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Biochemical Aspect Of Diabetes

Biochemical Aspects Of Diabetes Mellitus

Biochemical Aspects Of Diabetes Mellitus

To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that supports HTML5 video Published by Lynette McKenzie Modified over 2 years ago Presentation on theme: "Biochemical Aspects of Diabetes Mellitus" Presentation transcript: 1 Biochemical Aspects of Diabetes Mellitus 2 Overview DM is a heterogeneous group of syndromes characterized by an elevation of fasting blood glucose caused by absolute or relative deficiency of insulin Two types of DM: Type 1 (insulin-dependent DM) Type 2 (noninsulin dependent DM) Prevalence of type 2 is increasing as: Aging (increase in rate of life-age of population) Increasing prevalence of obesity about 10% of diabetics (in USA) Onset: usually during childhood Caused by absolute deficiency of insulin : may be caused by autoimmune attack of b-cells of the pancreas, viral infection or toxin Destruction is enhanced by environmental factors as viral infection & a genetic element (that allows b-cells to be recognized as nonself) In identical twins if one sibling has type 1 DM, the other twin has only % chance of developing DM Rapid symptoms appear when 80-90% of the b-cells have been destroyed Commonly complicated by diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) Treated only by insulin 1- Hyperglycemia 2- Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) 3- Hypertriacylglyceridemia & hypercholestrolemia 1- Hyperglycemia: increased glucose in blood Due to: Decreased glucose uptake by muscles & adipose tissues (by GLUT-4) & Increased hepatic gluconeogenesis (& glycogenlysis) 2- Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA): Increased ketone bodies in blood (ketonemia) leads to metabolic acidosis DKA occurs in untreated or uncontrolled cases of DM - In 25 40% of newly diagnosed type 1 DM (untreated & uncontrolled yet) - In stress states demanding more insulin (as during infec Continue reading >>

(pdf) Diabetes Mellitus: Biochemical, Histological And Microbiological Aspects In Periodontal Disease

(pdf) Diabetes Mellitus: Biochemical, Histological And Microbiological Aspects In Periodontal Disease

betes mellitus (DM) and periodontal disease has been the subject of many studies that un- derline that diabetic patients are two/three times more susceptible to have an increased risk of periodontal disease, especially when metabolic control is inadequate. In this review the Autors analyze, in diabetic patient, bio- chemical, histological and microbiological as- pects of periodontal disease. Recent studies reported the results obtained in not diabetic pa- tients, both periodontopatic and not: in peri- odontopatic subjects, the value of glycated he- moglobin was higher. As regards type 2 DM has a positive relationship between periodontal in- flammation and glycemia, with good probabili- ties of disease development. Some Authors showed how the hygiene and the profession- al/domiciliary control could support a reduction of the glycate hemoglobin and, therefore, of the periodontal disease. The glucose accumulation in the crevicular fluid, noticed in pockets with a depth >4 mm, causes an increase of spiro- chetes and bacteria. Some research reported that scarcely controlled patients show high lev- els of interleukin-1beta (IL-1). This alteration together with the prolonged expression of Tu- mor Necrosis Factor (TNF) could represent a mechanism used by bacteria to cause a major sometimes favoured by immunological defects, due to the mobilization of lymphocytes sub- populations. By measuring the values of TNF-, fibrinogen, high sensitive Capsule Reactive Protein (hs-CRP), IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, at the beginning of non-surgical periodontal therapy and it has been after 3 months of treatment, no- ticed a relevant reduction only of TNF-and fibrinogen. Concerning vascular alteration, vas- cular endothelium growing factor (VEGF) could play a major role in the tissues ischemia. T Continue reading >>

