagnosed with pernicious anaemia after being referred to a stroke clinic at hospital who found I had low B12 and folate levels. I was age 41, and had real signs of dementia, absolute confusion and forgetfulness. I then went on to having 13 weekly B12 injections. 6 weeks ago my new GP undiagnosed the pernicious anaemia as 5 years ago I was not given an Intrinsic Factor test, and one he did for me came back negative. My B12 injections have now been stopped, and all signs of demntia are coming back.......well, today the GP said that he had been reading up on diabetes, hypos and longterm brain damage......and he believes I have damaged my brain from previously having many hypo's.....when I asked him what he classified as hypo, he said that it was basically any level for a type 1 diabetic that measured under 5.0 when testing BG. He said that he thinks my confusion and forgetfulness may be down to having hypos......has anybody ever heard of this?? He also suggested that although my sever hypo's have had a marked improvement for a few years, that the damage may result years later from having bad hypo's. He has ignored the fact that after my B12 injections started my brain acted a lot better, and he has also ignored the fact that B12 injections can help with diabetic neuropathy, which I also have symptoms of. Has anybody ever had it suggested to them that hypo's can cause longterm brain damage? There's quite a vociferous thread active at the moment on the subject of hypos, but if anyone ever Continue reading >>

High Blood Pressure And Diabetes Linked To Cognitive Decline

High Blood Pressure And Diabetes Linked To Cognitive Decline

High Blood Pressure and Diabetes Linked to Cognitive Decline High blood pressure and diabetes can damage the brain and lead to memory loss. High blood pressure and diabetes have become a national epidemic that contributes to millions of deaths annually. According to the American Heart Association, adults with diabetes aretwo to four timesmore likely to have heart disease or a stroke thanadults without diabetes. Heart diseases and stroke are the leading causes of death and disability among people withtype 2 diabetes. In fact, at least 65 percent of people with diabetes die from some form of heart disease or stroke. High blood pressure (hypertension) has long been recognized as a major risk factor for cardiovasculardisease. When someone has both hypertension and diabeteswhich is a common combinationhis or her risk for cardiovascular disease doubles. High Blood Pressure and Diabetes Create a Double Whammy In addition to the increased risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke caused by high blood pressure and diabetes, new research has found that these conditions also lead to brain shrinkage and cognitive decline. Two recent studies have discovered that people in middle age are particularly susceptible to the cognitive impacts of high blood pressure and diabetes. A March 2014 study from the Mayo Clinic found that people who develop older age onset diabetes and have high blood pressure in middle age are more likely to have brain cell loss and other damage to the brain. This brain damage resulted in a higher percentage of problems with memory and thinking skills than in people who didn't have diabetes or high blood pressure. The Mayo Clinic study, titled Association of Type 2 Diabetes with Brain Atrophy and Cognitive Impairment, was published in the online issue of the journ Continue reading >>

How Diabetes Harms The Brain

How Diabetes Harms The Brain

TIME Health For more, visit TIME Health. When blood sugar levels start to climb in diabetes, a number of body systems are harmed—and that list includes the brain, since studies have linked diabetes with a higher risk of stroke and dementia. Now, a new study published in the journal Neurology reports that changes in blood vessel activity in the brains of diabetics may lead to drops in cognitive functions and their ability to perform daily activities. Dr. Vera Novak, associate professor of neurology at Harvard Medical School and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and her colleagues followed a group of 65 older people. About half had type 2 diabetes, and half did not. After two years, the diabetic patients had lower scores on cognitive tests compared to when they began, while people without diabetes showed little change on the tests. MORE: The Strange Way a Diabetes Drug May Help Skin Scars What drove the decline, says Novak, were changes in the brains of the diabetic patients. Diabetes can cause blood vessels to be less responsive to the ebb and flow of demand in different parts of the brain. Normally, flexible vessels will swell slightly to increase blood flow and oxygen to areas that are more intensely active, such as regions involved in memory or higher reasoning during intellectual tasks. But unchecked blood sugar can make these vessels less malleable and therefore less responsive. “When doing any task, from cognition to moving your fingers, you need to increase blood flow to that specific area of the brain,” says Novak. “With diabetes, however, that vasodilation ability is reduced, so you have fewer resources to perform any task.” MORE: Statins May Seriously Increase Diabetes Risk In the study, Novak measured the changes in the flexibility of the blood v Continue reading >>

