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Effects Of Dietary Fiber And Carbohydrate On Glucose And Lipoprotein Metabolism In Diabetic Patients.

Effects Of Dietary Fiber And Carbohydrate On Glucose And Lipoprotein Metabolism In Diabetic Patients.

Abstract Dietary recommendations for the treatment of diabetic patients issued by national and international diabetes associations consistently emphasize the need to increase carbohydrate consumption. However, these recommendations have been questioned on the basis of growing evidence that, in both insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients, a high-carbohydrate diet does not offer any advantage in terms of blood glucose and plasma lipid concentrations compared with a high-fat (mainly unsaturated) diet. It has been shown repeatedly that a high-carbohydrate diet increases plasma insulin and triglyceride levels and can deteriorate blood glucose control in the postprandial period. However, much of the controversy between advocates and detractors of dietary carbohydrate can be settled by taking into account dietary fiber. Several studies have shown that the adverse metabolic effects of high-carbohydrate diets are neutralized when fiber and carbohydrate are increased simultaneously in the diet for diabetic patients. In particular, these studies demonstrated that a high-carbohydrate/high-fiber diet significantly improves blood glucose control and reduces plasma cholesterol levels in diabetic patients compared with a low-carbohydrate/low-fiber diet. In addition, a high-carbohydrate/high-fiber diet does not increase plasma insulin and triglyceride concentrations, despite the higher consumption of carbohydrates. Unfortunately, dietary fiber represents a heterogenous category, and there is still much to understand as to which foods should be preferred to maximize the metabolic effects of fiber. There are indications that only water-soluble fiber is active on plasma glucose and lipoprotein metabolism in humans. Therefore, in practice, the consumption of legumes, Continue reading >>

Understanding Fiber

Understanding Fiber

Fiber does not affect your blood sugar levels. Fiber is a type of carbohydrate that your body can’t digest, so you should subtract the grams of fiber from the total carbohydrate. On Nutrition Facts food labels, the grams of dietary fiber are already included in the total carbohydrate count. But because fiber is a type of carbohydrate that your body can’t digest, it does not affect your blood sugar levels. You should subtract the grams of fiber from the total carbohydrate. Here’s the best advice about fiber: For people with diabetes that are treated with insulin, getting the most accurate carbohydrate count may help control blood sugars better. To summarize – you need to take the total amount of carbohydrate in a serving MINUS the carbohydrate in the fiber. Now, let’s practice using the sample food label: The dietary fiber is 5 grams per serving. Count this product as 5 grams of carbohydrate (10 grams total carbohydrate minus 5 grams dietary fiber equals 5 grams of carbohydrate). Self-assessment Quiz Self assessment quizzes are available for topics covered in this website. To find out how much you have learned about Understanding Carbohydrates, take our self assessment quiz when you have completed this section. The quiz is multiple choice. Please choose the single best answer to each question. At the end of the quiz, your score will display. If your score is over 70% correct, you are doing very well. If your score is less than 70%, you can return to this section and review the information. Continue reading >>

The Super Fiber That Controls Your Appetite And Blood Sugar

The Super Fiber That Controls Your Appetite And Blood Sugar

IMAGINE EATING 12 POUNDS of food a day — and still staying thin and healthy. That may sound crazy, but it’s exactly what our hunter-gatherer ancestors ate for millennia! And they didn’t have any obesity or chronic diseases like heart disease, diabetes, cancer, or dementia. Of course, I wouldn’t advise anyone today to eat 12 pounds of food, because the food in our society lacks one major secret ingredient that our ancestors ate in nearly all their food — fiber! Fiber has so many health benefits that I want to focus on it in this blog. I’ll explain some of its benefits and give you 9 tips you can begin using today to get more fiber in your diet. I’ll also tell you about my favorite “super-fiber” that can help you increase your total fiber intake overnight. But before I tell you about what fiber can do for you, let’s a look a little more at the history of fiber. Why Bushmen are Healthier than the Average Westerner Dr. Dennis Burkitt, a famous English physician, studied the differences between indigenous African bushmen and their “civilized” western counterparts. The bushmen seemed to be free of the scourges of modern life — including heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and obesity. Dr. Burkitt found that the average bushman had a stool weight of 2 pounds and the “civilized” men had a stool weight of only 4 ounces – that’s 87.5% smaller! The difference was in the amount of fiber they ate. Today, the average American eats about 8 grams of fiber a day. But the average hunter and gatherer ate 100 grams from all manner of roots, berries, leaves and plant foods. And the fiber is what helped those ancestors of ours stay healthy. Just take a look at all the good things that fiber can do for your body. You need fiber to keep healthy from top to bottom Continue reading >>

