Fundamentals Of Fruit Zone Management
Practices Other Considerations More information Mark Chien, Pennsylvania State University and Patty Skinkis, Oregon State University In any given growing season, there are no two management techniques that can affect the outcome of grape quality more than proper canopy and fruit zone crop management. While another article covers canopy management , this article focuses specifically on fruit zone management. Canopy management is the first step to fruit zone management Canopy management begins even before the vineyard is planted, as it is critical to select the best suited varieties, clones and rootstocks for the given climate and site. Site characteristics are also important, as these, combined with rootstocks and clones, will influence crop quantity and quality. Deep, fertile soils are known to produce larger vines with the ability to carry higher yields; however, well-drained or shallow soils will result in smaller, weaker vines with lower yields. Vineyard design , training system , and vine x row spacing will affect a vine's canopy size and fruit yield capacity, and as a result will play a role in how the fruit zone is managed. Fruit zone management encompasses those practices that affect the cluster-zone microclimate, including manipulation of canopy density, cluster thinning and basal leaf removal . These practices are important for disease control, ripening, and production of color and flavor compounds in the fruit. Opening up the cluster zone reduces humidity, and increases temperature and sunlight exposure, which can reduce disease infection of fruit and enhance fruit quality production. However, the fruit zone management techniques to use in a given vineyard depend on vine vigor status, other management practices, and regional climate. Spur positioning helps re Continue reading >>
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Reasons For Yellowish Basil Leaves ? What Causes Basil Leaves To Turn Yellow
Versatile and easy to grow, basil is an attractive culinary herb valued for its aromatic leaves, which are used either dry or fresh. Although basil is usually grown as an annual, it is suitable for growing year round in USDA plant hardiness zones 10 and above. Although the herb is relatively trouble-free, it is susceptible to certain pests and diseases that can cause yellowish leaves on basil plants. There are a number of reasons for a basil plant turning yellow, and determining the reason isnt always easy. Improper watering Root rot , a result of too much water, is one of the most common reasons for yellow leaves on basil plants. Water basil only when the top 1 to 2 inches of soil is dry, and remember that slightly dry soil is healthier than soggy soil. As a general rule, one deep watering every seven to 10 days is adequate. If you grow basil in a container, be sure the pot has at least one drainage hole. Fungal disease Although several fungal diseases can cause yellow leaves on basil plants, downy mildew is one of the most common. Downy mildew is a fast-spreading fungus recognized by yellowish basil leaves and a fuzzy, gray or brown growth. If you catch the problem early, you may be able to stop the spread by clipping affected growth. However, badly affected plants should be removed and disposed of carefully. Growing conditions Chilly temperatures are another reason for yellowish basil leaves. Basil prefers daytime temps above 70 F. (21 C.). Nighttime temperatures should be above 50 F. (10 C.) Lack of sun is yet another common cause of yellowish basil leaves. Basil prefers bright sunlight for six to eight hours per day. Basil grown indoors will likely need artificial light during the winter, ideally for 10 to 12 hours per day. Aphids Aphids are tiny pests that suck t Continue reading >>
deciduous - shed annually at the end of the growing season persistent (evergreen) - remaining attached one to several years clustered - in false whorls at tips of lateral spurs, without a basal sheat fascicle - bundle of 2 to 5 leaves enclosed at base by sheath whorled - more than 2 leaves at each node decussate - opposite leaves, each pair at right angles to adjacent pair blade - the flat, expanded portion of a leaf leaflet - a portion of a leaf blade that is subdivided into several smaller blades margin - edge of the leaf simple - not compound, having a single blade compound - composed of 2 or more similar leaflets attached to a rachis petiole - stalk of a leaf stipule - a leaflike appendage of the base of the petiole, usually one on each side of the petiole palmately compound - a leaf composed of several leaflets radially diverging from the petiole like the spread of fingers on a hand pinnately compound - a leaf composed of several leaflets arranged on each side of a common rachis entire - leaf margins without divisions, lobes or teeth lobed - leaf margins with elongated pointed or rounded extensions revolute - leaf margins rolled to underside serrate - leaf margins toothed, teeth pointing upward or forward dentate - leaf margins toothed, teeth pointing directly outward acuminate - lleaf tip gradually tapering to the apex, long pointed acute - leaf tip sharply pointed, but not drawn out notched - leaf tip indented at the apex obtuse - leaf tip blunt or rounded at the apex truncate - leaf tip ending abruptly, as if cut off at end arcuate - leaf veins curved toward apex parallel - having the main veins extending through the leaf longitudinally and in parallel arrangement pinnate - veins arising from each side of a common axis bract - leaflike structure (modified leaf) Continue reading >>