Biochemical Aspects Of Diabetic Nephropathy

Biochemical Aspects Of Diabetic Nephropathy

Biochemical Aspects of Diabetic Nephropathy The dominant histological feature of diabetic nephropathy is the thickening of the glomerular basement membrane and expansion of the mesangial matrix [13]. The changes correlate strongly with the clinical onset of proteinuria, hypertension and kidney failure. Although more than 50 years have elapsed since Kimmelstiel and Wilson [4] described in diabetic glomeruli the distinctive periodic acid-schiff (PAS)-reactive nodular deposits, progress in elucidating the pathobiochemistry has been slow. Recent investigations with electron microscopic, immunochemical and biochemical methods have led to an improved understanding of the structure-function relationship of the glomerular filtration unit in normal and pathological conditions [5] Diabetic NephropathyHeparan SulfateMesangial CellGlomerular Basement MembraneMesangial Matrix These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Mauer SM, Ellis E, Bilous RW, Steffes MW. The pathology of diabetic nephropathy. In: Draznin B, Melmed S, LeRoith D (eds). Complications of Diabetes Mellitus. New York: Alan R Liss Inc.; 1989; pp. 95101. Google Scholar Mauer SM, Steffes MW, Ellis EN, Sutherland DER, Brown DM, Goetz FC. Structural-functional relationships in diabetic nephropathy. J Clin Invest 1984; 74: 11431155. PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar sterby R, Gall MA, Schmitz A, Nielsen FS, Nyberg G, Parving H-H. Glomerular structure and function in proteinuric type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. Diabetologia 1993; 36: 10641070. PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar Kimmelsti Continue reading >>

The Biochemistry Of The Complications Of Diabetes Mellitus

The Biochemistry Of The Complications Of Diabetes Mellitus

The Biochemistry of the Complications of Diabetes Mellitus The Cas9 protein (CRISPR-associated protein 9), derived from type II CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) bacterial immune systems, is emerging as a powerful tool for engineering the genome in diverse organisms. As an RNA-... Read More Figure 1: CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9)-mediated sequence-specific genomic editing. (a) Comparison of programmable sequence-specific genome editing nucleases. (Top) Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) a... Figure 2: Nuclease-deactivated Cas9 (dCas9)-mediated sequence-specific gene regulation. (a) CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) strategies. Repression can occur with dCas9 alone in bacteria, which stericall... Figure 3: Applications of CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) in gene editing, gene regulation, epigenome editing, and genomic imaging. (a) Cas9-mediated site-specific genome editing has a variety of a... In just three years, the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria has vaulted from obscurity to become one of the most widely studied and exploited proteins in biochemistry and cell biology. Its amazing ability to generate a ... Read More Figure 1: GFP sequences. (Line 1) The wild-type (WT) gfp10 gene as originally cloned and sequenced by Prasher et al (10). (Line 2) A popular humanized version (EGFP, Clontech Laboratories, Palo Alto,... Figure 2: Mechanism proposed by Cubitt et al (22) for the intramolecular biosynthesis of the GFP chromophore, with rate constants estimated for the Ser65 Thr mutant by Reid & Flynn (23) and Heim et... Figure 3: Stereoview of the three-dimensional structure of GFP (30), showing 11 -strands forming a hollow cylinder through which is threaded a helix bearing the chromophore, shown in ball-and Continue reading >>

Clinical And Biochemical Aspects Associated With Diabetic Nephropathy Among Type 2 Diabetic Males In Gaza Strip | Abu Mustafa | International Journal Of Medicine

Clinical And Biochemical Aspects Associated With Diabetic Nephropathy Among Type 2 Diabetic Males In Gaza Strip | Abu Mustafa | International Journal Of Medicine

Clinical and biochemical aspects associated with diabetic nephropathy among type 2 diabetic males in Gaza strip Background: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease, and the published data on various aspects of the disease is rare in Gaza Strip. Objective: to investigate clinical and biochemical aspects associated with DN among type 2 diabetic males in Gaza Strip. Methods: The study comprised 150 type 2 diabetic males from Gaza Strip. Data were obtained from a questionnaire interview, patients records, and biochemical analysis of blood and urine samples. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 23. Results: The prevalence of DN was 71/150 (47.3%). Duration of diabetes in patients with DN was significantly higher than in patients without DN (p<0.001). Smoking, retinopathy, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and neuropathy were significantly more frequent among patients with DN (p<0.05). Serum glucose, urea, creatinine, cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly higher, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly lower in patients with DN (p<0.05). Urinary albumin and Albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) were 10 to 13 times higher in patients with DN. Conversely, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was significantly lower in patients with DN (137.135.0 versus 187.870.8 ml/min/1.73m2, p<0.001). ACR showed significant positive correlations with duration of diabetes (r=0.311, p<0.001), glucose (r=0.308, p<0.001), urea (r=0.474, p<0.001), creatinine (r=0.356, p<0.001), cholesterol (r=0.307, p<0.001), LDL-C (r=0.319, p<0.001) and urinary albumin (r=0.942, p<0.001), and significant negative correlation with GFR (r=-0.297, p<0.001). The predicted factors of DN were duration of diabete Continue reading >>

