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Briefly Discuss The Dietary Modifications/preventive Measures For Diabetes Mellitus

Prevention Of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Prevention Of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Main article: Diabetes mellitus type 2 Prevention of diabetes mellitus type 2 can be achieved with both lifestyle changes and use of medication.[1] The American Diabetes Association categorizes prediabetes as a high-risk group that has glycemic levels higher than normal but does not meet criteria for diabetes. Without intervention people with prediabetes progress to type 2 diabetes with a 5% to 10% rate. Diabetes prevention is achieved through weight loss and increased physical activity, which can reduce the risk of diabetes by 50% to 60%.[2] Lifestyle[edit] Many interventions to promote healthy lifestyles have been shown to prevent diabetes. A combination of diet and physical activity promotion through counselling and support programs decrease weight, improve systolic blood pressure, improve cholesterol levels and decrease risk of diabetes.[2] Increasing physical activity may be helpful in preventing type 2 diabetes, particularly if undertaken soon after a carbohydrate rich meal that increases blood sugar levels.[3][4][5] The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends maintaining a healthy weight, getting at least 2½ hours of exercise per week (several brisk sustained walks appear sufficient), having a modest fat intake (around 30% of energy supply should come from fat), and eating sufficient fiber (e.g., from whole grains). Some preliminary evidence suggests that resistant starch, used as a substitute for refined carbohydrate, may increase insulin sensitivity[6] and may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes.[7] The U.S. Food and Drug Administration requires claims that resistant starch can reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes to be qualified with a declaration that scientific evidence in support of this claim is limited.[8] Foods with low glycemic index rich in fiber Continue reading >>

Diabetes Prevention: 5 Tips For Taking Control

Diabetes Prevention: 5 Tips For Taking Control

Changing your lifestyle could be a big step toward diabetes prevention — and it's never too late to start. Consider these tips. When it comes to type 2 diabetes — the most common type of diabetes — prevention is a big deal. It's especially important to make diabetes prevention a priority if you're at increased risk of diabetes, such as if you're overweight or you have a family history of the disease. Diabetes prevention is as basic as eating more healthfully, becoming more physically active and losing a few extra pounds. It's never too late to start. Making a few simple changes in your lifestyle now may help you avoid the serious health complications of diabetes down the road, such as nerve, kidney and heart damage. Consider the latest diabetes prevention tips from the American Diabetes Association. 1. Get more physical activity There are many benefits to regular physical activity. Exercise can help you: Lose weight Lower your blood sugar Boost your sensitivity to insulin — which helps keep your blood sugar within a normal range Research shows that aerobic exercise and resistance training can help control diabetes. The greatest benefit comes from a fitness program that includes both. 2. Get plenty of fiber It's rough, it's tough — and it may help you: Reduce your risk of diabetes by improving your blood sugar control Lower your risk of heart disease Promote weight loss by helping you feel full Foods high in fiber include fruits, vegetables, beans, whole grains and nuts. 3. Go for whole grains It's not clear why, but whole grains may reduce your risk of diabetes and help maintain blood sugar levels. Try to make at least half your grains whole grains. Many foods made from whole grains come ready to eat, including various breads, pasta products and cereals. Look Continue reading >>

