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Biochemical Effect Of Diabetes

Clinical Pharmacokinetics Of Rifampin In Patients With Tuberculosis And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Association With Biochemical And Immunological Parameters

Clinical Pharmacokinetics Of Rifampin In Patients With Tuberculosis And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Association With Biochemical And Immunological Parameters

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health issue due to the increasing incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which exacerbates the clinical course of TB and increases the risk of poor long-term outcomes. The aim of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics of rifampin (RIF) and its relationship with biochemical and immunological parameters in patients with TB and T2DM. The biochemical and immunological parameters were assessed on the same day that the pharmacokinetic evaluation of RIF was performed. Factors related to the metabolic syndrome that is characteristic of T2DM patients were not detected in the TB-T2DM group (where predominant malnutrition was present) or in the TB group. Percentages of CD8+ T lymphocytes and NK cells were diminished in the TB and TB-T2DM patients, who had high tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-) and low interleukin-17 (IL-17) levels compared to healthy volunteers. Delayed RIF absorption was observed in the TB and TB-T2DM patients; absorption was poor and slower in the latter group due to poor glycemic control. RIF clearance was also slower in the diabetic patients, thereby prolonging the mean residence time of RIF. There was a significant association between glycemic control, increased TNF- serum concentrations, and RIF pharmacokinetics in the TB-T2DM patients. These altered metabolic and immune conditions may be factors to be considered in anti-TB therapy management when TB and T2DM are concurrently present. Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In 2013, an estimated 9 million people developed the disease, resulting in 1.5 million deaths ( 1 ). One-third of the population is infected Continue reading >>

Biochemical And Neurotransmitters Changes Associated With Tramadol In Streptozotocin-induced Diabetes In Rats

Biochemical And Neurotransmitters Changes Associated With Tramadol In Streptozotocin-induced Diabetes In Rats

Copyright © 2014 Essam Ezzeldin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract The incidence of diabetes is increasing worldwide. Chronic neuropathic pain occurs in approximately 25% of diabetic patients. Tramadol, an atypical analgesic with a unique dual mechanism of action, is used in the management of painful diabetic neuropathy. It acts on monoamine transporters to inhibit the reuptake of norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-HT), and dopamine (DA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of diabetes on the brain neurotransmitter alterations induced by tramadol in rats, and to study the hepatic and renal toxicities of the drug. Eighty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into two sets: the normal set and the diabetic set. Diabetes was induced in rats. Tramadol was administered orally once daily for 28 days. The levels of DA, NE, and 5-HT in cerebral cortex, thalamus/hypothalamus, midbrain, and brainstem were evaluated in rats. In addition, the renal toxicity and histopathological effects of the drug were assessed. The induction of diabetes altered neurotransmitter levels. Oral administration of tramadol significantly decreased the neurotransmitter levels. Diabetes significantly altered the effects of tramadol in all brain regions. Tramadol affected function and histology of the liver and kidney. The clinical effects of tramadol in diabetic patients should be stressed. 1. Introduction The incidence of diabetes has been increasing because of population growth, aging, urbanization, and increasing prevalence of obesity [1–3]. Globally, an estimated 150 million people are Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

Return to The Medical Biochemistry Page Diabetes is any disorder characterized by excessive urine excretion. The most common form of diabetes is diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder in which there is an inability to oxidize carbohydrate due to disturbances in insulin function. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by elevated glucose in the plasma and episodic ketoacidosis. Additional symptoms of diabetes mellitus include excessive thirst, glucosuria, polyuria, lipemia and hunger. If left untreated the disease can lead to fatal ketoacidosis. Other forms of diabetes include diabetes insipidus and brittle diabetes. Diabetes insipidus is the result of a deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (ADH, also referred to as vasopressin or arginine vasopressin, AVP). The major symptom of diabetes insipidus (excessive output of dilute urine) results from an inability of the kidneys to resorb water. Brittle diabetes is a form that is very difficult to control. It is characterized by unexplained oscillations between hypoglycemia and acidosis. Criteria, which clinically establish an individual as suffering from diabetes mellitus, include: 1. having a fasting plasma glucose level in excess of 126mg/dL (7mmol/L). Normal levels should be less than 100mg/dL (5.6mmol/L) or: 2. having plasma glucose levels in excess of 200mg/dL (11mmol/L) at two times points during an oral glucose tolerance test, OGTT, one of which must be within 2 hrs of ingestion of glucose. Different clinical labs may use different units for the measurement of serum glucose concentrations, either in mmol/L or mg/dL. One can easily interconvert these values using the following formulas: mg/dL x 0.0555 = mmol/L (or simply divide mg/dL by 18) mmol/L x 18.0182 = mg/dL (or simply multiply mmol/L by 18) The earlier a person is dia Continue reading >>