Type 3 Diabetes | Elevated Blood Sugar Can Lead To 'brain Diabetes' - Dlife

Type 3 Diabetes | Elevated Blood Sugar Can Lead To 'brain Diabetes' - Dlife

At first blush, it may be hard to imagine a connection between type 2 diabetes and Alzheimers disease or other forms of dementia. But its realand its so strong that some experts are now referring to it as type 3 diabetes or brain diabetes. By any name, its the progression from type 2 diabetes to Alzheimers disease and other forms of dementia marked by memory deficits and a dramatic decline in cognitive function. While all people with diabetes have a 60 percent increased risk of developing any type of dementia, including Alzheimers, recent research suggests that women with type 2 diabetes have a 19 percent greater risk of a certain type, known as vascular dementia (which is caused by problems with blood supply to the brain) than men do. Overall, older adults with type 2 diabetes suffer from greater declines in working memory and executive functioning (a set of mental processes that involve planning, organization, controlling attention, and flexible thinking) than their peers do. Granted, not everyone who has type 2 diabetes will develop Alzheimers disease, vascular dementia, or any other form of dementia, and there are many people who have Alzheimers or another form of dementia who dont have diabetes, notes Gary Small, M.D., a professor of psychiatry at the UCLA Semel Institute and author of The Alzheimers Prevention Program. But the reality is, these risk factors tend to add up: If you have diabetes, that doubles the risk of developing Alzheimers. If you have a first-degree relativea parent or sibling, for examplewith Alzheimers, that doubles your risk. And if you have poorly controlled blood pressure, abdominal (a.k.a., central) obesity, or sleep apnea, your risk of developing dementia is increased even more. As far as how type 2 diabetes increases the risk of dementi Continue reading >>

Ask D'mine: Do Lows Cause Brain Damage, Does Diabetes Cause Cramps?

Ask D'mine: Do Lows Cause Brain Damage, Does Diabetes Cause Cramps?

Diabetes is both painful and a pain to deal with, so it's no surprise to us that it can affect our body in mysterious ways. In this edition of our diabetes advice column, Ask D'Mine, our host, veteran type 1 and diabetes community educator, Wil Dubois fills us in on whether or not lows can cause any permanent brain damage (yikes!) and whether cramps are yet another diabetes complication. {Need help navigating life with diabetes? Email us at [email protected]} Michael from South Carolina, type 1, writes: My wife can tell if my BG is below 50. "You're getting stupid, better check your glucose." I realize my brain requires glucose to function, but have there been any studies on long-term damage due to prolonged low BG? Not that I believe I'm losing it, but just curious. [email protected] D'Mine answers: Actually, when my wife read your question, she said, "If hypos cause brain damage that would explain a lot." She was just teasing, of course. I think. Then again, if I'm brain damaged, I'd be the last to know, right? So you're correct, that many of us get "stupid" when we get low. The brain is fueled by sugar and when the sugar is low the brain doesn't work right. But is it more like having a low battery or more like drowning? Are we losing brain cells every time we go hypo? In virtually all the clinical literature about lows you can find a line something like this: hypoglycemia can lead to seizures, unconsciousness, brain damage, and death. And everyone agrees that the deeper you go, the longer you stay down, the more often it happens, and the older you are—the greater the likelihood of brain damage. The most likely types of brain damage from hypos can result in mild paralysis on one side of the body, memory loss, diminished language skills, decreased abstract thinking cap Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Your Brain: Understand The Connection & Safeguard Your Brain

Diabetes And Your Brain: Understand The Connection & Safeguard Your Brain

Diabetes is characterized by high blood sugar levels that result from the body’s inability to produce and/or use insulin. As can be imagined, these increased blood sugar levels have a harmful impact on the whole body, and the brain is no exception. The human brain is a complex organ, and hence is very sensitive to the harmful effects of high or blood sugar levels, since glucose and oxygen are the main fuel for brain function. Now diabetes is a double edged sword — both hyperglycemia (or high blood glucose that comes with poorly managed diabetes) as well as hypoglycemia (or low blood glucose that can be caused by diabetes treatment) can negatively impact the brain. For diabetics, chance of brain related complications is just one more reason to keep your diabetes under control. Effects of High Blood Glucose On The Brain High levels of blood glucose entering the brain cause damage to blood vessels over time. The brain’s white matter is the area where nerves are linked and communicate in order to carry out every day activities of life. Think of the white matter as the subway of the brain, providing the essential connectivity, and uniting different regions of the brain into networks that perform various mental operations. When excess blood sugar levels damage the small blood vessels of the brain, this connectivity is disrupted and the result is often a dramatic disturbance of normal mental function. Over time, this damage causes changes in thinking, known as vascular cognitive impairment or vascular dementia. Several scientific research studies have found that the longer you have diabetes, the more of a chance there is of cognitive impairment. A research done at Harvard Medical School, Boston found evidence that “Type 2 diabetes is associated with cortical and subcor Continue reading >>