Basal - Definition Of Basal By The Free Dictionary
Basal - definition of basal by The Free Dictionary a. Of, relating to, located at, or forming a base. b. Botany Located at or near the base of a plant stem, or at the base of any other plant part: basal placentation. 2. of or constituting a foundation or basis; fundamental; essential 2. forming a basis; fundamental; basic: a basal reader. a. indicating a standard low level of activity of an organism, as during total rest. b. of an amount required to maintain this level. basal - especially of leaves; located at the base of a plant or stem; especially arising directly from the root or rootstock or a root-like stem; "basal placentation"; "radical leaves" phytology , botany - the branch of biology that studies plants basal - serving as or forming a base; "the painter applied a base coat followed by two finishing coats" basic - pertaining to or constituting a base or basis; "a basic fact"; "the basic ingredients"; "basic changes in public opinion occur because of changes in priorities" essential - basic and fundamental; "the essential feature" the basal layer of the skin la couche basale de l'piderme ___ ganglia diseases enfermedades de los ganglios ___ -es; ___ metabolic rate ndice del metabolismo ___. Want to thank TFD for its existence? Tell a friend about us , add a link to this page, or visit the webmaster's page for free fun content . At the other end of the series we have the cells of the hive-bee, placed in a double layer: each cell, as is well known, is an hexagonal prism, with the basal edges of its six sides bevelled so as to join on to a pyramid, formed of three rhombs. Even in the rude circumferential rim or wall of wax round a growing comb, flexures may sometimes be observed, corresponding in position to the planes of the rhombic basal plates of future cells. Continue reading >>
Soil that has a pH level of 7.0 or more; opposite of an acidic soil. The production and release of chemical substances by one plant species that inhibit the growth of other species of plants. A plant that completes its life cycle in one year. Term used for a substance that inhibits or kills bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms. A narrow, stiff appendage extending from the tip of a lemma or glume (see Grass Morphology ). A heavy material used to stabilize a ship. Soil was often used on early ships. Leaves found at the base and/or lower part of stem. Refers to a plant that completes its life cycle in two years, reproducing in the second year. Number and variety of living organisms; includes species diversity, genetic diversity, and ecological diversity. The use of living organisms to control an unwanted organism. This is often done with beetles and fungi in weed control. Leaf-like structure at the base of a flower head or inflorescence. Browse refers to the leaves, buds and twigs of shrubs and trees eaten by animals. Animals that eat browse, rather than grasses and forbs, are browsers. A grass having a bunched growth form and lacking rhizomes. Grass that begins growth in early spring when soil temperatures are relatively cool, and completes its life cycle before hot summer weather. The plowing and other preparation of land for agricultural planting. Preservation of nutritional value in a forage plant upon drying. Here it refers to events where existing vegetation is removed or suppressed and the soil surface is exposed. The practice of crop production in low-rainfall areas without irrigation. The assemblage of plant, animal and other living organisms interacting together and with their environment; often thought of as a functioning unit. The transfer of energy betwe Continue reading >>
Leaf Sheath - Definition And Synonyms Of Leaf Sheath In The English Dictionary
Meaning of "leaf sheath" in the English dictionary A noun is a type of word the meaning of which determines reality. Nouns provide the names for all things: people, objects, sensations, feelings, etc. A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant, and is the principal appendage of the vascular plant stem. The leaves and stem together form the shoot. Foliage is a mass noun that refers to leaves collectively. Typically a leaf is a thin, dorsiventrally flattened organ, borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis. Most leaves have distinctive upper and lower surfaces that differ in colour, hairiness, the number of stomata and other features. The palisade mesophyll almost always occurs on the upper side of the blade or lamina of the leaf but in some species, including the mature foliage of Eucalyptus palisade occurs on both sides and the leaves are said to be isobilateral. Many types of leaves are adapted in ways almost