Effects Of Diabetes-induced Hyperglycemia In The Heart: Biochemical And Structural Alterations

Effects Of Diabetes-induced Hyperglycemia In The Heart: Biochemical And Structural Alterations

Effects of Diabetes-Induced Hyperglycemia in the Heart: Biochemical and Structural Alterations Part of the Advances in Biochemistry in Health and Disease book series (ABHD, volume 9) Hyperglycemia (HG) plays a major role in the development of diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications. HG induces numerous maladaptations at the cellular level and moreover it is an independent risk factor to worsen cardiac performance and cell survival. The heart is a major target organ for damage with hyperglycemia. Alterations as a result of HG can lead to the development of a diabetic cardiomyopathy, resulting in changes to cardiac structure and function. Mechanisms damaging the heart are similar to those that damage the vasculature, but are more widespread in the myocardium. Four major pathways are implicated in HG-induced cardiac and vascular damage, including increases in advanced glycation end products (AGEs), enhanced hexosamine and polyol flux, and activation of classical isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC). These changes lead to abnormalities such as increased ventricular stiffness, cardiac fibrosis, derangement in cellular calcium ion homeostasis, and reduced myocyte contractility, resulting in heart failure (HF) over time. These pathways reflect upon a single HG-induced process of overproduction of superoxide by the mitochondrial electron-transport chain, which is responsible for the changes occurring in the heart. This chapter discusses the HG-induced pathways, focusing on their effects on the structure of the diabetic heart, as well as examining the downstream signaling whereby oxidative stress leads to myocardial fibrosis and impaired contractile function. In addition, this review highlights the role of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in endothelial dysfunction and the effects of hum Continue reading >>

The Effect Of Troxerutin On Alterations Of Lipid Profile And Biochemical Enzymes In Blood Of Rats With Chronic Diabetes | Badazadeh | International Journal Of Phytomedicine

The Effect Of Troxerutin On Alterations Of Lipid Profile And Biochemical Enzymes In Blood Of Rats With Chronic Diabetes | Badazadeh | International Journal Of Phytomedicine

The effect of troxerutin on alterations of lipid profile and biochemical enzymes in blood of rats with chronic diabetes reza badazadeh, vajiheh ghorbanzadeh, leila chodari DOI: Background &Aims: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a progressive disease that leads to complex disorders such as biochemical changes in the blood. The use of medicinal plants are superior to synthetic drugs because of the few side-effects in disease prevention. In this study, we examined the effect of troxerutin on lipid profile and biochemical enzymes in the blood of type 1 diabetic rats. Materials & Methods: 32 male Wistar rats (200-250) were randomly divided into four groups: control, diabetes, control+ troxerutin, diabetes+ troxerutin. Type 1 diabetes was induced by i.p injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg) in animals in diabetic groups. Lasted for 4 weeks, oral administration of troxerutin (150 mg/kg) was carried daily for 4 weeks. At the end of study, anesthesia was induced intraperitoneally with sodium pentobarbital (mg / kg 60). Blood samples was collected for measuring lipid profile and biochemical enzymes in blood of rats. Results: Diabete significantly increased LDL, COL, TG and significantly decreased HDL compared to the control group. Treatment diabetic rats with troxerutin for 4 weeks significantly decreased LDL, COL, TG and significantly increased HDL.furthermore, Diabetes significantly increased ALT, AST, LDH, and CPK in blood of rats. Treatment diabetic rats with troxerutin for 4 weeks significantly decreased ALT, AST, LDH, and CPK in blood of rats compared to the control group. Conclusion: Troxerutin improve the lipid profile and reduce biochemical enzymes in blood of diabetic rats.In this way could be useful in reducing the complications of diabetes. KeyWords: Diabetes; Troxerutin; Continue reading >>

