Abnormalities Of The Exocrine Pancreas In Type 1 Diabetes
Go to: Normal Pancreatic Anatomy and Function The exocrine pancreas unit is composed of acinar, centroacinar, and ductal cells forming the acinus. The exocrine region is divided by connective tissue into lobules containing hundreds of acinar units. Acinar cells secrete more than 20 different enzymes including proteases, lipases, amylases, ribonucleases, and hydrolases into the intralobular ducts, which drain via the main pancreatic duct into the duodenum . These enzymes are stored in zymogen granules as proenzymes that are activated within the duodenum . Exocrine secretion is tightly regulated by the autonomic nervous system in response to a meal and is mediated by numerous hormonal secretagogues and neurotransmitters [8, 9]. One of the most important mediators of exocrine secretion is cholecystokinin (CCK), secreted by I cells in the small intestine and by neurons in the brain . CCK activates sensory afferent neurons in the duodenal mucosa, which in turn stimulates a vago-vagal reflex and the subsequent release of acetylcholine, ultimately leading to exocrine secretion by acinar cells. Exocrine secretory activity is complex and involves many different molecules and activating/inhibitory pathways that are outside of the focus of this review [7, 8, 11]. In contrast to the exocrine portion of the pancreas, only a small proportion of the entire pancreas (1–2 %) is comprised of neuroendocrine cells located in the highly vascularized and innervated islets of Langerhans . Islet neuroendocrine cells are critical for multiple metabolic and physiologic functions of the body. Several hormones, neurotransmitters, and peptides are derived from the islets and these agents could also play important roles in the homeostasis of the exocrine pancreas. Insulin-producing be Continue reading >>
What Could Be Causing My Pancreatitis?
I recently landed in the hospital for five days because of pancreatitis. I am the atypical patient for this condition. I have type 1 diabetes. I do not drink, and my gallbladder was removed in 2003. CT scans showed a seriously inflamed pancreas, but doctors could not find a reason why. Any ideas? I have never hurt so bad in all my life, and they say since they can't find a reason for it, it can happen again with no warning just like this last one. Please help. The pancreas is an organ in the mid-abdomen that secretes digestive fluids through the pancreatic duct into the small bowel. These fluids contain enzymes that break down food as part of the digestive process. Pancreatitis is an inflammation of the organ as these fluids start damaging the organ itself. I cannot overemphasize how incredibly painful this condition can be. Acute pancreatitis begins as a sudden onset of sharp pain in the mid- and upper abdomen. Some relief can often be obtained by bending forward. Most people have nausea and vomiting with it. It requires hospitalization with nothing to eat or drink, hydration and narcotics to control pain. An episode of pancreatitis often goes away after a few days, but some patients have recurrence. The most common cause of pancreatitis is gallstone obstruction of the duct leading from the pancreas to the small bowel, causing the fluids to back up into the pancreas. The second most common cause is alcohol damage to the pancreas, often after binge drinking. A third of pancreatitis episodes are due to other causes, which in most cases will never be identified. Certain drugs such as steroids, some anti-hypertensives such as angiotensin converting enzymes, and even antibiotics and anti-virals can cause pancreatitis. Trauma to the abdomen can also cause pancreatitis. Some Continue reading >>
Symptoms & Causes Of Diabetes
What are the symptoms of diabetes? Symptoms of diabetes include increased thirst and urination increased hunger fatigue blurred vision numbness or tingling in the feet or hands sores that do not heal unexplained weight loss Symptoms of type 1 diabetes can start quickly, in a matter of weeks. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly—over the course of several years—and can be so mild that you might not even notice them. Many people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms. Some people do not find out they have the disease until they have diabetes-related health problems, such as blurred vision or heart trouble. What causes type 1 diabetes? Type 1 diabetes occurs when your immune system, the body’s system for fighting infection, attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. Scientists think type 1 diabetes is caused by genes and environmental factors, such as viruses, that might trigger the disease. Studies such as TrialNet are working to pinpoint causes of type 1 diabetes and possible ways to prevent or slow the disease. What causes type 2 diabetes? Type 2 diabetes—the most common form of diabetes—is caused by several factors, including lifestyle factors and genes. Overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you are not physically active and are overweight or obese. Extra weight sometimes causes insulin resistance and is common in people with type 2 diabetes. The location of body fat also makes a difference. Extra belly fat is linked to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and heart and blood vessel disease. To see if your weight puts you at risk for type 2 diabetes, check out these Body Mass Index (BMI) charts. Insulin resistance Type 2 diabetes usually begins with insulin resista Continue reading >>