How To Get More Fiber If You Have Diabetes

How To Get More Fiber If You Have Diabetes

Even dressed up, 50 grams of daily fiber is a lot to pack away.(ISTOCKPHOTO)If youve got type 2 diabetes, the quality of food is as important as the quantity. And fiber is the best stuff around. Fiber itself doesnt raise blood sugar because it can't be digested, and that's good. But even better, it can blunt the impact that carbohydrates have on blood sugar. The reason? The intestines take a bit more time to digest fiber-rich foods, and that slows the release of glucose into your bloodstream. You need to check labels and add more fiber A 2000 study of 13 patients showed that patients with diabetes who consumed 50 grams of fiber each day lowered their glucose levels 10% and insulin levels 12% more than those who consumed 24 grams of fiber a day. The problem is that 50 grams of fiber per day is a lot of fiber. Most Americans consume only 15 grams every day, according to the American Heart Association, and the American Diabetes Association recommends that people with diabetes eat 25 to 50 grams daily. While its tough to consume that much, its not impossible. "Check nutrition labels to see how much fiber there is in the foods you eat," says LuAnn Berry, RD, a certified diabetes educator and diabetes specialist at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. "Then go back to the ones with the most grams of fiber per serving." Good sources of fiber include: Whole grain products, such as whole wheat bread Dried beans, including kidney, black and garbanzos, lentils Oats, which are found in oatmeal Apples and pears with their skins on Berry says you can eat the fiber-high foods alone or add them to recipesfor example, put beans in a salad. However, dont forget to calculate how much carbohydrate you are adding. A half-cup of beans, for example, has the same carbohydrate count as Continue reading >>

Soluble Fibre And Diabetes

Soluble Fibre And Diabetes

Soluble fibre can help to slow rises in blood sugar Soluble fibre is a form of water soluble carbohydrate that cant be digested by the body. Soluble fibre dissolves in water which can have beneficial effects on digestion, metabolism and longer term health. Soluble fibres in our diet include pectin, psyllium, beta-glucans and gums such as guar gum. Fruits and berries, particularly apples, strawberries and blueberries When soluble fibre interacts with water it forms a gel. In this gel form, the emptying of the stomach, the passage of digestion and the absorption of glucose are slowed. Research studies have found that even modest increases in soluble fibre intake helps to lower blood glucose levels. The fact that soluble fibre could help improve blood glucose in two ways. The slowing down of passage through the digestive gives digestive hormones more time to act and by forming a gel with water, soluble fibre prevents carbohydrate from being so quickly absorbed by the small intestine . Research published in the New England Journal of Medicine in 2000 compared a moderate fibre diet (24g of total fibre including 8g of soluble fibre) with a high fibre diet (50g of total fibre including 25g of soluble fibre) over 6 weeks. The high fibre diet saw a reduction in pre-meal blood glucose levels by 0.7 mmol/l compared to the moderate fibre diet as well as reducing triglyceride levels and post meal blood glucose levels. Soluble fibre also helps to reduce levels of LDL cholesterol, the so-called bad cholesterol . Research has found that soluble fibre in the diet results in bile being excreted from the body. Bile is produced from cholesterol and bile acids. When more bile is excreted and therefore less bile is reabsorbed by the body, it can therefore help to regulate cholesterol as the Continue reading >>