Principles Of Biochemistry/glucose, Glycogen And Diabetes

Principles Of Biochemistry/glucose, Glycogen And Diabetes

Glucose (C6H12O6, also known as D-glucose, dextrose, or grape sugar) is a simple sugar (monosaccharide) and an important carbohydrate in biology. Cells use it as a source of energy and a metabolic intermediate. Glucose is one of the main products of photosynthesis and starts cellular respiration. Glucose exists in several different structures, but all of these structures can be divided into two families of mirror-images (stereoisomers). Only one set of these isomers exists in nature, those derived from the "right-handed form" of glucose, denoted D-glucose. D-glucose is often referred to as dextrose. The term dextrose is derived from dextrorotatory glucose. Solutions of dextrose rotate polarized light to the right (in Latin: dexter = "right"). Starch and cellulose are polymers derived from the dehydration of D-glucose. The other stereoisomer, called L-glucose, is hardly found in nature. The name "glucose" comes from the Greek word glukus (γλυκύς), meaning "sweet". The suffix "-ose" denotes a sugar. The name "dextrose" and the 'D-' prefix come from Latin dexter ("right"), referring to the handedness of the molecules. Glucose is a monosaccharide with formula C6H12O6 or H-(C=O)-(CHOH)5-H, whose five hydroxyl (OH) groups are arranged in a specific way along its six-carbon backbone.[1] In its fleeting open-chain form, the glucose molecule has an open (as opposed to cyclic) and unbranched backbone of six carbon atoms, C-1 through C-6; where C-1 is part of an aldehyde group H(C=O)-, and each of the other five carbons bears one hydroxyl group -OH. The remaining bonds of the backbone carbons are satisfied by hydrogen atoms -H. Therefore glucose is an hexose and an aldose, or an aldohexose. Each of the four carbons C-2 through C-5 is chiral, meaning that its four bonds conne Continue reading >>

Chemistry And Biochemistry Of Type 2 Diabetes

Chemistry And Biochemistry Of Type 2 Diabetes

Chemistry and Biochemistry of Type 2 Diabetes Department of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases, Mail Zone T2E, Pharmacia Corporation, 800 North Lindbergh Boulevard, St. Louis, Missouri 63167 Cite this: Chem. Rev. 2004, 104, 3, 1255-1282 Article Views are the COUNTER-compliant sum of full text article downloads since November 2008 (both PDF and HTML) across all institutions and individuals. These metrics are regularly updated to reflect usage leading up to the last few days. Citations are the number of other articles citing this article, calculated by Crossref and updated daily. Find more information about Crossref citation counts. The Altmetric Attention Score is a quantitative measure of the attention that a research article has received online. Clicking on the donut icon will load a page at altmetric.com with additional details about the score and the social media presence for the given article. Find more information on the Altmetric Attention Score and how the score is calculated. Note: In lieu of an abstract, this is the article's first page. This article is cited by 212 publications. Xue Li, Mingming Zhen, Chen Zhou, Ruijun Deng, Tong Yu, Yingjie Wu, Chunying Shu, Chunru Wang, Chunli Bai. Gadofullerene Nanoparticles Reverse Dysfunctions of Pancreas and Improve Hepatic Insulin Resistance for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Treatment. ACS Nano 2019, 13 (8) , 8597-8608. DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.9b02050. Feiran Xu, Yijun Yao, Xiaoying Xu, Mei Wang, Mengmeng Pan, Shengyang Ji, Jin Wu, Donglei Jiang, Xingrong Ju, Lifeng Wang. Identification and Quantification of DPP-IV-Inhibitory Peptides from Hydrolyzed-Rapeseed-Protein-Derived Napin with Analysis of the Interactions between Key Residues and Protein Domains. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2019, 67 (13) , 3679-3690. Continue reading >>

Biochemical Studies On The Effect Of Medicinal Plants Gymnema And Andrographis Species On Diabetes Induced Wistar Rats

Biochemical Studies On The Effect Of Medicinal Plants Gymnema And Andrographis Species On Diabetes Induced Wistar Rats