Prevention Of Diabetes Mellitus

Prevention Of Diabetes Mellitus

Tweet When people talk about prevention of diabetes, it is usually about preventing type 2 diabetes. In the majority of cases, type 2 diabetes is brought on by lifestyle factors which can often be prevented. These include an unbalanced diet, lack of activity, lack of sleep, stress, smoking and alcohol. By making lifestyles changes, you can decrease your risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes prevention overview Leading doctors and researchers point to excessive levels of insulin as the likely reason why insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes develops. Strategies such as low-carb diets and exercise help to reduce levels of insulin and are therefore effective for preventing type 2 diabetes from developing. There are a number of risk factors for diabetes, some of which are preventable, such as weight gain around the middle (central obesity), high cholesterol/triglyceride levels and high blood pressure. Losing weight, adopting more activity into your day, stopping smoking and reducing alcohol intake can also help towards lowering the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and improving your all-round health. Diet and preventing type 2 diabetes Diet is the most important part of lifestyle change. The adage that you can’t outrun a bad diet is true. It is much easier to lose weight on a good diet even if you are struggling to do exercise, than it is through exercise if you’re eating a poor diet. Effective diets to prevent type 2 diabetes are those that do not cause your body to produce a lot of insulin. Carbohydrate has the biggest demand on insulin and so any diet that helps reduce carbohydrate intake will help towards reducing your risk of type 2 diabetes. Cutting out sugary food and drink and refined grains such as white bread and white rice is a good Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus, disorder of carbohydrate metabolism characterized by impaired ability of the body to produce or respond to insulin and thereby maintain proper levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Diabetes is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, though these outcomes are not due to the immediate effects of the disorder. They are instead related to the diseases that develop as a result of chronic diabetes mellitus. These include diseases of large blood vessels (macrovascular disease, including coronary heart disease and peripheral arterial disease) and small blood vessels (microvascular disease, including retinal and renal vascular disease), as well as diseases of the nerves. Causes and types Insulin is a hormone secreted by beta cells, which are located within clusters of cells in the pancreas called the islets of Langerhans. Insulin’s role in the body is to trigger cells to take up glucose so that the cells can use this energy-yielding sugar. Patients with diabetes may have dysfunctional beta cells, resulting in decreased insulin secretion, or their muscle and adipose cells may be resistant to the effects of insulin, resulting in a decreased ability of these cells to take up and metabolize glucose. In both cases, the levels of glucose in the blood increase, causing hyperglycemia (high blood sugar). As glucose accumulates in the blood, excess levels of this sugar are excreted in the urine. Because of greater amounts of glucose in the urine, more water is excreted with it, causing an increase in urinary volume and frequency of urination as well as thirst. (The name diabetes mellitus refers to these symptoms: diabetes, from the Greek diabainein, meaning “to pass through,” describes the copious urination, and mellitus, from the Latin meaning “sweetened wi Continue reading >>

Nutrition In Patients With Diabetes

Nutrition In Patients With Diabetes

Author: Fazia Mir, MD; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD more... Diabetes is a chronic illness that requires a holistic approach in terms of care to prevent both acute and long-term complications. Nutritional management for diabetic patients has been evolving for 100 years as the pathophysiological basis of the complications incurred from diabetes becomes more explicit. Medical nutrition therapy is extremely important for diabetic patients and prediabetic patients so that adequate glycemic control can be achieved. One-on-one consultations with a registered dietician well-versed in diabetic nutrition are most preferable, as has been shown in studies performed in Pakistan [ 1 ] and Hungary, [ 2 ] which proved the utility of a dietician in improving dietary adherence. Nutrition counseling should be sensitive to the personal needs of the patient and how much effort the patient is willing to put in to making the change to eating appropriately. Medical nutrition therapy for diabetics can be divided into (1) dietary interventions and (2) physical activity. Lifestyle and dietary modifications form the cornerstone of therapy in type 2 diabetic patients (insulin resistance). In type 1 diabetic patients , who have an insulin deficiency, a balance between insulin and nutrition needs to be obtained for optimal glycemic control. [ 3 ] Nutrition for diabetic patients can be further divided into prevention and continual management of glycemic control. Prevention is more for individuals at risk for developing diabetes and for type 2 diabetic patients than for patients who have already developed complications, in order to prevent further progression. The goals of nutrition in prevention are as follows: Primary prevention Identification of the population at high risk (body mass index [ Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus (dm)

Diabetes Mellitus (dm)

Years of poorly controlled hyperglycemia lead to multiple, primarily vascular complications that affect small vessels (microvascular), large vessels (macrovascular), or both. (For additional detail, see Complications of Diabetes Mellitus.) Microvascular disease underlies 3 common and devastating manifestations of diabetes mellitus: Microvascular disease may also impair skin healing, so that even minor breaks in skin integrity can develop into deeper ulcers and easily become infected, particularly in the lower extremities. Intensive control of plasma glucose can prevent or delay many of these complications but may not reverse them once established. Macrovascular disease involves atherosclerosis of large vessels, which can lead to Immune dysfunction is another major complication and develops from the direct effects of hyperglycemia on cellular immunity. Patients with diabetes mellitus are particularly susceptible to bacterial and fungal infections. Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus: An Overview