The Facts About Carbs, Fiber, And Diabetes

The Facts About Carbs, Fiber, And Diabetes

When you watch your diet because you have diabetes, you'll want to pay special attention to carbohydrates, because they can affect your blood sugar level faster than protein or fat. You get carbs from sweets, fruit, milk, yogurt, bread, cereal, rice, pasta, potatoes, and other vegetables. It can help to count your carbs from things you eat or drink, and split them evenly between meals so that it’s in line with how much insulin is available from your body or from medicine. If you get more than your insulin supply can handle, your blood sugar level goes up. If you eat too few carbohydrates, your blood sugar level may fall too low. With carbohydrate counting, you can pick almost any food product off the shelf, read the label, and use the information about grams of carbohydrates to fit the food into your meal plan. Counting carbs is most useful for people who use insulin several times a day or wear an insulin pump, or want more flexibility and variety in their food choices. The amount and type of insulin you are prescribed may affect the flexibility of your meal plan. You don’t have to count carbs. You could use diabetes food exchange lists instead. Ask your doctor or a registered dietitian for their advice on that. Fiber helps control blood sugar. It also helps you lower your “bad” (LDL) cholesterol. Most Americans need more fiber in their diets. The average American only gets about half the fiber needed on a daily basis. You get fiber from plant foods, so plan to eat more of these foods: Cooked dried beans and peas Whole-grain breads, cereals, and crackers Brown rice Bran products Nuts and seeds Although it’s best to get fiber from food sources, fiber supplements can also help you get the daily fiber you need. Examples include psyllium and methylcellulose. Incre Continue reading >>

Dietary Fiber Decreases Fasting Blood Glucose Levels And Plasma Ldl Concentration In Noninsulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus Patients.

Dietary Fiber Decreases Fasting Blood Glucose Levels And Plasma Ldl Concentration In Noninsulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus Patients.

Dietary fiber decreases fasting blood glucose levels and plasma LDL concentration in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients. Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Lund, Dalby, Sweden. Realistic high-fiber and regular low-fiber diets were given for 8 wk each to noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients whose diabetes was being controlled satisfactorily by diet alone. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the metabolic effects of dietary fiber without changing energy intake or proportions of protein, fat, and carbohydrates. The high-fiber diet induced lower fasting blood glucose levels (p less than 0.01) and decreased the ratio of low-density lipoproteins to high-density lipoproteins (p less than 0.025); no difference was found in HbA1c between the two diet periods. Continuous glucose monitoring also showed a difference in fasting glucose levels that remained after identical low-fiber test meals. The incremental glucose responses did not differ. The fasting and incremental postprandial levels of insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, and somatostatin did not change, whereas the mean triglyceride concentrations were lower after the high-fiber diet. The results suggest a beneficial effect of dietary fiber in the metabolic control of NIDDM. Continue reading >>

Does Taking Fiber Help Regulate Blood Sugar?

Does Taking Fiber Help Regulate Blood Sugar?

Dietary fiber, the undigestible component of plant foods, improves digestive health by preventing constipation, hemorrhoids and diverticular disease. Because it expands in your digestive tract, fiber slows digestion, which makes you feel full longer so you're less likely to overeat. Fiber also lowers cholesterol levels by preventing cholesterol from being absorbed, and slows the absorption of glucose, reducing your risk for developing Type 2 diabetes. Various forms of fiber have different effects on the digestive process and offer different blood sugar-management benefits. Beta-Glucan and Post-Meal Blood Sugar Reduction A form of soluble fiber called beta-glucan, found in barley and oats, reduced post-meal blood sugar spikes in a study published in the December 2012 issue of "European Journal of Nutrition." Scientists fed laboratory animals diets containing barley flour for six weeks. Results showed lower levels of glycated hemoglobin -- a blood marker that indicates blood sugar levels for two to three months prior to the test -- in the beta-glucan-supplemented group compared to a control group. The treatment group also had higher levels of adiponectin, a hormone secreted by fat cells that promotes energy burning and glucose utilization. Peas and Glucose Tolerance The outer seed coats of peas might lower blood sugar by improving glucose tolerance -- the ability of cells to absorb glucose from the bloodstream -- according to an animal study published in the August 2012 issue of the "British Journal of Nutrition." Supplementation with pea coats improved absorption of glucose by muscle cells and decreased fasting blood sugar and insulin secretion. Additionally, the size of the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas decreased by 50 percent, indicating less demand placed on Continue reading >>