unrecognisable in those terms: some are not flat, some are not above ground, and some are without major photosynthetic function. Furthermore, several kinds of leaf-like structures found in vascular plants are not totally homologous with them. Examples include phyllodes, cladodes, and phylloclades that differ from leaves in their structure and origin. List of principal searches undertaken by users to access our English online dictionary and most widely used expressions with the word leaf sheath. FREQUENCY OF USE OF THE TERM LEAF SHEATH OVER TIME The graph expresses the annual evolution of the frequency of use of the word leaf sheath during the past 500 years. Its implementation is based on analysing how often the term leaf sheath appears in digitalised printed sources in English between the year 1500 and the present day. Examples of use in the English lite Continue reading >>
Basal Rosette Or Floating Leaf Canopy An Example Of Plasticity In A Rare Aquatic Macrophyte
, Volume 448, Issue13 , pp 5359 | Cite as Basal rosette or floating leaf canopy an example of plasticity in a rare aquatic macrophyte The rare aquatic macrophyte Luronium natans can be encountered with two growth forms: as a bottom-dwelling plant with a rosette of linear leaves, or as a nymphaeid plant with long-petioled oval floating leaves. The change of growth form corresponds to a change in size class (small and submerged vs. tall and canopy-forming). The present study compares through one growing season floating leaf production and patterns of biomass allocation in Luronium ramets from a natural, moderately nutrient-rich habitat and from nutrient-rich transplantation sites. We ask whether differences in gross floating leaf production result from differences in ramet vigour while allocation patterns remain stable, or whether Luronium is able to allocate biomass plastically, and thus to change its growth form with differences in habitat. The study shows that both leaf types were produced in all habitats since the mid-growing season (June), but that biomass allocation to them varied. Floating leaves were dominant at high nutrient levels, whereas at the moderate nutrient level most leaf biomass was found in the rosette. We suggest that Luronium modifies its biomass allocation in a pattern that corresponds to the outlines of Tilman's (1988) mechanistic model of optimal biomass allocation on a light:nutrient gradient. The demonstrated morphological plasticity may enable Luronium to maintain itself in a large range of habitats, but it raises new questions about the reasons for the species' rarity. aquatic plantsbiomass allocationgrowth formLuronium natansmorphology This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Unable to display preview. Download prev Continue reading >>
What Is The Meaning Of "leaves Do Not Run Down The Stem" When Identifying Plants?
I have some comfrey in the garden. I am trying to work out whether it is white comfrey or another comfrey. For white comfrey I have read: "leaves are more rounded than in other comfreys and do not run down the stem." What is the meaning of the phrase "leaves do not run down the stem?" Send a picture of your comfrey. I've never heard 'run down the stem'... stormy Aug 27 '17 at 20:17 Decurrent is the correct term, as Stormy says - if you look closely at this image of Symphytum officinale tradewindsfruit.com/content/comfrey.htm you will see that the base of the leaf extends partway down the mainstem, so the mainstem looks thicker below the leaf. Compare that with this image of white comfrey wildflowerfinder.org.uk/Flowers/C/Comfrey(White)/ which shows the leaf bases arising directly off the main stem, with the main stem being the same thickness below the leaf.Stem leaf 'not running down the stem' is inexact,it could mean lower stems bare Bamboo Aug 27 '17 at 21:12 @Bamboo Like in almost a whorled situation or basal? The internodes being very very short? This has been tough to find a decent definition. Learn something every single day. stormy Aug 28 '17 at 19:45 Well, thank you for bringing this up; Decurrent is a synonym of 'running down the stem'...I found the same site I think that you read this description. Decurrent or running down the stem I think this has to do with the awls or how the leaves attach to the stem. They use wide flaps to wrap around the stem...I am still working this one out... Edit: John, I do believe your comfrey is White comfrey. Sorry for not answering your question directly. These plants readily make seed with Russian Comfrey and the progeny will stand taller. I looked up Decurrent and wow, found stack exchange and my answer twice, within the firs Continue reading >>
Plant Life: Leaf Arrangements
