Effect Of 24 Hours Of Starvation On Plasma Glucose And Insulin Concentrations In Subjects With Untreated Non-insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus.
Effect of 24 hours of starvation on plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in subjects with untreated non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Metabolic Research Laboratory, Veterans Administration Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN 55417, USA. Adherence to a low-calorie diet often results in a decrease in blood glucose concentration in persons with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Whether this is due to the resultant weight loss or to a decrease in caloric intake has been uncertain. We have obtained data previously that indicated a very short-term reduction in caloric intake (5 hours) resulted in a significant decrease in plasma glucose concentration in subjects with NIDDM. The purpose of the present study was to determine if a further decrease in glucose would occur if the fast was extended from 5 to 24 hours. Seven male subjects with untreated NIDDM were studied after an 11-hour overnight fast. For the subsequent 24-hour period, subjects were given only water. Blood was obtained for glucose, insulin, C-peptide, triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) alpha-amino acid nitrogen, urea nitrogen, and glucagon at hourly intervals for 24 hours beginning at 8 AM. The amount of glycogen degraded was calculated based on the potassium balance. Plasma glucose decreased from 158 mg/dL at 8 AM to a nadir of 104 mg/dL at 7 PM. It then increased by 30 mg/dL. Corresponding changes occurred in insulin and C-peptide. Serum glucagon remained unchanged. Serum alpha-amino acid nitrogen and urea nitrogen decreased. Triglycerides and NEFA increased. The calculated glycogen utilized over this period was approximately 167 g. This would provide approximately 700 kcal energy. The elevated blood glucose concentration in mild to moderately severe untreated NIDDM subjects Continue reading >>
- Effects of resveratrol on glucose control and insulin sensitivity in subjects with type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis
- Effects of resveratrol on glucose control and insulin sensitivity in subjects with type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis
- Untreated Diabetes: What Can Happen and Where You Can Get Help
Intermittent Fasting Explained: Performing A 24-hour Intermittent Fast (video)
Let’s face it, we eat when we’re feeling lonely. And sad. And frustrated. And angry. And happy. And confused. And excited. We eat in response to our emotions, and this direct connection usually results in…overeating. There are two types of hunger, and understanding the true difference between them is important in determining exactly when to eat food. Performing a single intermittent fast is a great way to experience the difference between our two types of hunger: physiological hunger and emotional hunger. Physiological hunger is the type of hunger you experience when your brain, muscles and internal organs are in a low-energy state. This is the type of hunger that you experience following a demanding workout. It’s the type of hunger you experience when you have exerted significant physical or mental energy, and are in need of fuel to replenish your energy needs. Physiological hunger is the signal to intake carbohydrates, fats, and protein in order to meet the energy requirements of repairing and growing tissues. Emotional hunger is the type of hunger you experience when a situation or thought process dictates your desire to eat. As opposed to physiological hunger, emotional hunger creates a feeling of true hunger even though the biological requirement for fuel is low or nonexistent. Understanding the difference between the two of these types of hunger can make a huge difference to your overall health. Do you eat when you’re only physiologically hungry? Do you eat when you’re emotionally hungry? Do you eat in both situations? Performing a single intermittent fast can help you determine the difference between the two types of hunger. Sample Intermittent Fasting Regimens No matter how you slice it, intermittent fasting isn’t just good for you, it’s GREAT fo Continue reading >>
The Sweet Spot For Intermittent Fasting
The Sweet Spot for Intermittent Fasting Lower insulin means greater fat loss Intermittent fasting — the practice of going without food for some (undefined) period of time — has many health benefits. It can help prevent heart disease, speed fat loss, and slow or reverse aging. There are a number of physiological mechanisms involved. It reduces inflammation and oxidative stress, leads to increased numbers and quality of mitochondria, and increases autophagy, the cellular self-cleansing process. Many of the beneficial effects are entwined with lower levels of insulin. The function of insulin is to promote energy storage and the growth of the organism. When insulin is increased, fat is stored in fat cells, and other cells take up glucose from the blood. Most importantly, when insulin is increased, lipids can’t leave fat cells. Since fat loss is all about getting lipids out of fat cells to be burned, losing fat requires some attention to how diet, exercise, and fasting cause insulin to rise or fall. Take a look at the following graph, taken from a paper by Volek et al. It shows that even small increases in insulin, within the normal range, virtually abolish lipolysis, or the breakdown of fat. This is where intermittent fasting comes in, as one of its effects is to lower insulin levels and thus increase lipolysis. The question is, how long do you need to fast before insulin comes down? Eating causes insulin to rise, the amount of the rise being dependent on a number of factors, such as type and amount of food eaten and the insulin sensitivity of the person doing the eating. High amounts of carbohydrates and lower insulin sensitivity cause a greater rise in insulin. Insulin increases and stays higher for several hours after eating — that is, during the “fed” state. Continue reading >>