Carbohydrates And Blood Sugar

Carbohydrates And Blood Sugar

When people eat a food containing carbohydrates, the digestive system breaks down the digestible ones into sugar, which enters the blood. As blood sugar levels rise, the pancreas produces insulin, a hormone that prompts cells to absorb blood sugar for energy or storage. As cells absorb blood sugar, levels in the bloodstream begin to fall. When this happens, the pancreas start making glucagon, a hormone that signals the liver to start releasing stored sugar. This interplay of insulin and glucagon ensure that cells throughout the body, and especially in the brain, have a steady supply of blood sugar. Carbohydrate metabolism is important in the development of type 2 diabetes, which occurs when the body can’t make enough insulin or can’t properly use the insulin it makes. Type 2 diabetes usually develops gradually over a number of years, beginning when muscle and other cells stop responding to insulin. This condition, known as insulin resistance, causes blood sugar and insulin levels to stay high long after eating. Over time, the heavy demands made on the insulin-making cells wears them out, and insulin production eventually stops. Glycemic index In the past, carbohydrates were commonly classified as being either “simple” or “complex,” and described as follows: Simple carbohydrates: These carbohydrates are composed of sugars (such as fructose and glucose) which have simple chemical structures composed of only one sugar (monosaccharides) or two sugars (disaccharides). Simple carbohydrates are easily and quickly utilized for energy by the body because of their simple chemical structure, often leading to a faster rise in blood sugar and insulin secretion from the pancreas – which can have negative health effects. Complex carbohydrates: These carbohydrates have mo Continue reading >>

More Evidence That A High-fiber Diet Can Curb Type 2 Diabetes

More Evidence That A High-fiber Diet Can Curb Type 2 Diabetes

People who ate more than 26 grams of fiber a day had an 18 percent lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes than those who ate 19 grams a day or less Fiber may benefit diabetes by altering hormonal signals, slowing down nutrient absorption or altering fermentation in the large intestine, along with promoting feelings of satiety and weight loss The majority of your fiber should come from vegetables, not grains By Dr. Mercola In the US, nearly 80 million people, or one in four has some form of diabetes or pre-diabetes. One in two people with diabetes do not know they have it,1 which increases the odds of developing complications, which can be deadly. Leading a healthy lifestyle is one of the best strategies to prevent, and treat, type 2 diabetes, and even more specifically, eating a high-fiber diet is emerging as a key strategy you can use to lower your risk. More Than 26 Grams of Fiber a Day May Lower Your Diabetes Risk US dietary guidelines call for adults to consume 20-30 grams of fiber per day. I believe an ideal amount for most adults is around 50 grams per 1,000 calories consumed. Most people, however, get only half that, or less. In a recent study conducted by researchers at the Imperial College London, those who had the highest intake of fiber (more than 26 grams a day) had an 18 percent lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes than those with the lowest intake (less than 19 grams a day).2 The fiber may benefit diabetes by altering hormonal signals, slowing down nutrient absorption or altering fermentation in the large intestine, along with promoting feelings of satiety.3 Eating a high-fiber diet is also associated with weight loss, and the researchers believe this may, in turn, lower diabetes risk. In fact, when the researchers accounted for participants' BMI, th Continue reading >>