Effects Of Glucose On The Brain

Effects Of Glucose On The Brain

Though there is a great amount of attention given to the effects of diabetes on the peripheral nervous system, it is important not to overlook the disease’s effects on our brains. While other organs in the body may rely on alternative sources of energy, such as fatty acids, the brain relies almost solely on glucose, using ketones as a last resort. For this reason, the blood brain barrier is rich in Glut1 active glucose transporters, and over 99% of the glucose that passes it is used by neurons and glia. Thus, the metabolic efficiency and continuous demands of the brain render it uniquely susceptible to fluctuations in glucose concentration in the body. As we discuss in this chapter, hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia both can have detrimental effects on cognition as well as mood. These effects are evident in people with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. The most common manifestations of cognitive deficit are neural slowing, attention deficit, and executive functioning. Patients with type 2 diabetes in particular do more poorly in measures of learning and memory [1]. It is important to note that in a hospital setting patients without diabetes can become hyperglycemic, and these patients have an increased mortality risk [2]. Stress induced hyperglycemia in patients without diabetes can occur during periods of acute illness and may be due to hormonal cascades, particularly increases in epinephrine, cortisol, growth hormone and glucagon [3]. Patients may have “pre-diabetes”, or may have frank diabetes that is undiagnosed. Among hyperglycemic patients in general medicine wards, one study found that 12% were undiagnosed, and that they had 18.3 times the mortality rate of their normoglycemic peers. These patients also had longer hospital stays, were admitted to the ICU more often, Continue reading >>

How Does Diabetes Affect The Brain?

How Does Diabetes Affect The Brain?

Leszek Czupryniak, MD, PhD; Boris Mankovsky, MD The following is an edited transcript of a conversation between 2 diabetes experts at the recent annual meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Leszek Czupryniak, MD, PhD: Hello. My name is Leszek Czupryniak and I'm here in Berlin at the 48th annual meeting of the EASD. I'm speaking with Dr. Boris Mankovsky, Professor of Endocrinology at Kiev University in the Ukraine. Hello, Boris. Boris Mankovsky, MD: Hello. Nice to be here. Dr. Czupryniak: Boris, you're an expert in diabetic neuropathy, and basically all of your research focuses on how diabetes affects the neurologic system. Just before this meeting, you attended another meeting, the EASD Diabetic Neuropathy Study Group. Combining all that you've heard and seen at both meetings, what can you tell us about the latest research on diabetic neuropathy? This feature requires the newest version of Flash. You can download it here . Dr. Mankovsky: There have been some very interesting discussions. One of them, unfortunately, focused on the failures in recent clinical trials; we had many promising new drugs to treat patients with diabetic neuropathy, but unfortunately, most of those clinical trials failed. So, we spent some time talking about why that happened, and we concluded that we probably had selected the wrong endpoints to assess the real efficacy of the medications. In treating diabetic neuropathy, we usually have to distinguish between disease-modifying medications, which would affect the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy, and symptom-modifying medications. Of course, it would be great to have medications that could relieve patients' pain and also modify the natural course of diabetic neuropathy. But unfortunately, so far we don't have s Continue reading >>

Glucose Control Levels, Ischaemic Brain Lesions, And Hyperinsulinaemia Were Associated With Cognitive Dysfunction In Diabetic Elderly

Glucose Control Levels, Ischaemic Brain Lesions, And Hyperinsulinaemia Were Associated With Cognitive Dysfunction In Diabetic Elderly