Prime Pubmed | Effects Of A Regular Walking Exercise Program On Behavioral And Biochemical Aspects In Elderly People With Type Ii Diabete

Prime Pubmed | Effects Of A Regular Walking Exercise Program On Behavioral And Biochemical Aspects In Elderly People With Type Ii Diabete

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter Effects of a regular walking exercise program on behavioral and biochemical aspects in elderly people with type II diabetes. The present study examined the effects of a regular walking exercise program on behavioral (daily physical activity, physical strength, energy consumption) and biochemical (fasting blood glucose [FBG], glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c], total cholesterol, triglycerides [TG], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) aspects of elderly people with type II diabetes. A randomized and stratified experimental design was used with experimental and control groups. The experimental group was subjected to a 6 month walking exercise program, involving walking exercise three times per week for 50 min, and a 4 week education program on diet control and the prevention of complications, once per week for 20 min. Post-test was conducted after 3 and 6 months to examine short- and long-term behavioral and biochemical effects. The regular walking exercise program effectively increased daily physical activity, physical strength, and energy consumption (behavioral aspects), and decreased FBG, HbA1c, and TG levels (biochemical aspects) in elderly people with type II diabetes. The incidence of type II diabetes complications might be reduced by implementing a regular walking exercise program. Continue reading >>

Biochemistry Of Diabetes

Biochemistry Of Diabetes

Classically, the 3untranslated region (3UTR) is that region in eukaryotic protein-coding genes from the translation termination codon to the polyA signal. It is transcribed as an integral part of the mRNA encoded by the gene. However, there exists another kind of RNA, which consists of the 3UTR alone, without all other elements in mRNA such as 5UTR and coding region. The importance of independent 3UTR RNA (referred as I3UTR) was prompted by results of artificially introducing such RNA species into malignant mammalian cells. Since 1991, we found that the middle part of the 3UTR of the human nuclear factor for interleukin-6 (NF-IL6) or C/EBP gene exerted tumor suppression effect in vivo. Our subsequent studies showed that transfection of C/EBP 3UTR led to down-regulation of several genes favorable for malignancy and to up-regulation of some genes favorable for phenotypic reversion. Also, it was shown that the sequences near the termini of the C/EBP 3UTR were important for its tumor suppression activity. Then, the C/EBP 3UTR was found to directly inhibit the phosphorylation activity of protein kinase CPKC in SMMC-7721, a hepatocarcinoma cell line. Recently, an AU-rich region in the C/EBP 3UTR was found also to be responsible for its tumor suppression. Recently we have also found evidence that the independent C/EBP 3UTR RNA is actually exists in human tissues, such as fetal liver and heart, pregnant uterus, senescent fibroblasts etc. Through 1990s to 2000s, world scientists found several 3UTR RNAs that functioned as artificial independent RNAs in cancer cells and resulted in tumor suppression. Interestingly, majority of genes for these RNAs have promoter-like structures in their 3UTR regions, although the existence of their transcribed products as independent 3UTR RNAs is Continue reading >>

Epidemiological And Biochemical Studies Of Cataract And Diabetes | Iovs | Arvo Journals

Epidemiological And Biochemical Studies Of Cataract And Diabetes | Iovs | Arvo Journals

Epidemiological and Biochemical Studies of Cataract and Diabetes Nuffield Laboratory of Ophthalmology, University of Oxford, England Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science August 1965, Vol.4, 629-637. doi: Epidemiological and Biochemical Studies of Cataract and Diabetes You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, updated, or cited in the literature. You can manage this and all other alerts in My Account A. PIRIE; Epidemiological and Biochemical Studies of Cataract and Diabetes. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1965;4(4):629-637. ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present) A survey has been made of the prevalence of diabetes among patients who have a senile cataract extracted, and the carbohydrates in senile cataractous lenses of diabetics and nondiabetics have been examined to determine whether the lens of the diabetic human, like that of the diabetic animal, accumulates sorbitol. All patients having a cataract extracted at the Oxford Eye Hospital during 1957 through 1962 were examined. With only patients living within a defined area and having a first operation for senile cataract considered, 13 per cent were diabetic. Among these, one third presented with cataract and the diagnosis of diabetes was made at the Eye Hospital. Extraction of a senile cataract is four to six times more common in diabetic persons over the age of 50 than in the nondiabetic. Those with poorly controlled diabetes are more likely to have a cataract extracted than those with well-controlled diabetes. The lens of a diabetic contains more sorbitol, glucose, and fructose than that of a nondiabetic. This finding, which applies to both senile cataractous lens, and non-cataractous lens obtained post mortem, is considered in relation to theories of the cause of formation of catara Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus - Biochemistry