Insoluble Fibre And Diabetes

Insoluble Fibre And Diabetes

Insoluble fibre helps to maintain good gut health Insoluble fibre is indigestible carbohydrate that does not dissolve in warm water. Insoluble fibre is the type of fibre that adds bulk to our stools helping to pass solids out more easily. Insoluble fibres found in our diet include cellulose, hemicellulose and lignins. Insoluble fibre is important for maintaining good gut health. Good sources of this form of fibre are vegetables, fruit and whole grains. Insoluble fibre is helpful for the health of our gut in the following ways: May help to reduce the risk of haemorrhoids (piles) and diverticulosis Helps good gut bacteria to grow Wholegrain foods such wheat bran, brown rice and couscous Root vegetables, such as carrots, parsnips and potatoes In terms of fruits and vegetables, the skins are a particularly good source of insoluble fibre. Insoluble fibre, bowel movements and constipation The bowel is a muscular organ that contracts to move contents through. Insoluble fibre helps by adding bulk and moisture to stools which makes it easier for the bowel to steadily push its contents through and therefore helps to prevent constipation. Because insoluble fibre helps to give stools moisture, it is important to drink the recommended intake of fluids, which in the UK is 6 to 8 cups, or around 1.2 litres, of non-alcoholic fluid. Insoluble fibre, haemorrhoids and diverticulosis Haemorrhoids, also known as piles, is a swelling of tissue in the rectum or anus which can be caused by persistent constipation. Having to regularly strain to pass solids can put excess pressure on the blood vessels close to the anus, causing the area to become swelled. Diverticulosis is when bulges form on the inside of the colon (large intestine) and cause bacteria to get trapped and can result in symptoms Continue reading >>

Effects Of Dietary Fiber And Carbohydrate On Glucose And Lipoprotein Metabolism In Diabetic Patients

Effects Of Dietary Fiber And Carbohydrate On Glucose And Lipoprotein Metabolism In Diabetic Patients

Dietary recommendations for the treatment of diabetic patients issued by national and international diabetes associations consistently emphasize the need to increase carbohydrate consumption. However, these recommendations have been questioned on the basis of growing evidence that, in both insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients, a high-carbohydrate diet does not offer any advantage in terms of blood glucose and plasma lipid concentrations compared with a high-fat (mainly unsaturated) diet. It has been shown repeatedly that a high-carbohydrate diet increases plasma insulin and triglyceride levels and can deteriorate blood glucose control in the postprandial period. However, much of the controversy between advocates and detractors of dietary carbohydrate can be settled by taking into account dietary fiber. Several studies have shown that the adverse metabolic effects of high-carbohydrate diets are neutralized when fiber and carbohydrate are increased simultaneously in the diet for diabetic patients. In particular, these studies demonstrated that a high-carbohydrate/high-fiber diet significantly improves blood glucose control and reduces plasma cholesterol levels in diabetic patients compared with a low-carbohydrate/low-fiber diet. In addition, a high-carbohydrate/high-fiber diet does not increase plasma insulin and triglyceride concentrations, despite the higher consumption of carbohydrates. Unfortunately, dietary fiber represents a heterogenous category, and there is still much to understand as to which foods should be preferred to maximize the metabolic effects of fiber. There are indications that only water-soluble fiber is active on plasma glucose and lipoprotein metabolism in humans. Therefore, in practice, the consumption of legumes, vegetable Continue reading >>

How Does Fiber Affect Blood Glucose Levels?

How Does Fiber Affect Blood Glucose Levels?