Biochemical studies on the effect of medicinal plants gymnema and andrographis species on diabetes induced wistar rats Abstract: Diabetic mellitus was induced in adult wistar rats using the chemical compound streptozotocin which induces a type of diabetes which is similar to diabetes mellitus with non-ketosis hyperglycemia in some animal species. The changes in MDA (lipid peroxidation) and glucose (by GOD method) levels in blood of both normal and diabetic rat were analyzed. Diabetes induced rats were treated with leaf extracts of Gymnema sylvestre and Andrographis paniculata which are of medicinal importance. Later after inducing diabetes the rats were treated with medicinal plants, Andrographis paniculata and Gymnema sylvestre which are well known for their anti diabetic and antioxidative property in order to control the glucose and MDA levels. The blood plasma of diabetic and normal rats was analyzed for the levels of MDA (lipid peroxidation) and glucose levels. Our experimental results indicated that Gymnema sylvestre and Andrographis paniculata as a dietary supplement, possesses antidiabetic effect with hyperglycemia as the major target. These suggest that Gymnema sylvestre and Andrographis paniculata can be used as a potential natural antidiabetic agent for treating and postponing the appearance of complications that arise due to Diabetics. Further studies are in progress to isolate, identify and characterize the active principles. Continue reading >>

Evaluation Of Biochemical Toxicity And Antioxidant Propertiesof Pioglitazone On Albino Wistar Rats

Evaluation Of Biochemical Toxicity And Antioxidant Propertiesof Pioglitazone On Albino Wistar Rats

Evaluation of Biochemical Toxicity and Antioxidant Propertiesof Pioglitazone on Albino Wistar Rats Pioglitazone is one of the thiazolidinedione anti-diabetic drugs which have been used for the treatment of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. This study aims at investigating the biochemical effects and safety of pioglitazone (PIO) at various concentrations in female Wistar rats. A total of 28 rats were randomly divided into four groups of seven animals each. Groups 1-4 were given 0.5 mL kg1 b.wt., day1 of distilled water as normal control; 15, 30 and 45 mg kg1 b.wt., day1 of PIO, respectively as treatment groups 2, 3 and 4, respectively for 28 days. Using standard biochemical kits and reported chemical procedures, plasma biochemical parameter and organ lipid peroxidation effects were determined in all the groups. There was significant increase (p<0.05) in plasma total protein concentration of group 3 and 4 in comparison with control. There was also significant (p<0.05) reduction in total and LDL cholesterols in PIO-treated groups and concentration of TBARS was reduced in the liver and heart of PIO-treated groups in comparison with normal control. There was no significant alteration in the concentrations and activities of liver and kidney function markers of PIO treated groups in comparison with normal control groups. Pioglitazone at highest concentration of 45 mg kg1 b.wt., for the duration of 28 days did not elicit any measurable biochemical toxicity on non-diabetic rat model. Received: August 28, 2016; Accepted: February 03, 2017; Published: February 21, 2017 Copyright: 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the creative commons attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided Continue reading >>

Effect Of Naringerin On Biochemical Parameters In The Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

Effect Of Naringerin On Biochemical Parameters In The Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

Effect of naringerin on biochemical parameters in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats Ana Anglica Henrique FernandesI, * ; Ethel Lourenzi Barbosa NovelliI; Ary Fernandes JuniorII; Cristiano Machado GalhardiI IDepartamento de Qumica e Bioqumica; Instituto de Biocincias; Universidade Estadual Paulista; So Paulo - SP - Brasil IIDepartamento de Microbiologia e Imunologia; Instituto de Biocincias; Universidade Estadual Paulista; So Paulo - SP - Brasil Amongst the numerous co-adjuvant therapies which could influence the incidence and progression of diabetic complications, antioxidants and flavonoids are currently being tested in clinical trials. We investigated the effect of naringerin on biochemical parameters in streptozotocin-induced (STZ - 60 mg/kg, i.p.) diabetic rats. Male rats were divided into four groups: G1: untreated controls; G2: normal rats receiving naringerin; G3: untreated diabetics; G4: diabetics rats receiving naringerin. The naringerin (50mg/kg, i.p,) decreased the hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia associated with STZ-diabetes. The concentrations of serum insulin in treated diabetic rats tended to be increased. Naringerin treatment prevents STZ-induced changes in the activities of ALT, AST and LDH in the liver and heart, indicating the protective effect of naringerin against the hepatic and cardiac toxicity caused by STZ. The glycogen level in cardiac and hepatic tissues elevated with naringerin in diabetic rats. The naringerin can improve the glucose and lipid metabolism and is beneficial in preventing diabetic complications. Key words: Naringerin, hypoglycaemic activity, streptozotocin, diabetes mellitus, aminotransferases, hepatic and cardiac tissues Dentre as numerosas terapias para minimizar as complicaes diabticas, os antioxidantes e flavonoide Continue reading >>