Fasting And Diabetes – Dangers And Precautions To Consider
We've had a number of questions about fasting and diabetes recently — Is it okay? Will my sugars still rise? Can it help lower my numbers? Will it help me lose weight? Today I'm hoping to provide some info to explain what happens in the body during fasting, especially in relation to type 2 diabetes. And we'll also be covering the various dangers and precautions to consider if fasting is something you might look at doing in future. What do you mean by fasting? We're not talking about fasting glucose here. We're talking about food fasting — going without food for a period of time. The reason the first meal of the day is called “Breakfast” is because you are “breaking” your all night “fast.” So in one sense, we all have a familiarity with fasting–if you’ve ever fasted for a test, you’ve had to go without food (or certain types of foods) or water for a set amount of time. There are many reasons people fast–religious and health being the 2 most common. Additionally, there are many types of fasts — whether that be skipping a single meal, not eating for a day, or sometimes even going without food longer. Recently the idea of intermittent fasting has become popularized especially in the athletic sphere. Intermittent fasting is generally fasting 16-24 hours twice a week or slight variations thereof. Fasting for health purposes should always include water and can include coffee and tea. Some fasts allow/ promote drinking juice. Like I said, there are a ton of variations. But just to clear one thing up, forgetting to eat or skipping a meal is not considered fasting. What Happens During Fasting? Our bodies are well designed to adapt to go certain periods of time without food–this is why we store certain nutrients in our tissues, including fat tissue. Thi Continue reading >>
The Benefits Of Intermittent Fasting
Posted by:Dr. Brian Mowll onApril 28, 2018 You may have heard about intermittent fasting (IF) and that it offers numerous health benefits but are still unsure what those benefits are and how to do it correctly. In this blog article Im going to talk about why IF is so beneficial, especially to people with diabetes, and how you can easily incorporate it into your daily and weekly routine. Intermittent fasting involves alternating cycles of fasting and eating. All of us do this naturally anyway. We might eat dinner at 7PM and then not eat again until 7AM the next morning which is why that meal is traditionally called breakfast or break-fast. The only difference is instead of a normal 12-hour fast, IF typically involves extending the fasting period to between 16 and 24 hours. He who eats until he is sick must fast until he is well. English proverb IF doesnt tell you what to eat, simply when. And, unlike other diets that can cause you weight loss and gain, studies on intermittent fasting conclude it can cause long-term weight loss, improve metabolic rate, protect against disease, and even help us live longer. [1, 2] There are several approaches to IF and each splits the day or week into periods of fasting and eating. As I mentioned earlier, we all naturally fast when we sleep at night. Incorporating IF can be as simple as extending that period a little longer by skipping breakfast and eating your first meal at noon and last meal at 8PM. Maybe youre surprised or concerned about the idea of skipping breakfast. Havent we all been taught that breakfast is the most important meal of the day? Well, technically, you would still eat breakfast, it would just be at noon when most people are having lunch, thats all. This approach to IF is called the 16/8 method and gives you a 16 hour Continue reading >>
Fasting Blood Sugar: Normal Levels And Testing
Fasting blood sugar provides vital clues about how the body is managing blood sugar levels. Blood sugar tends to peak about an hour after eating, and declines after that. High fasting blood sugar levels point to insulin resistance or diabetes. Abnormally low fasting blood sugar could be due to diabetes medications. Knowing when to test and what to look for can help keep people with, or at risk of, diabetes healthy. What are fasting blood sugar levels? Following a meal, blood sugar levels rise, usually peaking about an hour after eating. How much blood sugar rises by and the precise timing of the peak depends on diet. Large meals tend to trigger larger blood sugar rises. High-sugar carbohydrates, such as bread and sweetened snacks, also cause more significant blood sugar swings. Normally, as blood sugar rises, the pancreas releases insulin. Insulin lowers blood sugar, breaking it down so that the body can use it for energy or store it for later. However, people who have diabetes have difficulties with insulin in the following ways: People with type 1 diabetes do not produce enough insulin because the body attacks insulin-producing cells. People with type 2 diabetes do not respond well to insulin and, later, may not make enough insulin. In both cases, the result is the same: elevated blood sugar levels and difficulties using sugar. This means that fasting blood sugar depends on three factors: the contents of the last meal the size of the last meal the body's ability to produce and respond to insulin Blood sugar levels in between meals offer a window into how the body manages sugar. High levels of fasting blood sugar suggest that the body has been unable to lower the levels of sugar in the blood. This points to either insulin resistance or inadequate insulin production, an Continue reading >>