Fiber is a type of carbohydrate (just like sugars and starches) but since it is not broken down by the human body, it does not contribute any calories. Yet, on a food label, fiber is listed under total carbohydrate. So this gets kind of confusing for people who have diabetes. Carbohydrate is the one nutrient that has the biggest impact on blood glucose. So, does fiber have any effect on your blood glucose? The answer is that fiber does not raise blood glucose levels. Because it is not broken down by the body, the fiber in an apple or a slice of whole grain bread has no effect on blood glucose levels because it isn't digested. The grams of fiber can actually be subtracted from the total grams of carb you are eating if you are using carbohydrate counting for meal planning. So, fiber is a good thing for people with diabetes. Of course, most of the foods that contain fiber (fruits, vegetables, whole grain breads, cereals, and pastas) also contain other types of non-fiber carbohydrate (sugar, starch) that must be accounted for in your meal plan. The average person should eat between 20-35 grams of fiber each day. Most Americans eat about half that amount. A study in the New England Journal of Medicine showed that people with diabetes who ate 50 grams of fiber a day — particularly soluble fiber — were able to control their blood glucose better than those who ate far less. So if fiber does not give us any calories, why exactly should you eat it? There are two types of fiber: insoluble and soluble. Insoluble fiber keeps your digestive tract working well. Whole wheat bran is an example of this type of fiber. Soluble fiber can help lower your cholesterol level and improve blood glucose control if eaten in large amounts. Oatmeal is an example of this type of fiber. Another ben Continue reading >>

Nutrition And Healthy Eating

Nutrition And Healthy Eating

Eat more fiber. You've probably heard it before. But do you know why fiber is so good for your health? Dietary fiber — found mainly in fruits, vegetables, whole grains and legumes — is probably best known for its ability to prevent or relieve constipation. But foods containing fiber can provide other health benefits as well, such as helping to maintain a healthy weight and lowering your risk of diabetes and heart disease. Selecting tasty foods that provide fiber isn't difficult. Find out how much dietary fiber you need, the foods that contain it, and how to add them to meals and snacks. What is dietary fiber? Dietary fiber, also known as roughage or bulk, includes the parts of plant foods your body can't digest or absorb. Unlike other food components, such as fats, proteins or carbohydrates — which your body breaks down and absorbs — fiber isn't digested by your body. Instead, it passes relatively intact through your stomach, small intestine and colon and out of your body. Fiber is commonly classified as soluble, which dissolves in water, or insoluble, which doesn't dissolve. Soluble fiber. This type of fiber dissolves in water to form a gel-like material. It can help lower blood cholesterol and glucose levels. Soluble fiber is found in oats, peas, beans, apples, citrus fruits, carrots, barley and psyllium. Insoluble fiber. This type of fiber promotes the movement of material through your digestive system and increases stool bulk, so it can be of benefit to those who struggle with constipation or irregular stools. Whole-wheat flour, wheat bran, nuts, beans and vegetables, such as cauliflower, green beans and potatoes, are good sources of insoluble fiber. Most plant-based foods, such as oatmeal and beans, contain both soluble and insoluble fiber. However, the amo Continue reading >>

How Fiber Helps Control High Blood Sugar

How Fiber Helps Control High Blood Sugar

Are you filling up on fiber? If you have type 2 diabetes, you should be — including high-fiber foods in your diet is a healthy way to control high blood sugar. As an added bonus, you may be able to stay full longer on the correct portion sizes than you would if you were eating more refined foods. And eating lots of soluble fiber (the kind found in oatmeal, beans, and apples, among other foods) may help reduce dangerous visceral belly fat, according to a recent study. "Fiber promotes good bowel health, lowers the risk of cancer and heart disease, and also controls your blood sugar in a certain way," explains Amy Kranick, a registered dietitian and certified diabetes educator with the adult diabetes program at Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Nashville, Tenn. When fiber is digested, your body handles it differently than the way in which refined carbohydrates, such as white flour, are digested. A portion of the fiber simply passes through your digestive system intact. This difference means that eating foods rich in fiber is less likely to cause a spike in high blood sugar. "Fiber doesn't require insulin [to digest], so it isn't counted as part of your carbohydrates," says Kranick. As a result, when you are reading labels and budgeting daily carbohydrates, you can subtract half the grams of dietary fiber from the total carbohydrate count. At the same time, you should be keeping track of how much fiber you eat. Adults need at least 25 grams of fiber daily for best health outcomes, says Kranick. Other Benefits of Fiber Fiber may also help you manage your overall eating habits, says Kranick. Here are some of the additional benefits of eating high-fiber foods: Antioxidants. Many of the foods that contain fiber also contain antioxidants, which are generally good for you Continue reading >>

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