Chronic Effect Of Aerobic Exercise On Anthropometric, Biochemical And Hemodynamic Variables In Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review | Revista Andaluza De Medicina Del Deporte

Chronic Effect Of Aerobic Exercise On Anthropometric, Biochemical And Hemodynamic Variables In Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review | Revista Andaluza De Medicina Del Deporte

Rev Andal Med Deporte 2016;9:173-9 - DOI: 10.1016/j.ramd.2015.09.005 Chronic effect of aerobic exercise on anthropometric, biochemical and hemodynamic variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review Efecto crnico de ejercicio aerbico en variables antropomtricas, bioqumicas y hemodinmicas en individuos con diabetes mellitus tipo 2: una revisin sistemtica Efeito crnico do exerccio aerbico sobre variveis antropomtricas, bioqumicas e hemodinmicas em indivduos com diabetes mellitus tipo 2: uma reviso sistemtica , P. Grudka Heizen b , V.S. Corralo a , G.A. Gonzaga dos Santos b , N.M. Moura Soares c a Graduate Program in Health Sciences, Unochapec University, Brazil b Physical Education Course, Unochapec University, Brazil c Physical Education Course, Tiradentes University - UNIT, Brazil Recibido 07 abril 2015, Aceptado 09 septiembre 2015 The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of aerobic exercise on biochemical, anthropometric and hemodynamic profiles of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, in randomized clinical trials and casecontrol studies. The databases used in the study were: MEDLINE, BVS (LiLacs), IBECS (Spain), MED Caribbean and Central Controlled Clinical Trial Registry. We included studies published from 2004 to 2014. Were analyzed anthropometric (body mass index, waist circumference and percentage of body fat), hemodynamic (blood pressure and heart rate) and biochemical parameters (glycemia, glycated hemoglobin, insulin, cholesterol-HDL, cholesterol-LDL and triglycerides). The results showed that, aerobic exercise of moderate intensity and often three or more times a week, promoted a significant reduction in waist circumference, blood glucose and diastolic blood pressure. It is concluded that there are benefits of aerobic ex Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus - Biochemistry

Diabetes Mellitus - Biochemistry

1.  Diabetes mellitus is the 3rd leading cause of death in many developed countries.  Diabetes is a major cause of blindness, renal failure, amputation, heart attacks and stroke.  Diabetes mellitus is a characterized by increased blood glucose level (hyperglycemia) due to insufficient or inefficient (incompetent) insulin. 2.  Insulin is a polypeptide hormone produced by the β-cells of islets of Langerhans of pancreas.  It influences the metabolism of carbohydrate, fat & protein.  It is an anabolic hormone, promotes the synthesis of glycogen, triacylglycerols & proteins. 3.  Human insulin (mol. wt. 5,7341) contains 51 amino acids, arranged in 2 polypeptide chains.  A chain – 21 amino acids & B chain – 30 amino acids.  Both are held together by 2 interchain disulfide bridges, connecting A7 to B7 & A20 to B19.  There is an intrachain disulfide link in chain A between the amino acids 6 & 11. 4.  The gene for insulin synthesis is located on chromosome 11.  The synthesis of insulin involves two precursors, namely preproinsulin with 108 amino acids (mol. wt. 11,500) & proinsulin with 86 amino acids (mol. wt. 9,000). 5.  They are sequentially degraded to form the active hormone insulin & a connecting peptide (C-peptide).  Insulin & C-peptide are produced in equimolar concentration.  C-peptide is biologically inactive.  Its estimation is useful index for the endogenous production of insulin. 6.  In the β-cells, insulin (also proinsulin) combines with zinc to form complexes.  In this complex form, insulin is stored in the granules of the cytosol which is released in response to various stimuli by exocytosis. 7.  Factors stimulating insulin secretion:  Glucose & amino acids  Gastrointestinal hormones – secretin Continue reading >>