9.4 After Fasting 24 Hours?
I Have A Fasting Blood Sugar Level 107
According to SAguidelines, a fasting laboratory glucose (done in the morning after fasting for8 hours) is considered normal if it is less than 110, pre-diabetes if it isbetween 110 and 126, and diabetes if it is 126 or more. Normally we would want twoabnormal results, or one abnormal result with associated symptoms liketiredness, weight loss, drinking lots of water and passing too much urine. Theother way to test glucose is to do a glucose tolerance test where you go to thelab fasting and they give one 75grams of glucose to drink in water and thentest your glucose levels after 2 hours. The cut off for diabetes is a level of200 or higher at 2 hours and normal is less than 140. Between these two levelsis considered pre- diabetes. Some patients will be normal on one test andabnormal on another, so sometimes we may do both. We dont normally usethe fingerprick test, as the levels are a bit more variable. If you are pre-diabetic, then Type 2 diabetes can be prevented or delayed, and trials done in highrisk patients have shown that by losing 4 kg's in 4 years, one can reduce theirchances of getting diabetes by 58%. Most trials used a low fat, high fiber, lowGI diet with exercise, but potentially a low carb diet would work as well. AMediterranean diet has also been shown to be useful.Losing weight isalways hard. The best way is to cut down on total calories, more so than thetype of calories, for your body can only burn so many calories a day, and ifyou eat less than this, then weight loss will occur. Exerciserequirements for weight loss are a lot and entail about 60-90 minutes everyday. The information provided does not constitute a diagnosis of your condition. You should consult a medical practitioner or other appropriate health care professional for a physical exmanication, Continue reading >>
Fasting For Weight Loss And Its Effect On Blood Sugar
Fasting for Weight Loss and its Effect on Blood Sugar In the last couple days Ive received a number of emails and posts about using short periods of fasting for weight loss and its effect on blood sugar. In a post to my blog I was told that a couple people who are diabetic have been using short periods of fasting with a lot of success and have actually been able to lower the dosages of their medications. I also received an email from a personal trainer who wants to use Eat Stop Eat with her clients but is worried about the effects that using short periods of fasting for weight loss would have on blood sugar levels. Mostly, she was concerned about hypoglycemia. Throughout the 24 hour cycles of eating, digestion, and fasting, the amount of glucose in your blood is generally maintained within a range of 70-140 mg/dL (3.9-7.8 mmol/L) as long as you are healthy. Hypoglycemia is another way of saying low blood sugar. While many people claim to suffer from low blood sugar, as little as 5-10% of the population actually have a malfunction in their ability to regulate their blood sugar levels. There is no actual cut off value for blood glucose levels that truly defines hypoglycemia for all people and purposes. Research in healthy adults shows that mental efficiency declines slightly but measurably as blood glucose falls below about 65 mg/dL (3.6 mmol/L). However, the precise level of glucose considered low enough to define hypoglycemia is dependent on the age of the person, the health of the person, the measurement method, and the presence or absence of negative effects. According to the research on using fasting for weight loss , a 24 hour fast should not place you into a hypoglycemic state, and I have not seen any research that has shown a subject going below 3.6 mmol/L blood Continue reading >>
Questions And Answers - Blood Sugar
Use the chart below to help understand how different test results can indicate pre-diabetes or diabetes Fasting Blood Glucose Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) Random Blood Sugar (taken any time of day with or without fasting) A1C Ideal Result Less than 100mg/dl Less than 140 mg/dl Less than 140 (even after eating a large meal) Less than 5.7% Pre-diabetes 100-125mg/dl 140-199mg/dl 140-200 5.7% to 6.4% Diabetes 126mg/dl and greater 200 mg/dl and greater 200 or greater 6.5% or more Q: I have been told that I have diabetes, or "pre-diabetes", or that I am in the "honeymoon period" . My readings are all over the place: sometimes in the 120's, others in the 90's, sometimes, but rarely in the 150-170's. My doctor does not want to put me on medication yet. I exercise regularly and am not overweight though my diet is variable. I certainly like sweets, pizza, and pasta. What is the long term effect of these continued high blood sugar levels? A: Firstly, kudos for your physician for giving diet/lifestyle changes a chance to work. Reduction of body fat often is the first best start. This may or may not be true in your case but certainly sweets, pizza, etc. are affecting your numbers. If you can discipline yourself at this time to eat unrefined foods and be more active, your beta cells that produce insulin may get the rest they need to become efficient again. Our diabetes management booklet has many referenced foods/supplements that may help to stabilize your glucose levels. In time, your favorite foods may be reintroduced in moderate amounts. You appear to be more in the pre-diabetes range at this time. Complications are a long process. If your daytime levels stay under 120-140, that is good. Fasting levels are higher due to hormonal activity nighttime; these levels are a much sl Continue reading >>
The How To Guide On Fasting: Reduce Blood Sugar And Lose Weight Quickly!