Background The bile duct and main pancreatic duct meet at the sphincter of Oddi before emptying their contents into the small intestine. In 1856 Claude Bernard suggested that pancreatitis might be due to reflux of bile into the pancreatic duct. In 1901 Eugene Opie, the father of pancreatic pathology, described two patients in whom pancreatitis was due to blockage of the pancreatic duct by gall stones, and proposed that pancreatitis was caused by migration of gall stones down the bile duct. Acute pancreatitis is of interest to diabetologists for three main reasons. First, because it may be a cause of diabetes. Second, because people with type 2 diabetes may be at increased risk of acute pancreatitis. Third, because acute pancreatitis has been associated with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-based therapies. This section considers acute pancreatitis as a cause of diabetes. Epidemiology There are about 200,000 cases each year in the USA, and the incidence of acute pancreatitis is estimated at 35–45 per 100,000 per year in California and rising. A rising incidence has also be reported in Europe. The incidence may vary from one population to another in proportion to obesity (predisposing to gallstones), alcohol consumption and possibly ethnicity. Clinical features The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis is based upon the triad of symptoms, enzyme elevation and radiological signs. Severe cases are readily diagnosed, but the diagnosis may be open to differences of clinical interpretation at the milder end of the spectrum, thus complicating estimates of its incidence. Acute pancreatitis typically presents with severe upper abdominal pain radiating through to the back and prostration. On palpation the abdomen shows tenderness but not rigidity (sometimes referred to as the 'plato Continue reading >>
Pancreatitis And Diabetes
Tweet Pancreatitis is a condition in which the pancreas becomes inflamed, which can be very painful in the short term and could lead to complications including secondary diabetes. Alcohol and gall stones are the main risk factors for pancreatitis but some medications, including certain diabetes medications, may increase the risk of pancreatitis. Types of pancreatitis Acute pancreatitis is when the pancreas becomes inflamed for up to a few days. Chronic pancreatitis is if inflammation of the pancreas persists over a long period of time, say years. Symptoms The main symptom of acute pancreatitis is a strong pain in the upper abdomen, where the pancreas is located. Other symptoms that may be present include: nausea vomiting or diarrhoea fever If you have chronic pancreatitis you may experience regular pain within the upper part of the abdomen and possibly some of the following symptoms, caused by difficulty in digesting food properly: Stomach cramps Bloating and wind Foul smelling stools Unexplained weight loss Jaundice Seek medical help if you experience sudden severe pain in your abdomen. Causes The NHS notes that pancreatitis may be caused by a digestive enzyme becoming prematurely activated within the pancreas, causing the pancreas to become inflamed. Having two or more alcoholic drinks a day Gallstones An automimmune response Hypertriglyceridemia – high levels of triglyceride blood fats in the blood Genetic mutation of MCP-1 gene The following medications may also raise the risk of pancreatitis: Oestrogens Corticosteroids Thiazide diuretics Certain diabetes medications – see below for more info Treatment Treatment for pancreatitis will need to be carried out in hospital. You may need to be given oxygen and intravenous fluids, and may be given strong painkillers, s Continue reading >>
What Is Chronic Pancreatitis-associated Diabetes?
Note: This article is part of our library of resources for Forms of Diabetes. Chronic pancreatitis-associated diabetes is caused by chronic pancreatitis, a prolonged inflammation of the pancreas, which causes extensive damage to exocrine tissue. When acute hyperglycemia develops, the islet cells of the organ become damaged and can no longer produce insulin, causing the person to become insulin dependent for life. According to the NHS, this occurs in around 50% of people with chronic pancreatitis (Diabetes.co.uk). In rare cases, if the pancreas is so severely damaged, parts of organ may need to be removed. Chronic pancreatitis may occur after an episode of acute pancreatitis. What are symptoms chronic pancreatitis? Acute upper abdominal pain radiating to the back Swollen and tender abdomen Vomiting Nausea Fever Increased heart rate Sometimes weight loss What causes chronic pancreatitis? Anyone can get chronic pancreatitis, but it is more prevalent in people with these risk factors (WebMD): Heavy alcohol drinking for a long time Gallstones Cystic fibrosis (hereditary) Medications Infections Surgery Trauma Metabolic disorders Cause is unknown (about 20-30% of cases) Read After They Took My Pancreas by Wanda Morrow Clevenger. Continue reading >>
Does Pancreatitis Cause Diabetes?