SIRType 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in the elderly is associated with impaired cognitive functioning and an increased risk of dementia [ 14 ]. The pathogenesis of the impairment, however, remains unclear. Our previous study indicated that the performance of a cognitive functional test was positively correlated with glycohaemoglobin, HbA1c, which is an index of glucose control [ 2 ]. Recently, several studies suggested that use of anti-diabetic medication was associated with improved cognitive function [ 5 ], or prevented a decline in cognitive functioning [ 6 ]. Several reports have indicated that hyperinsulinaemia is associated with cognitive dysfunction and dementia in the general population [ 7 , 8 ]. A small preliminary study reported that insulin sensitivity measured by the euglycemic insulin clamp method was inversely correlated with the cognitive functional test score [ 9 ]. Many studies have reported that the diabetic elderly have ischaemic brain lesions such as lacunae infarctions, white matter lesions and paraventricular lesions even without neurological symptoms [ 10 ]. Several reports have also suggested that these ischaemic lesions were associated with cognitive dysfunction in the diabetic elderly [ 11 , 12 ]. In this study, we analysed the association of HbA1c, hyperinsulinaemia and ischaemic brain changes to DM-related cognitive dysfunction by performing an assessment of subjects' profiles including a brain imaging assessment by MRI. For the present study, we recruited consecutively 77 patients with type 2 DM from the Chubu Rosai Hospital's Diabetic Center. They ranged in age from 65 to 85 years. The exclusion criteria were as follows: malignancy, inflammatory disease (such as collagen disease, thyroid disease and viral hepatitis), severe microvascular comp Continue reading >>

Are Brain Lesions Deadly? Causes (diseases) & Types

Are Brain Lesions Deadly? Causes (diseases) & Types

"Lesions on the brain" is a phrase that many people use to find information about brain problems. The phrase is non-specific and indicates that the searcher may desire an introduction to this vast, highly detailed, and complicated subject. The design of this article will be to introduce the readers to a series of topics about brain lesions, and to provide them with some key terms and ways to delve deeper into the topic if they so desire. First, however, the reader needs to understand what is meant by "lesions on the brain". The term "lesion" is derived from the Latin word "laesio" meaning injury. Medically speaking, the term lesion refers to any abnormal tissue found on or in a person or organism usually caused by disease(s) or injury. Consequently, the "lesions on the brain" phrase covers all topics related to abnormal tissue that can be found on or in the brain. A presentation of topics introducing the reader to types, causes, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, complications, prevention, and prognosis for brain lesions will be presented. Finally, this article cannot cover every brain lesion (there are over 120 different named brain tumors alone), so the reader is advised once they have read this article, to then go to the links and references in this article to obtain more detailed information about specific diseases. The main symptom of a coma is unconsciousness. A patient in a coma will have no conscious response to external stimuli and may appear to be in a deep sleep. The patient in a coma may exhibit spontaneous body movements. Patients may shake or jerk abnormally, and the eyes may move. If the coma is severe, even basic body functions such as breathing may be affected. Brain lesion types are vast, but there are terms and categories that help to clas Continue reading >>

Can Diabetes Damage The Brain?

Can Diabetes Damage The Brain?

Long-term exposure to increased glucose levels is known to cause damage to the kidneys, retinas and other organs. Now, it appears that long-term exposure to hyperglycemia may also have significant and measurable effects on the brain, and greater efforts are needed to evaluate and monitor patients with diabetes for dementia and Alzheimer's disease, according to experts.  “I think we all need to have our antenna up. It is a risk, and we need to get our patients into evaluation and treatment centers when we begin to see the problem,” said endocrinologist Janet McGill, MD, who is a professor of medicine in the division of endocrinology, metabolism and lipid research at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. “Do we need wholesale random screening? That may not be cost-effective, but we need to be aware of the early signs.” A recent review published in the American Journal of Psychiatry has found that individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are at higher risk for developing dementia if they have diabetes or psychiatric symptoms such as depression.1 Researchers at University College London analyzed data from 62 separate studies, following a total of 15,950 people diagnosed with MCI. They found that among patients with MCI, those with diabetes were 65% more likely to progress to dementia. The review further suggests incorporating appropriate preventative strategies to lessening the increasing societal burden of dementia in older adults with diabetes. Another study conducted by researchers at the Mayo Clinic has also found that individuals who develop diabetes and high blood pressure (BP) in middle age are more likely to have brain cell loss and other damage to the brain. In addition, patients with diabetes were found to be more likely to have Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Your Brain