The How to Guide on Fasting In my article 2 weeks ago where I wrote about why fasting is good for your health I mentioned that fasting has been shown to help with weight loss, reduction of blood sugar, increase in insulin sensitivity and the control of Type 2 diabetes. Today I’m going share with you how to prepare for a fast and the various fasting protocols; in short a step by step how to guide on fasting. First, we need to define what fasting IS and ISN’T. Fasting Is Normal! Fasting is simply not eating. Yup, you read that right. In its simplest and most well know form, when you stop eating after dinner at 7pm and you don’t eat anything until breakfast the next morning at 7am, you’ve just completed a 12 hour fast – this is what most people do, so fasting is already part of our lifestyles whether we acknowledge the fact or not. I’m sure most folks have slept in during weekends and some may not have gotten up until 10am and then proceed to have brunch at 11am. If you’ve done that, you’ve fasted for 16 hours without even knowing it. If you’ve read my earlier article on fasting, you’ll remember that fasting is very different from starvation. Simply put, you can control when you want to end the fast; but in starvation, you don’t really don’t know when your next meal is coming so you don’t have any control. So with this, I want reiterate that fasting IS NOT starvation. Does Fasting Cause Peptic or Gastric Ulcers? No, fasting will NOT cause peptic or gastric ulcers as is commonly believed. Naysayers who believe this old wife’s tale will tell you that the stomach starts excreting gastric acid during regular meal times, and if you don’t eat, this will start hurting you, and sooner or later it’ll lead to cause you to develop peptic or gastric ulc Continue reading >>
Intermittent Fasting, Cortisol And Blood Sugar
There’s been a lot of discussion about the benefits of intermittent fasting (IF) in the paleo community lately. Paul Jaminet mentions it’s role in boosting the immune system in his book, The Perfect Health Diet, and IF can also be helpful for those trying to lose weight and tune their metabolism. From an evolutionary perspective, intermittent fasting was probably the normal state of affairs. There were no grocery stores, restaurants or convenience stores, and food was not nearly as readily available or easy to come by as it is today. Nor were there watches, schedules, lunch breaks or the kind of structure and routine we have in the modern world. This means it’s likely that our paleo ancestors often did go 12-16 hours between meals on a regular basis, and perhaps had full days when they ate lightly or didn’t eat at all. So, while I agree that IF is part of our heritage, and that it can be helpful in certain situations, I don’t believe it’s an appropriate strategy for everyone. Why? Because fasting can elevate cortisol levels. One of cortisol’s effects is that it raises blood sugar. So, in someone with blood sugar regulation issues, fasting can actually make them worse. I’ve seen this time and time again with my patients. Almost all of my patients have blood sugar imbalances. And it’s usually not as simple as “high blood sugar” or “low blood sugar”. They often have a combination of both (reactive hypoglycemia), or strange blood sugar patterns that, on the surface, don’t make much sense. These folks aren’t eating a Standard American Diet. Most of them are already on a paleo-type or low-carb diet. Yet they still have blood sugar issues. In these cases, cortisol dysregulation is almost always the culprit. When these patients try intermittent fas Continue reading >>
Why Are Fasting Glucose Levels High?