Here is a common question – does Pancreatitis cause Diabetes? I have both illnesses and have always often wondered whether the reason that I developed Diabetes was because of the Pancreatitis. It seems logical to ask can Pancreatitis cause Diabetes since it would seem that damaging your Pancreas enough would affects the insulin producing cells that are located there. To get the answer to – does Pancreatitis cause Diabetes – you have to first understand what the Pancreas does for our bodies. The Pancreas The Pancreas is an amazing organ located behind the stomach in the upper abdomen. The head of the Pancreas is located on the right side of the stomach and connects to the duodenum (the first section of the small intestines) via the pancreatic duct. It’s only about 6″ long but accomplishes two important tasks in your body. Exocrine Function First, the exocrine function is where the Pancreas secretes enzymes into the small intestines. These enzymes help to continue the digesting of food that you eat when it passes out of the stomach and into the small intestines. When the Pancreas is damaged it can often make less of these enzymes which is why many people who suffer from Pancreatitis complain of a gassy bloated feeling and can have trouble with proper nutrition. Endocrine Function The second, the endocrine function, is where the Pancreas produces insulin and glucagon that are then released directly into your bloodstream as they are needed. Once in the bloodstream these two hormones are an important part of the process that your body uses to regulate its blood sugars. When the Pancreas gets damaged enough it can make it harder for it to produce those hormones and cause problems that can lead to Diabetes. Understanding Diabetes Diabetes is a disease that makes it h Continue reading >>
The Connection Between Diabetes And Your Pancreas
A direct connection exists between the pancreas and diabetes. The pancreas is an organ deep in your abdomen behind your stomach. It’s an important part of your digestive system. The pancreas produces enzymes and hormones that help you digest food. One of those hormones, insulin, is necessary to regulate glucose. Glucose refers to sugars in your body. Every cell in your body needs glucose for energy. Think of insulin as a lock to the cell. Insulin must open the cell to allow it to use glucose for energy. If your pancreas doesn’t make enough insulin or doesn’t make good use of it, glucose builds up in your bloodstream, leaving your cells starved for energy. When glucose builds up in your bloodstream, this is known as hyperglycemia. The symptoms of hyperglycemia include thirst, nausea, and shortness of breath. Low glucose, known as hypoglycemia, also causes many symptoms, including shakiness, dizziness, and loss of consciousness. Hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia can quickly become life-threatening. Each type of diabetes involves the pancreas not functioning properly. The way in which the pancreas doesn’t function properly differs depending on the type. No matter what type of diabetes you have, it requires ongoing monitoring of blood glucose levels so you can take the appropriate action. Type 1 diabetes In type 1 diabetes the immune system erroneously attacks the beta cells that produce insulin in your pancreas. It causes permanent damage, leaving your pancreas unable to produce insulin. Exactly what triggers the immune system to do that isn’t clear. Genetic and environmental factors may play a role. You’re more likely to develop type 1 diabetes if you have a family history of the disease. About 5 percent of people with diabetes have type 1 diabetes. People who ha Continue reading >>
Association Of Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes And Autoimmune Pancreatitis
Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolic Diseases, Mohammed VI University Hospital of Marrakech, Caddi Ayyad University, Marrakech, Morocco Summary Autoimmune pancreatitis is a new nosological entity in which a lymphocytic infiltration of the exocrine pancreas is involved. The concomitant onset of autoimmune pancreatitis and type 1 diabetes has been recently described suggesting a unique immune disturbance that compromises the pancreatic endocrine and exocrine functions. We report a case of type1 diabetes onset associated with an autoimmune pancreatitis in a young patient who seemed to present a type 2 autoimmune polyglandular syndrome. This rare association offers the opportunity to better understand pancreatic autoimmune disorders in type 1 diabetes. The case makes it possible to understand the possibility of a simultaneous disturbance of the endocrine and exocrine function of the same organ by one autoimmune process. The diagnosis of type 1 diabetes should make practitioner seek other autoimmune diseases. It is recommended to screen for autoimmune thyroiditis and celiac diseases. We draw attention to consider the autoimmune origin of a pancreatitis associated to type1 diabetes. Autoimmune pancreatitis is a novel rare entity that should be known as it is part of the IgG4-related disease spectrum. Background Polyglandular autoimmune syndromes represent a heterogeneous group of rare diseases characterized by an autoimmune process affecting at least two endocrine tissues, sometimes with one or more non-associated endocrine diseases. The discovery of new auto-antigenic targets in neuroendocrine immunology allowed the consideration of new autoimmune diseases. Therefore, new entities are recognized as part of the polyglandular autoimmune syndromes. The diagnos Continue reading >>