Diabetes And Your Brain

By Terri D'Arrigo WebMD Feature Your brain is a finely tuned organ. But it’s sensitive to the amount of sugar, or glucose, it receives as fuel. Whether you have type 1 or type 2, both the high blood glucose of uncontrolled diabetes and the low blood glucose that sometimes comes with diabetes treatment can affect your brain. The Dangers of High Blood Glucose Some of diabetes’ effects on the brain aren’t obvious right away, especially when they are related to high blood sugar. “With diabetes, you have an increased risk of damage to blood vessels over time, including damage to the small blood vessels in the brain. This damage affects the brain’s white matter,” says Joseph C. Masdeu, MD, PhD, of the Houston Methodist Neurological Institute. White matter is the part of the brain where nerves talk to one another. When the nerves in the brain are damaged, you can have changes in thinking called vascular cognitive impairment or vascular dementia. Vascular cognitive impairment can happen with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes, but there are some differences in risk, says Joel Zonszein, MD, director of the Clinical Diabetes Center at Montefiore Medical Center in New York. “The longer you have diabetes [in general], the more of a chance there is of developing dementia, but we see much less of it in people with type 1 whose diabetes is well-controlled,” he says. People with type 2 may face a double-whammy because they tend to have other problems that also can cause blood vessel damage. “These patients tend to be less metabolically fit overall, with low HDL [“good”] cholesterol, high triglycerides, and high blood pressure, and they are more likely to be obese,” Zonszein says. Diabetes can combine with these other problems to create inflammation that damages bl Continue reading >>

Diabetes & The Brain - Role, Effect Of Hypoglycemia On Cognitive Functions

Diabetes & The Brain - Role, Effect Of Hypoglycemia On Cognitive Functions

The brain is susceptible to damage from diabetes The brain is a hugely important organ which helps to be aware of, understand and interact with our surroundings and others. As with many of our organs, the brain is susceptible to damage as a result of diabetes. What are the parts of the brain comprised of? The brain is a very complex organ, housed in our skull, which is made up of a number of different areas: Frontal lobe: responsible for thought, learning and behaviour Parietal lobe: responsible for processing sensory experiences and understanding Temporal lobe: responsible for memory and certain emotions Occipital lobe: responsible for processing visual information Cerebellum: responsible for coordination of movement, balance and some reflex actions Brain stem: responsible for regulating breathing, heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature The skull helps to protect us from external blows which could damage brain cells. The blood-brain barrier is a membrane which protects the brain from any harmful pathogens that may be present in the blood. The brain requires nutrients, however, such as oxygen and glucose, so the blood-brain plays an important role in enabling good nutrients in and keeping harmful cells away. The brain helps us to makes sense of what we see, hear, smell, taste and touch, and helps us to think, learn and understand. What’s more, our brains allow us to develop and exert our personality. Cognitive function is the process of perceiving or comprehending ideas. Research studies indicate that type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes are associated with cognitive impairment. This doesn’t mean that everyone with diabetes will have reduced cognitive ability but statistically, the risk of cognitive impairment is higher. A meta-analysis of studies carried o Continue reading >>

Brain Atrophy, Lesions Found In Type 1 Diabetics; May Indicate Cognitive Impairment In Diabetics Begins Early

Brain Atrophy, Lesions Found In Type 1 Diabetics; May Indicate Cognitive Impairment In Diabetics Begins Early

BUFFALO, N.Y. -- Cerebral atrophy is common in young persons with juvenile-onset diabetes, and there is evidence that small blood vessels within the brain's white matter are damaged in these patients, neurologists at the University at Buffalo and the University of Western Ontario have found. Both findings, which are preliminary, may be important in understanding the development of cognitive impairment seen in older diabetics, said Richard K.T. Chan, M.D., assistant professor of neurology and neurosurgery in the UB School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences and first author on the study. Vladimir Hachinski, M.D., of the University of Western Ontario, is co-investigator. "Although brain involvement in diabetes has been suspected, this is the first study that approaches the problem in a systematic manner," Chan said. "Persons with type 1 diabetes comprise a unique population, because insulin was introduced only about 50 years ago. These people now are entering the golden years, and their quality of life can be significantly impacted by impaired brain function." Results of the research were presented at the annual meeting of the American Academy of Neurology held recently in Honolulu. The investigations are part of the Study of Cognitive Impairment and MRI Abnormality among Diabetics (SCIMAD) being conducted by the two institutions. The goal is to determine the prevalence of cognitive impairment among young, otherwise healthy patients with juvenile-onset diabetes and to correlate impairment with neuroimaging results and clinical indicators. This disease also is called type 1, or insulin-dependent diabetes, because the primary symptom is the inability of the pancreas to produce insulin, requiring patients to receive insulin injections throughout their lifetime. Type 2, or ad Continue reading >>

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