Diabetes Mellitus - Biochemistry

1.  Diabetes mellitus is the 3rd leading cause of death in many developed countries.  Diabetes is a major cause of blindness, renal failure, amputation, heart attacks and stroke.  Diabetes mellitus is a characterized by increased blood glucose level (hyperglycemia) due to insufficient or inefficient (incompetent) insulin. 2.  Insulin is a polypeptide hormone produced by the β-cells of islets of Langerhans of pancreas.  It influences the metabolism of carbohydrate, fat & protein.  It is an anabolic hormone, promotes the synthesis of glycogen, triacylglycerols & proteins. 3.  Human insulin (mol. wt. 5,7341) contains 51 amino acids, arranged in 2 polypeptide chains.  A chain – 21 amino acids & B chain – 30 amino acids.  Both are held together by 2 interchain disulfide bridges, connecting A7 to B7 & A20 to B19.  There is an intrachain disulfide link in chain A between the amino acids 6 & 11. 4.  The gene for insulin synthesis is located on chromosome 11.  The synthesis of insulin involves two precursors, namely preproinsulin with 108 amino acids (mol. wt. 11,500) & proinsulin with 86 amino acids (mol. wt. 9,000). 5.  They are sequentially degraded to form the active hormone insulin & a connecting peptide (C-peptide).  Insulin & C-peptide are produced in equimolar concentration.  C-peptide is biologically inactive.  Its estimation is useful index for the endogenous production of insulin. 6.  In the β-cells, insulin (also proinsulin) combines with zinc to form complexes.  In this complex form, insulin is stored in the granules of the cytosol which is released in response to various stimuli by exocytosis. 7.  Factors stimulating insulin secretion:  Glucose & amino acids  Gastrointestinal hormones – secretin Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus: Biochemical, Histological And Microbiological Aspects In Periodontal Disease

Diabetes Mellitus: Biochemical, Histological And Microbiological Aspects In Periodontal Disease

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2011; 15 (7): 751-758 Diabetes mellitus: biochemical, histological and microbiological aspects in periodontal disease L. Marigo, R. Cerreto, M. Giuliani, F. Somma, C. Lajolo, M. Cordaro School of Dentistry, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart Rome (Italy) Relationship between diabetes mellitus (DM) and periodontal disease has been the subject of many studies that underline that diabetic patients are two/three times more susceptible to have an increased risk of periodontal disease, especially when metabolic control is inadequate. In this review the Autors analyze, in diabetic patient, biochemical, histological and microbiological aspects of periodontal disease. Recent studies reported the results obtained in not diabetic patients, both periodontopatic and not: in periodontopatic subjects, the value of glycated hemoglobin was higher. As regards type 2 DM has a positive relationship between periodontal inflammation and glycemia, with good probabilities of disease development. Some Authors showed how the hygiene and the professional/domiciliary control could support a reduction of the glycate hemoglobin and, therefore, of the periodontal disease. The glucose accumulation in the crevicular fluid, noticed in pockets with a depth >4 mm, causes an increase of spirochetes and bacteria. Some research reported that scarcely controlled patients show high levels of interleukin-1beta (IL-1). This alteration together with the prolonged expression of Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) could represent a mechanism used by bacteria to cause a major damage during the inflammation process, sometimes favoured by immunological defects, due to the mobilization of lymphocytes sub-populations. By measuring the values of TNF-alpha, fibrinogen, high sensitive Capsule Reacti Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