Diabetes Mellitus: An Overview

Diabetes mellitus is a disease that prevents your body from properly using the energy from the food you eat. Diabetes occurs in one of the following situations: The pancreas (an organ behind your stomach) produces little insulin or no insulin at all. (Insulin is a naturally occurring hormone, produced by the beta cells of the pancreas, which helps the body use sugar for energy.) -Or- The pancreas makes insulin, but the insulin made does not work as it should. This condition is called insulin resistance. To better understand diabetes, it helps to know more about how the body uses food for energy (a process called metabolism). Your body is made up of millions of cells. To make energy, the cells need food in a very simple form. When you eat or drink, much of your food is broken down into a simple sugar called glucose. Glucose provides the energy your body needs for daily activities. The blood vessels and blood are the highways that transport sugar from where it is either taken in (the stomach) or manufactured (in the liver) to the cells where it is used (muscles) or where it is stored (fat). Sugar cannot go into the cells by itself. The pancreas releases insulin into the blood, which serves as the helper, or the "key," that lets sugar into the cells for use as energy. When sugar leaves the bloodstream and enters the cells, the blood sugar level is lowered. Without insulin, or the "key," sugar cannot get into the body's cells for use as energy. This causes sugar to rise. Too much sugar in the blood is called "hyperglycemia" (high blood sugar) or diabetes. What are the types of diabetes? There are two main types of diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2: Type 1 diabetes occurs because the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas (beta cells) are damaged. In Type 1 diabetes, the pancreas Continue reading >>

Prevention Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Prevention Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

INTRODUCTION Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and relative impairment in insulin secretion. Although the lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes is high, our ability to predict and prevent type 2 diabetes in the general population is limited. However, individuals at high risk, including those with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), obesity, close relatives with type 2 diabetes, or who are members of certain ethnic groups (Asian, Hispanic, African American), are appropriate candidates for preventive interventions [1]. The prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus will be reviewed here. The prevalence, risk factors, and screening for type 2 diabetes are discussed elsewhere. (See "Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus" and "Screening for type 2 diabetes mellitus".) GOALS OF DIABETES PREVENTION The goals of diabetes prevention include: Delaying the onset of diabetes Preserving beta cell function Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitustreatment & Management

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitustreatment & Management

Type 2 Diabetes MellitusTreatment & Management Author: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD more... The goals in caring for patients with diabetes mellitus are to eliminate symptoms and to prevent, or at least slow, the development of complications. Microvascular (ie, eye and kidney disease) risk reduction is accomplished through control of glycemia and blood pressure; macrovascular (ie, coronary, cerebrovascular, peripheral vascular) risk reduction, through control of lipids and hypertension, smoking cessation, and aspirin therapy; and metabolic and neurologic risk reduction, through control of glycemia. New abridged recommendations for primary care providers The American Diabetes Association has released condensed recommendations for Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes: Abridged for Primary Care Providers , highlighting recommendations most relevant to primary care. The abridged version focusses particularly on the following aspects: Diagnosis and treatment of vascular complications Intensification of insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes The recommendations can be accessed at American Diabetes Association DiabetesPro Professional Resources Online, Clinical Practice Recommendations 2015 . [ 121 ] Type 2 diabetes care is best provided by a multidisciplinary team of health professionals with expertise in diabetes, working in collaboration with the patient and family. [ 2 ] Management includes the following: Appropriate self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) Ideally, blood glucose should be maintained at near-normal levels (preprandial levels of 90-130 mg/dL and hemoglobin A1C [HbA1c] levels < 7%). However, focus on glucose alone does not provide adequate treatment for patients with diabetes mellitus. Treatment involves multiple goals (ie, Continue reading >>

Preventing Diabetes Naturally (type 2, Diet, Causes, Symptoms)

Preventing Diabetes Naturally (type 2, Diet, Causes, Symptoms)