The study of leaf arrangements, or phyllotaxy, considers not only the descriptive classification of leaf arrangements but also theories regarding the cause of such arrangements. The function of the arrangement of leaves (phyllotaxy) is to increase a plants ability to carry on photosynthesis by positioning the leaves in such away as tomaximize the surface area available to intercept sunlight. Leaves may be either caulescent (on obvious stems) or acaulescent (with no obvious stems). Flowering plants have three basic types of arrangements: alternate spiral; opposite; and whorled or verticillate. The alternate spiral arrangement is generally considered to be the most primitive condition, with the opposite and whorled conditions being derived by suppression of internode development. There are two major hypotheses regarding the processes governing these basic arrangements. The field hypothesis of phyllotaxy posits that, as leaf primordia (newleaf cells) are created by the plant, a zone that inhibits the growth of other primordia is laid down around it, and not until the shoot tip has grown beyond that zone can a new leaf primordium be laid down. The first available space hypothesis posits that new leaves grow as soon as the plant shoot has grown out far enough to allow space for them. The various types of leaf arrangements are usually one of the easiest vegetative characteristics to use in helping to identify vascular plants . This is especially true when leaf arrangement is combined with other characteristics, such as the presence or absence of petioles or the quality of being sessile or nonsessile. Other characteristics include the shape of the leaves and the appearance of the margins, bases, and apices types. Alternately arranged leaves produce one leaf per node. These le Continue reading >>
Leaf Canopy Structure And Vine Performance | Practical Winery & Vineyard Journal
By M. Carmo Vasconcelos PhD. and Steve Castagnoli Achieving consistent yields of high quality grapes in cool climates is challenging. Yields tend to fluctuate from year to year, and optimum maturity may not be reached every season. A short growing season, cool weather, and unfavorable precipitation patterns are factors that may affect the yield and quality of the vintage. The success of winegrape production in cool climates can often be improved through proper canopy management. Canopy management provides a set of tools that allows grapegrowers to improve the canopy structure and microclimate. The purpose of the study detailed below was to determine how different canopy management practices and combinations of these practices affect yield, fruit composition, vegetative growth, and carbohydrate reserves in the permanent vine structure. Ultimately, the goal was to provide growers with tools to optimize winegrape production using these practices. One aspect of canopy structure that should not be underestimated is age distribution of the leaf population. Grapevine leaves are net importers of carbohydrates until they reach 50% to 80% of their final size [18,36]. The photosynthetic rate increases until leaves attain full size (approximately 40 days after unfolding) and decreases steadily thereafter [22,23]. The most efficient leaves in the canopy, therefore, are those that are recently expanded (youngest full-grown leaves). The age of the vine canopy can be manipulated with selective leaf removal and shoot tipping at appropriate growth stages. Removing shoot tips promotes lateral shoot growth at the nodes closer to the excised tip [13,37]. Lateral shoots developed during the period of active shoot growth will provide additional photo-assimilating surface during fruit ripenin Continue reading >>
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The genus Solidago includes approximately 100 species of goldenrods that are mostly native to North America. Although 22 of these species are naturalized around Ohio, only Canada goldenrod has a distribution encompassing the whole state. Canada goldenrod is also well established in the northeastern and north central U.S. and southern Canada. The species does not tolerate frequent disturbances, so it is mainly found growing in perennial crops, abandoned fields, ditches, roadsides, riverbanks, creek margins, open woodlands, and floodplains. It prefers moist conditions and medium textured soils. Canada goldenrod usually does not establish on very wet or dry sites, and it is fairly intolerant of shade. Canada goldenrod is a perennial distinguished by numerous small yellow flowers located in pyramid-shaped clusters at the top of individual, unbranched, leafy stems. Flowers are crowded onto numerous backward-curved stalks that originate at a central axis and are arranged more or less horizontally. Leaves are lance-shaped, tapered at both ends, hairless on the upper surface, hairy underneath, and sharply toothed on the edge. Leaves are described as being 3-nerved, meaning the midrib and 2 parallel lateral veins are prominent. Plants reproduce by way of short rhizomes (horizontal underground stems) emerging from the base of aerial stems and by wind dispersed seeds. The extensive root system is very deep and fibrous with 2- to 5-inch-long rhizomes (horizontal underground stems) emerging at the base of aerial stems. Rhizomes are often reddish. Seed leaves (cotyledons) are small and elliptical. Young leaves are round, bluish green, pale beneath, and bitter tasting. The first leaves produced are basal and hairless or with a few hairs on the edge. Later leaves are rough due to hair Continue reading >>
What Is The Basal Portion Of The Stem In Flowers?