After Diabetes Diagnosis
Diabetes is a disease where blood sugar levels are too high because the body can no longer make or use insulin properly. The condition could lead to serious complications and even death. An estimated 29.1 million Americans have diabetes, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diabetes in the U.S. There are several types of diabetes, including Type 1, Type 2 and gestational — a type that occurs in pregnant women. Type 2 is the most common, and about 95 percent of all people with diabetes in the U.S. have this type. An additional 86 million adults in the United States have prediabetes, a condition where your blood sugar is high but not elevated enough for a diabetes diagnosis. Cases of diabetes increase each year, and every 19 seconds doctors diagnose someone in the U.S. with the disease. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that 1 in 3 adults may be diagnosed with diabetes by 2050. It’s important to keep blood sugar levels controlled because it can cause serious health problems — including kidney disease, heart problems, skin problems and limb amputations. Even if Type 2 diabetes has no cure, it can be prevented and managed. People with the disease can control blood sugar with lifestyle changes and medication. What is Type 2 Diabetes? Type 2 diabetes is a disease in which your body loses its ability to produce and use insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas that the body uses to convert glucose into energy. Without the right amount of insulin, excess sugar builds up in the body and causes a number of health problems. Where Type 1 typically occurs in younger people and is an immune disorder, Type 2 most often occurs later in life. In fact, the medical community used to call Type 2 diabetes “adult-onset” diabetes. M Continue reading >>
Should You Get A Pancreas Transplant For Type 1 Diabetes?
You’re considering a pancreas transplant to cure your type 1 diabetes, but have questions – This episode of The Scope is for you. Dr. Jeffery Campsen, surgical director of transplants, talks about the benefits of a pancreas transplant for type one diabetes patients, how it works compared to traditional methods of controlling the disease and why it is one of the best options for many people. Transcript Announcer: Interesting, informative and all in the name of better health. This is The Scope Health Sciences Radio. Interviewer: A lot of people with Type 1 diabetes believe that the insulin shots and a pump is enough, but there might actually be a better option, a pancreas transplant. We're with Dr. Paul Campsen, Surgical Director of Pancreas Transplant Surgery with the University of Utah. That option is pancreatic surgery. Dr. Paul Campsen: That's correct. Right now we do pancreas transplants for Type 1 diabetics. Type 1 diabetics can't survive without insulin, so they give themselves shots and they can administer this sometimes through am insulin pump which is a very good way to keep them alive. The control that they get from that is not a replacement for the human organ, the pancreas. That's where the pancreas transplant comes into play in the sense that you can help yourself stay alive just like dialysis helps with kidney transplant, or with failure. A pancreas transplant gives you back the human organ that you actually need. Interviewer: Plus, also a better quality of life. Dr. Paul Campsen: A much better quality of life. Over the long term the pancreas transplant itself is completely correcting the diabetes, so any of the sequelae of diabetes, whether it be peripheral vascular disease, damage to your eyes, damage to your nerves, damage to your coronary arteries, Continue reading >>
Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age. It is most often diagnosed in children, adolescents, or young adults. Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas by special cells, called beta cells. The pancreas is below and behind the stomach. Insulin is needed to move blood sugar (glucose) into cells. Inside the cells, glucose is stored and later used for energy. With type 1 diabetes, beta cells produce little or no insulin. Without enough insulin, glucose builds up in the bloodstream instead of going into the cells. This buildup of glucose in the blood is called hyperglycemia. The body is unable to use the glucose for energy. This leads to the symptoms of type 1 diabetes. The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. Most likely, it is an autoimmune disorder. This is a condition that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys healthy body tissue. With type 1 diabetes, an infection or another trigger causes the body to mistakenly attack the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. The tendency to develop autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes, can be passed down through families. Continue reading >>
The Connection Between Pancreatitis And Diabetes