Return to The Medical Biochemistry Page Diabetes is any disorder characterized by excessive urine excretion. The most common form of diabetes is diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder in which there is an inability to oxidize carbohydrate due to disturbances in insulin function. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by elevated glucose in the plasma and episodic ketoacidosis. Additional symptoms of diabetes mellitus include excessive thirst, glucosuria, polyuria, lipemia and hunger. If left untreated the disease can lead to fatal ketoacidosis. Other forms of diabetes include diabetes insipidus and brittle diabetes. Diabetes insipidus is the result of a deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (ADH, also referred to as vasopressin or arginine vasopressin, AVP). The major symptom of diabetes insipidus (excessive output of dilute urine) results from an inability of the kidneys to resorb water. Brittle diabetes is a form that is very difficult to control. It is characterized by unexplained oscillations between hypoglycemia and acidosis. Criteria, which clinically establish an individual as suffering from diabetes mellitus, include: 1. having a fasting plasma glucose level in excess of 126mg/dL (7mmol/L). Normal levels should be less than 100mg/dL (5.6mmol/L) or: 2. having plasma glucose levels in excess of 200mg/dL (11mmol/L) at two times points during an oral glucose tolerance test, OGTT, one of which must be within 2 hrs of ingestion of glucose. Different clinical labs may use different units for the measurement of serum glucose concentrations, either in mmol/L or mg/dL. One can easily interconvert these values using the following formulas: mg/dL x 0.0555 = mmol/L (or simply divide mg/dL by 18) mmol/L x 18.0182 = mg/dL (or simply multiply mmol/L by 18) The earlier a person is dia Continue reading >>

The Biochemistry Of Diabetes.

The Biochemistry Of Diabetes.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (3.3M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References . These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article. Accili D, Perrotti N, Rees-Jones R, Taylor SI. Tissue distribution and subcellular localization of an endogenous substrate (pp 120) for the insulin receptor-associated tyrosine kinase. Endocrinology. 1986 Sep;119(3):12741280. [ PubMed ] Agius L, Chowdhury MH, Alberti KG. Regulation of ketogenesis, gluconeogenesis and the mitochondrial redox state by dexamethasone in hepatocyte monolayer cultures. Biochem J. 1986 Nov 1;239(3):593601. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] Agius L, Chowdhury MH, Davis SN, Alberti KG. Regulation of ketogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and glycogen synthesis by insulin and proinsulin in rat hepatocyte monolayer cultures. Diabetes. 1986 Nov;35(11):12861293. [ PubMed ] Akagi Y, Kador PF, Kuwabara T, Kinoshita JH. Aldose reductase localization in human retinal mural cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1983 Nov;24(11):15161519. [ PubMed ] Alberti KG, Dornhorst A, Rowe AS. Metabolic rhythms in normal and diabetic man. Studies in insulin-treated diabetes. Isr J Med Sci. 1975 Jun;11(6):571580. [ PubMed ] Altan N, Altan VM, Mikolay L, Larner J, Schwartz CF. Insulin-like and insulin-enhancing effects of the sulfonylurea glyburide on rat adipose glycogen synthase. Diabetes. 1985 Mar;34(3):281286. [ PubMed ] Andrews WJ, Vasquez B, Nagulesparan M, Klimes I, Foley J, Unger R, Reaven GM. Insulin therapy in obese, non-insulin-dependent diabetes induces improvements in insu Continue reading >>

Current Advances In The Biochemical And Physiological Aspects Of The Treatment Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus With Thiazolidinediones

Current Advances In The Biochemical And Physiological Aspects Of The Treatment Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus With Thiazolidinediones

Current Advances in the Biochemical and Physiological Aspects of the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Thiazolidinediones D. Alemn-Gonzlez-Duhart ,1 F. Tamay-Cach ,2 S. lvarez-Almazn ,1and J. E. Mendieta-Wejebe 1 1Laboratorio de Biofsica y Biocatlisis, Seccin de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacin, Escuela Superior de Medicina, Instituto Politcnico Nacional, Plan de San Luis y Salvador Daz Mirn, Casco de Santo Toms, 11340 Ciudad de Mxico, DF, Mexico 2Laboratorio de Investigacin en Bioqumica, Departamento de Formacin Bsica Disciplinaria y Seccin de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacin, Escuela Superior de Medicina, Instituto Politcnico Nacional, Plan de San Luis y Salvador Daz Mirn, Casco de Santo Toms, 11340 Ciudad de Mxico, DF, Mexico Received 18 March 2016; Accepted 24 April 2016 Copyright 2016 D. Alemn-Gonzlez-Duhart et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The present review summarizes the current advances in the biochemical and physiological aspects in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) with thiazolidinediones (TZDs). DM2 is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, triggering the abnormal activation of physiological pathways such as glucose autooxidation, polyols pathway, formation of advance glycation end (AGE) products, and glycolysis, leading to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and proinflammatory cytokines, which are responsible for the micro- and macrovascular complications of the disease. The treatment of DM2 has been directed toward the reduction of hyperglycemia using different drugs such as insulin sensitizers, as the case of Continue reading >>