Excessive Insulin Therapy: Biochemical Effects And Clinical Repercussions: Current Concepts Of Counterregulation In Type I Diabetes

Excessive Insulin Therapy: Biochemical Effects And Clinical Repercussions: Current Concepts Of Counterregulation In Type I Diabetes

Excessive doses of insulin cause unstable or "brittle" diabetes in many diabetic patients. Chronic insulin overtreatment can be very difficult to recognize because nocturnal hypoglycemia may be infrequent and asymptomatic. Recognition of subtle historical clues and informed interpretation of laboratory results facilitate diagnosis. Some insulin-treated diabetic patients fail to respond to severe nocturnal hypoglycemia with the acute secretion of counterregulatory hormones. "Rebound" morning hyperglycemia coincides with decreased plasma free insulin levels and the normal diurnal rise in plasma cortisol levels. Moreover, these patients show hyperresponsiveness to counterregulatory hormones (particularly cortisol and epinephrine), exaggerated hepatic glucose production, and prolonged impairment of peripheral and splanchnic glucose disposal. When chronic overtreatment is suspected, insulin therapy must be modified to better approximate physiologic needs for glucose disposal. Until fundamental problems of insulin replacement are solved, chronic insulin overtreatment should be considered as one cause of unstable diabetes. Continue reading >>

Effects Of Melatonin On Biochemical Factors And Food And Water Consumption In Diabetic Rats Bibak B, Khalili M, Rajaei Z, Soukhtanloo M, Hadjzadeh Ma, Hayatdavoudi P - Adv Biomed Res

Effects Of Melatonin On Biochemical Factors And Food And Water Consumption In Diabetic Rats Bibak B, Khalili M, Rajaei Z, Soukhtanloo M, Hadjzadeh Ma, Hayatdavoudi P - Adv Biomed Res

Background: Diabetic neuropathy is one of the serious problems due to microvessel vasculopathy in diabetes. It has been reported that hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia are the underlying mechanisms in inducing and progression of diabetic neuropathy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of melatonin on serum glucose and lipid levels, as well as food consumption and water intake in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Eighty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to six groups including; normal control group, diabetic control group and 4 diabetic experimental groups that received melatonin intraperitoneally at doses of 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg at the end of sixth week after verification of neuropathy by means of evaluation of sciatic nerve conduction velocity (MNCV), for two weeks. Blood glucose and lipid levels, body weight, the amounts of food consumption, and water intake were determined in all groups at weeks 0 (before diabetes induction), 3, 6, and at the end of eighth week. Results: Treatment with melatonin reduced significantly the serum glucose (P < 0.001) and triglyceride (P < 0.05) levels, food consumption (P < 0.001), and water intake (P < 0.001) in diabetic rats at the end of eighth week. However, melatonin had no significant effect on body weight of diabetic animals. Conclusions: Treatment with melatonin could improve several signs of diabetes, including hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, polyphagia, and polydipsia. Therefore, melatonin may be used as an adjunct therapy in the treatment of diabetes. Keywords:Diabetic neuropathy, food consumption, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, melatonin, water intake Bibak B, Khalili M, Rajaei Z, Soukhtanloo M, Hadjzadeh MA, Hayatdavoudi P. Effects of melatonin on bioche Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

"Diabetes" redirects here. For other uses, see Diabetes (disambiguation). Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.[7] Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger.[2] If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications.[2] Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death.[3] Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.[2] Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced.[8] There are three main types of diabetes mellitus:[2] Type 1 DM results from the pancreas's failure to produce enough insulin.[2] This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes".[2] The cause is unknown.[2] Type 2 DM begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly.[2] As the disease progresses a lack of insulin may also develop.[9] This form was previously referred to as "non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes".[2] The most common cause is excessive body weight and insufficient exercise.[2] Gestational diabetes is the third main form, and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood sugar levels.[2] Prevention and treatment involve maintaining a healthy diet, regular physical exercise, a normal body weight, and avoiding use of tobacco.[2] Control of blood pressure and maintaining proper foot care are important for people with t Continue reading >>

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