Share: As a diabetes educator and author, I have been asked many times about the connection between pancreatitis and diabetes. I thought I would share the answer with all of my readers. First we need to define pancreatitis. I will also tell you about the most common forms and tell you about the connection with diabetes. The Definition of Pancreatitis When a word ends with “itis”, it is a suffix used to let us know that there is inflammation. (1) So…. pancreatitis is an inflammation of the pancreas. There are two common kinds of pancreatitis, acute and chronic. Acute pancreatitis- The definition of “acute” is a condition that comes on suddenly and is severe. (2) Acute pancreatitis is therefore an inflammation and swelling in the pancreas that comes on suddenly! (3) The Pancreas The pancreas is a unique organ that has many functions. People with diabetes usually are taught that the beta cells in the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas makes the hormone insulin. They are also taught that the pancreas makes other hormones like glucagon. The job that the pancreas has in making hormones and controlling blood glucose is referred to as pancreatic endocrine functions. Hormones are released by the pancreas and go directly into the blood stream. They travel through the body to get to the sites needed. The pancreas which is located behind the stomach and very near to the small intestine also has what we call exocrine functions. Enzymes are produced as needed to help with the digestion of fats, proteins and carbohydrates. These enzymes are not released into the blood but they travel through a series of ducts that end in the small intestines where they usually become active. (3, 4) In acute pancreatitis, there is a problem when these enzymes are prematurely activated insid Continue reading >>
Pancreatitis And Diabetes
D.D. Family T1 since 1977 - using Novolog in an Animas pump. ... i never was diagnosed with the pancreatits I just know i have it. I can really feel it swells. Mmmmm.... doesn't sound like pancreatitis to me. Pancreatitis is very painful. Maybe something else is going on there. New Member Pancreas removed 7/2002 from herditary pancretitis I had hereditary pancreatitis when I was 9 and again at 16. After two surgeries tring to save my dying pancreas doctors decied to remove it was best coruse of action. I was in huge amounts of pain could'nt drive failed my SATs thanks to failing asleep in a methadone induced slumber and had a 80% chance of developing pancreatitic cancer by the time I was 40 which would have been incurable. Oh and I was alreadly on huge amounts of insulin. I hade to drive to Boston from NC to have it done. My doctors here told us not to do it cause I would be too brittle of a diabetic, Please!!!!!!!!! My life is amazing now! did your pancrease hurt after eating or all the time? or can anyone describe how there pancreatitis works? Mine is always swelling after i eat but it swells & hurts the most after i drink alchol. It usually swells the most the 2nd day after drinking. Today i drank 1 schlafly apa beer took 1 hour to drink. swelled slightly but no pain. i used to drink them fast Rob--if you have pancreatitis, don't drink. Mine never swelled--just never ending extreme pain. In the end I got acute pancreatitis and 1/3 of my pancreas died and I almost did as well. Trust me, alcohol and pancreatitis do not mix. sever acute necrotizing pancreatitis took down my pancreas over time I was diagnosed with type 1 after almost dying from acute pancreatitis. !/3 of my pancreas died and hence the type 1. I am just wondering if there is anyone else out there who got Continue reading >>
Can Diabetes Cause Pancreatitis And Vice Versa?
The pancreas is an important organ in the body, which plays a vital role in the process of digestion. This organ produces hormones and enzymes that help to digest the food that we eat. When we eat carbohydrate foods, glucose is absorbed from the food into the bloodstream. Glucose is a form of sugar, which is one of the greatest sources of fuel. Our body cells require glucose so that they can function properly. However, for glucose to be used by muscle and fat cells for energy, it requires the help of insulin. Insulin is a hormone produced by the organ pancreas, which helps to control the level of blood sugar in the body. Without insulin, glucose is unable to enter the body cells. Hence, they stay in the bloodstream. A build up of glucose in the bloodstream can lead to a condition known as hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia occurs when your blood sugar level is extremely high and if it left untreated, it can become life threatening. What is pancreatitis? Pancreatitis refers to the inflammation of the pancreas. The risk of pancreatitis increases when you have gall stones, drink alcohol, or you use certain diabetes drugs. There are 2 types of pancreatitis, acute and chronic pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis occurs when your pancreas is suddenly inflamed and only lasts for a few days. Chronic pancreatitis is when inflammation of the pancreas happens in the long term, usually after many years. If pancreatitis is mild, it can disappear on its own. However, if it is chronic, it can become life threatening. If you have acute pancreatitis, symptoms include: Nausea Rapid pulse Upper abdominal pain Vomiting Tenderness in the abdomen Fever For chronic pancreatitis, you may experience symptoms such as loss of weight smelly and oily stool upper abdominal pain Can pancreatitis cause diabetes Continue reading >>