Biochemical Investigations In Laboratory Medicine > Endocrinology > Diabetes > Diabetes Mellitus And Igt

Biochemical Investigations In Laboratory Medicine > Endocrinology > Diabetes > Diabetes Mellitus And Igt

HbA1c can be used as a diagnostic test for diabetes providing that stringent quality assurance tests are in place and assays are standardised to criteria aligned to the international reference values, and there are no conditions present which preclude its accurate measurement. This criterion was endorsed by the Department of health in England in 2011. An HbA1c of 48 mmol/mol (6.5%) is recommended as the cut point for diagnosing diabetes. A value of less than 48 mmol/mol (6.5%) does not exclude diabetes diagnosed using glucose tests. HbA1c 48 mmol/mol can be used to diagnose diabetes in most situations. In patients without diabetes symptoms repeat venous HbA1c in the same lab within 2 weeks. If the second sample is <48 mmol/mol (6.5%) treat as high risk of diabetes and repeat the test in 6 months or sooner if diabetes symptoms develop. In symptomatic adults with relatively slow onset of symptoms a single result 48 mmol/mol will suffice. Situations where HbA1c must not be used as the sole test to diagnose diabetes HbA1c reflects glycaemia over the preceding 2 3 months so may not be raised if blood glucose levels have risen rapidly. Examples: ALL symptomatic children and young people Symptoms suggesting Type 1 diabetes (any age) Patients at high risk of diabetes who are acutely ill Taking medication that may cause rapid glucose rise e.g. corticosteroids, antipsychotics Acute pancreatic damage/pancreatic surgery Situations where HbA1c should NOT be used HbA1c may be falsely low in patients with haemoglobinopthies HbA1c may give falsely high values in patients with iron deficiency anaemia Recommended targets for metabolic control in diabetes Continue reading >>

Oxytocin And Diabetes Mellitus: A Strong Biochemical Relation. Review

Oxytocin And Diabetes Mellitus: A Strong Biochemical Relation. Review

Oxytocin and Diabetes Mellitus: A Strong Biochemical Relation. Review Author(s): K. Kontoangelos , C. C. Papageorgiou , A. E. Raptis , A. D. Rabavilas , G. N. Papadimitriou . Athens University Medical School, 1st Department of Psychiatry, Eginition, Hospital, 74 Vas Sofias Avenue, 11528, Athens, Greece. Oxytocin (OXT) is a neurohypophysial hormone which is synthesized in the paraventricular and supraoptic nucleiof the hypothalamus. OXT is currently attracting considerable attention because it has been discovered that it regulatesvarious functions of behavior especially in the context of social interactions. OXT is a key component in bone formation,glycemia, male sexuality, cardiac differentiation and pregnancy and thus it is important to be further explored.The authors review various aspects of gestational diabetes, including definition, screening, diagnostic procedures, complications,clinical evaluation, indications of delivery and neonatal aspects. Not only the relation among diabetes mellitus,oxytocin and neurophysiology concerning erectile dysfunction, but also the role of OXT in the activity of arginine andvasopressin is investigated. It is imperative to develop technological and experimental methods that will be able to revealthe oxytocin and its potential. Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, oxytocin, labor, endocrinology, pregnancy, neurophysiology. Title:Oxytocin and Diabetes Mellitus: A Strong Biochemical Relation. Review Author(s):K. Kontoangelos, C. C. Papageorgiou, A. E. Raptis, A. D. Rabavilas and G. N. Papadimitriou Affiliation:Athens University Medical School, 1st Department of Psychiatry, Eginition, Hospital, 74 Vas Sofias Avenue, 11528, Athens, Greece. Keywords:Diabetes mellitus, oxytocin, labor, endocrinology, pregnancy, neurophysiology. Abstract:Oxytocin ( Continue reading >>

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