Type 2 diabetes prevention tips and facts While genetics plays an important role in the development of diabetes, an individual still has the ability to influence their health to prevent type 2 diabetes. There is no known way to prevent type 1 diabetes. This article focuses on ways to control risk factors for type 2 diabetes. People should watch their weight and exercise on a regular basis to help reverse prediabetes, and prevent the development of type 2 diabetes. Diet is important because it helps with weight loss. Some foods such as nuts in small amounts provide health benefits in blood sugar regulation. There is no single recommended diabetes prevention diet, but following a sound nutrition plan and maintaining a healthy weight are important steps in preventing the disease. Exercise is even more beneficial with weight loss in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Smoking is harmful in many ways including increasing the risk of cancer and heart disease. It also increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. There are medications available that have been shown in large trials to delay or prevent the onset of overt diabetes. Metformin (Glucophage) is recommended by the American Diabetes Association for prevention of diabetes in high-risk people. The coming years will be very exciting regarding the advances in the field of prevention of diabetes. However, the cornerstone of therapy will likely remain a healthy lifestyle. There are two major forms of diabetes - type 1 and type 2. This article focuses specifically on the prevention of type 2 diabetes since there is no know way to prevent type 1 diabetes. This form of diabetes is virtually a pandemic in the United States. This information reviews the risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes and reviews key points regardi Continue reading >>

Diabetes Diet And Exercise

Diabetes Diet And Exercise

Patient professional reference Professional Reference articles are written by UK doctors and are based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. They are designed for health professionals to use. You may find the Pre-diabetes (Impaired Glucose Tolerance) article more useful, or one of our other health articles. Interventions aimed at increasing exercise combined with diet have been shown to decrease the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in high-risk groups (people with impaired glucose tolerance or the metabolic syndrome).[1]However, there are no high-quality data on the efficacy of dietary intervention for the prevention of type 2 diabetes.[2]Exercise appears to improve glycated haemoglobin at six and twelve months in people with type 2 diabetes.[3] Nutritional advice and information are essential for the effective management of type 1 diabetes. Exercise reduces mortality in type 1 diabetes and can reduce HbA1c by 0.7% in type 2 diabetes.[4] See also the separate Healthy Diet and Enjoyable Eating article. The goals of dietary advice are: To maintain or improve health through the use of appropriate and healthy food choices. To achieve and maintain optimal metabolic and physiological outcomes, including: Reduction of risk for microvascular disease by achieving near normal glycaemia without undue risk of hypoglycaemia. Reduction of risk of macrovascular disease, including management of body weight, dyslipidaemia and hypertension. To optimise outcomes in diabetic nephropathy and in any other associated disorder. Eat three meals a day. Avoid skipping meals and space breakfast, lunch and evening meal out over the day. At each meal include starchy carbohydrate foods - eg, bread, pasta, chapatis, potatoes, yam, noodles, rice and cereals. Eat more slowly absorbed (l Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

Overview: Types of Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common disease in which the blood sugar (glucose) is abnormally elevated. Normally, the body obtains glucose from food, and additional glucose is made in the liver. The pancreas produces insulin, which enables glucose to enter cells and serve as fuel for the body. In patients with diabetes, glucose accumulates in the blood instead of being properly transported into cells. Excess blood sugar is a serious problem that may damage the blood vessels, heart, kidneys, and other organs. About 5-10% of patients with diabetes are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus, an autoimmune disorder in which the immune system mistakenly attacks the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas, causing the organ to no longer produce insulin. Type 1 DM most commonly occurs in children or young adults, and the incidence of new cases is increasing. Approximately 90-95% of people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes mellitus, which occurs when the body becomes unable to use the insulin produced by the pancreas. This condition is also called insulin resistance. The prevalence of type 2 DM is increasing dramatically worldwide. In the past, type 2 DM was associated with adulthood; however, it is rapidly increasing in children because of the rise in childhood obesity. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) occurs during pregnancy. This form of diabetes usually resolves after delivery, but patients with GDM have an increased risk of developing type 2 DM later in life. Causes and Risk Factors Type 1 DM is an autoimmune disorder and the exact cause is unknown. Causes may include genetic factors, environmental factors, and viruses. For type 2 DM, the major risk factors include a family history of type 2 DM, increased age, obesity, and a sed Continue reading >>

The Prevention And Control The Type-2 Diabetes By Changing Lifestyle And Dietary Pattern

The Prevention And Control The Type-2 Diabetes By Changing Lifestyle And Dietary Pattern