What Is the Basal Portion of the Stem in Flowers? Propagate rudbeckias with basal stem cuttings. How & When to Prune a May Night Sage Plant Basal means bottom or base, so the basal portion of anything, including a flowering plants stem, is the bottom part, or base. The basal portion of a bulb is its bottom end, where its roots grow. Sometimes, the basal portion of a stem swells into a bulblike mass called a corm or rhizome, such as the thickened basal portion of a bearded iris stem. Corms, bulbs and rhizomes store plant nutrients. Many flowering perennials, such as Shasta daisies, hostas and rudbeckias, increase in size by forming multiple stems around the base of the original plant. To divide perennials, a gardener can either dig up the entire plant and gently tease away each of the smaller bases, which will have their own stems and roots, or dig gently in from the outside of the plant to remove some of the smaller new plants. Each will grow into a mature plant that will multiply its basal stems in turn. Use a knife or pruner to cut apart the rhizomes of plants such as daylilies or peonies, ensuring that each piece has a bud or eye. The term basal also is used when propagating flowering ornamental shrubs, such as hydrangeas, spireas and viburnums. Four- to 6-inch cuttings from such shrubs are inserted into a loose growing medium to root. But first, the basal leaves need to be removed. Only the top two leaves are left on the cutting. The nodes where the basal leaves are taken off are where roots will form. Leaf removal helps direct growth hormones to the lower nodes or to the base of the stem cutting. Fruiting and flowering plants such as strawberries and ground covers such ajuga spread by creating new plants on stems that stretch some distance from the mother plant. T Continue reading >>
Glossary Of Botanical Terms
Most of the terms used in Wikipedia glossaries are already defined and explained within Wikipedia itself. However, lists like the following indicate where new articles need to be written and are also useful for looking up and comparing large numbers of terms together. Terms relating to Plant morphology are included here as well as at Glossary of plant morphology . See also List of Latin and Greek words commonly used in systematic names . shedding of an organ that is mature or aged, e.g. a ripe fruit or an old leaf. a specialised layer of tissue formed, for example, at the base of a petiole or pedicel that allows the organ to be shed by abscission when it is ripe or senescent. Increasing in size with age, such as a calyx that continues to grow after the corolla has fallen, for example in Physalis peruviana . The suffix added to the stem of a generic name to form the name of a family . regular ; radially symmetrical; may be bisected into similar halves in at least two planes. Applies e.g. to steles and flowers in which the perianth segments within each whorl are alike in size and shape; compare regular ; contrast with asymmetrical , irregular , zygomorphic . Suffix to the stem of a generic name or descriptive name to indicate that it applies to a taxon of the rank of order . 1.(of a flower) the period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. 2.(of a flowering plant) the period during which flowers in anthesis are present. note: not defined for some cases, such as when pollen is released in the bud. (in cladistics ) a "different form" from the form of an ancestor, i.e., an innovation , of use in determining membership in a clade . the external part of a cone scale; an outgrowth of an organ or enlargement of a stem. (from areola) A space between the Continue reading >>
Leaf Terminology (part 2)
See The Remarkable Silver Sword Of Haleakala Crater Deciduous: The leaves of many angiosperm trees fall from the branches during the autumn months, thus preparing the trees for their winter dormancy period. A special layer of cells at the base of the petiole, called the abscission layer, is controlled by growth hormones, such as auxin and ethylene. The abscission layer neatly separates the leaf from its stem, thus causing it to fall with the slightest breeze. In cold climates of northern latitudes it is vital to have all the branches devoid of leaves, so that snow falls through the branches. Without an abscission layer, persistent dead leaves attached at their petioles could collect snow, thus causing the limbs to break under the heavy weight. Flavonols are colorless or yellow flavonoids found in leaves and many flowers. Quercetin is the yellow flavonol pigment of oak pollen. The fall coloring of deciduous trees may involve yellow carotenoid pigments (terpenes) as well as flavonoids. In some trees, such as red maple (Acer rubrum) and scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea), colorless flavonols are converted into red anthocyanin as the chlorophyll breaks down. Contrary to some references, bright red autumn leaves can develop without a frost. The following leaves of two eastern U.S. trees, including sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and pin oak (Quercus palustris), turned red in coastal San Diego County without any frost. The trees are genetically programmed to drop their leaves in the fall, and red anthocyanins replace chlorophylls in the leaves. Sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and Texas red oak (Quercus buckleyi). Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) in the Eastern United States. 11. Typical Leaf Of The Grass Family (Poaceae) In herbaceous (nonwoody) grasses, such as wheat, rice, Continue reading >>
Beginner Gardening:basal Foliage?
vickijackson55 Vancouver, WA(Zone 8a) Aug 07, 2007 Can someone tell me where the basal foliage is? At the bottom of the stem the flower grew on or down by the ground. If you are told to cut to basal foliage, they mean do some serious cutting? Sorry, about the question, I did get several books on perennial care, but it will take awhile and my plants need attention. For once everything is growing beautifully! June_Ontario Rosemont, ON(Zone 4a) Aug 07, 2007 Hi Vicki! "Basal foliage" usually means the leaves at the bottom of the plant, down at ground level. Why do you want to cut these leaves off? aspenbooboo41 Whitehall, PA(Zone 6a) Aug 07, 2007 "Can someone tell me where the basal foliage is? At the bottom of the stem the flower grew on or down by the ground." Yes, the basal foliage is at the bottom of the flower stem, down by the ground. So, basically when you are cutting back to basal foliage you are cutting off the entire flower stem. I assume you are cutting back for appearance sake or chance of rebloom at this time of year? Otherwise, some plants you cut back before winter, some in spring when you see new growth. When buying books, did you happen to purchase 'The Well-tended Perennial Garden' by Tracy DiSabato-Aust? It's very highly regarded. Continue reading >>