By:Hope S. Warshaw, R.D., CDE | Diabetic Living Magazine If you have high fasting blood glucose numbers, it may be because of how your body is using the hormones involved with glucose and diabetes -- not the nighttime snack before bed. Read on to see what can cause high morning blood sugars. Stumped by high fasting blood glucose results? Join the club. "It just doesn't compute. When I snack before bed, my fastings are lower than when I limit my night nibbles," says Pete Hyatt, 59, PWD type 2. "It's logical for people to point the finger for high fasting blood sugar numbers at what they eat between dinner and bed, but surprisingly food isn't the lead villain," says Robert Chilton, M.D., a cardiologist and professor of medicine at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. The true culprit is compromised hormonal control of blood glucose levels. Related: 12 Healthy Ways to Lower Your Blood Sugar During the years (up to a decade) that type 2 diabetes develops, the hormonal control of blood glucose breaks down. Four hormones are involved in glucose control: Insulin, made in the beta cells of the pancreas, helps the body use glucose from food by enabling glucose to move into the body's cells for energy. People with type 2 diabetes have slowly dwindling insulin reserves. Amylin, secreted from the beta cells, slows the release of glucose into the bloodstream after eating by slowing stomach-emptying and increasing the feeling of fullness. People with type 1 and type 2 diabetes are amylin-deficient. Incretins, a group of hormones secreted from the intestines that includes glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), enhance the body's release of insulin after eating. This in turn slows stomach-emptying, promotes fullness, delays the release of glucose into the bloodstrea Continue reading >>
Intermittent Fasting: Not So Fast
I’m sure that at least a few of you have heard or read about the latest trend in weight loss called “intermittent fasting.” The very word “fasting” is probably less than appealing, as it pretty much means you don’t eat or drink anything (except perhaps water) for a specified amount of time. Starvation is not exactly recommended among health professionals. But intermittent fasting is different. Is it something you should try? What is intermittent fasting, anyway? Intermittent fasting has been the talk of the town, so to speak, thanks to two recent books to hit the market: The Fast Diet by Dr. Michael Mosley and Mimi Spencer, and The Overnight Diet by Caroline Apovian, MD. Intermittent fasting essentially means that you skip a meal or severely restrict calories on certain days of the week with the intention of losing weight, controlling blood glucose, and/or decreasing heart disease risk. But on the other days of the week, you can pretty much eat what you want (within reason, of course). For many people, this concept sounds appealing. Limiting calories for a couple days a week doesn’t sound that bad if you can eat what you want the rest of the time. The Fast Diet, also called the The 5:2 Diet has you eat between 500 and 600 calories (women get 500 calories, men get 600 calories) for two days out of the week, spread over two meals of about 250 to 300 calories. These fast days should not be right in a row, and your food choices ideally should be more plant-based and emphasize protein. The premise is that after several hours of fasting, the body burns up its carbohydrate stores and shifts to burning fat for fuel. Many claim that intermittent fasting also helps to blunt appetite. The Overnight Diet emphasizes getting enough sleep; a lack of sleep can disrupt met Continue reading >>
Fasting Physiology – Part Ii
There are many misconceptions about fasting. It is useful to review the physiology of what happens to our body when we eat nothing. Physiology Glucose and fat are the body’s main sources of energy. If glucose is not available, then the body will adjust by using fat, without any detrimental health effects. This is simply a natural part of life. Periods of low food availability have always been a part of human history. Mechanisms have evolved to adapt to this fact of Paleolithic life. The transition from the fed state to the fasted state occurs in several stages. Feeding – During meals, insulin levels are raised. This allows uptake of glucose into tissues such as the muscle or brain to be used directly for energy. Excess glucose is stored as glycogen in the liver. The post-absorptive phase – 6-24 hours after beginning fasting. Insulin levels start to fall. Breakdown of glycogen releases glucose for energy. Glycogen stores last for roughly 24 hours. Gluconeogenesis – 24 hours to 2 days – The liver manufactures new glucose from amino acids in a process called “gluconeogenesis”. Literally, this is translated as “making new glucose”. In non-diabetic persons, glucose levels fall but stay within the normal range. Ketosis – 2-3 days after beginning fasting – The low levels of insulin reached during fasting stimulate lipolysis, the breakdown of fat for energy. The storage form of fat, known as triglycerides, is broken into the glycerol backbone and three fatty acid chains. Glycerol is used for gluconeogenesis. Fatty acids may be used for directly for energy by many tissues in the body, but not the brain. Ketone bodies, capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier, are produced from fatty acids for use by the brain. After four days of fasting, approximately 75 Continue reading >>