Go to: INTRODUCTION Diabetes mellitus or type-2 diabetes, is one of the major non-communicable and fastest growing public health problems in the world, is a condition difficult to treat and expensive to manage. It has been estimated that the number of diabetes sufferers in the world will double from the current value of about 190 million to 325 million during the next 25 years.[1,2,3] Individuals with type-2 diabetes are at a high risk of developing a range of debilitating complications such as cardiovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, nephropathy, changes to the retina and blindness that can lead to disability and premature death. It also imposes important medical and economic burdens. Genetic susceptibility and environmental influences seem to be the most important factors responsible for the development of this condition. However, a drastic increase of physical inactivity, obesity, and type-2 diabetes has been recently observed. The fact indicates that obesity and physical inactivity may constitute the main reasons for the increasing burden of diabetes in the developed world.[4,5,6,7,8,9,10] Fortunately, because environmental factors are modifiable, disease manifestation from these factors is largely preventable. Diet is one of the major factors now linked to a wide range of diseases including diabetes. The amount and type of food consumed is a fundamental determinant of human health. Diet constitutes a crucial aspect of the overall management of diabetes, which may involve diet alone, diet with oral hypoglycemic drugs, or diet with insulin.[11,12,13,14,15] Diet is individualized depending on age, weight, gender, health condition, and occupation etc. The dietary guidelines as used in this review are sets of advisory statements that give quick dietary advic Continue reading >>

Briefly Discuss The Dietary Modifications/preventive Measures For The Following: (4) A. Diabetes Mellitus B. Iron Deficiency Anemia

Briefly Discuss The Dietary Modifications/preventive Measures For The Following: (4) A. Diabetes Mellitus B. Iron Deficiency Anemia

A) Diabetes mellitus(DM), commonly referred to asdiabetes, is a group ofmetabolic disordersin which there arehigh blood sugarlevels over a prolonged period.Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications.Acutecomplications can includediabetic ketoacidosis,hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death.Serious long-term complications includecardiovascular disease,stroke,chronic kidney disease,foot ulcers, anddamage to the eyes. Iron-deficiency anemiaisanemiacaused by alack of iron.Anemia is defined as a decrease in the number ofred blood cellsor the amount ofhemoglobinin theblood. When onset is slow, symptoms are often vague, includingfeeling tired, weakness,shortness of breath, or poor ability to exercise.Anemia that comes on quickly often has greater symptoms, including:confusion,feeling like one is going to pass out, and increased thirst.There needs to be significant anemia before a person becomes noticeablypale. Continue reading >>

Change Your Ways, Reduce Your Risk: 7 Tips For Preventing Diabetes

Change Your Ways, Reduce Your Risk: 7 Tips For Preventing Diabetes

Piggybacking the obesity epidemic, diabetes rates continue to surge. On June 10, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released new and alarming statistics on diabetes. An estimated 29 million Americans have the disease, a nearly 12 percent increase from the 26 million diabetics in 2010. One-fourth of people don’t know they have diabetes—a scary fact, given the complications of chronically high blood sugar: heart attack, stroke, sight-robbing eye disease, kidney failure, foot amputation. Worse, another 86 million adults have prediabetes, a condition of elevated blood sugar just below the threshold for diabetes. The vast majority of cases are type 2 diabetes, a condition characterized by insulin resistance, meaning cells fail to respond to insulin. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas doesn’t make enough insulin. The good news is type 2 diabetes is largely preventable. A seminal 2006 study demonstrated that intensive lifestyle modification reduced the risk of developing diabetes by 58 percent, as compared to a 31 percent risk reduction achieved with the antidiabetes drug metformin. 7 tips to help reduce your risk: Lose excess body fat. Being overweight is a big risk factor for diabetes. In contrast, every kilogram (2.2 pounds) of weight lost reduces diabetes risk by 16 percent. Follow a plant-based, low-calorie diet. Eat a variety of fruits and vegetables—a dietary pattern studies show reduces diabetes risk. Foods to avoid are those rich in trans fats (also called hydrogenated fat), saturated fat, and sugar. Drink water. Studies link sugar-sweetened beverages with obesity and diabetes. Cut them out of your diet and the risk of both conditions falls. Move your body. Physical inactivity raises the risk of diabetes. Exercise renders cells more sensitive t Continue reading >>

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