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Artificial Sweeteners And Insulin Resistance

The Cost: Artificial Sweeteners And Safety (backed By Science)

The Cost: Artificial Sweeteners And Safety (backed By Science)

The Cost: Artificial Sweeteners and Safety (Backed By Science) After the previous RadLab article on artificial sweeteners and weight loss , there was a lot of discussion about health and safety concerns with these sweeteners. Just like with the weight loss and weight gain argument, when it comes to sweeteners, the views on health and safety are just as opposing. One expert will claim these are a healthy alternative offering the sweetness of sugar without the added calories and other negative attributes of sugar. The next retorts with life threatening claims of cancer, insulin resistance and diabetes caused by these simulated sugar shams. Its hard to see how something so sweet and little could stir up such a buzz and backlash in the media. So today in the RadLab, Im going to dive into what the research says about artificial sweeteners and their safety. What are the true effects and costs of these artificial sweeteners? Can they induce an insulin response and cause diabetes or do they spare you these sugar-like side-effects? Could their use lead to cancer or are they safe for our health? If you want to know the answers to these and several other burning questions, youll have to read this article and find out Health and Safety of Artificial Sweeteners Artificial sweeteners such as sucralose, aspartame, acesulfame potassium (ace-k) and others are common in diet beverages, foods and sugar alternatives, designed as a compound to capture the sweetness of sugar without any of the calories and other negative attributes. But do these sugar-free substitutes come at a cost? Some people point out that artificial sweeteners can still trigger an insulin response, claim they produce toxic levels of methanol and formaldehyde and could even cause cancer. However, those people would not Continue reading >>

Which Nonsugar Sweeteners Are Ok? An Insulin-index Perspective

Which Nonsugar Sweeteners Are Ok? An Insulin-index Perspective

In my view, one of the greatest steps forward for public health would be for people to get the message that sugar is very badworse than many other foods that people worry about. (See The Trouble with Most Psychological Approaches to Weight Loss: They Assume the Biology is Obvious, When It Isn't and the posts listed below under the heading Sugar as a Slow Poison.) Given the dangers of sugar, it is natural to ask whether any nonsugar sweeteners are OK. One part of the answer is that sweetness itself tends to make you think about food, and thinking about food can make you hungry. This is called the cephalic response . It is like the effect of walking past a restaurant. The cephalic response getting your body prepared for food is OK if you are just sitting down to eat anyway, but it could be a big problem if you are, say, drinking diet sodas between meals, since it will make you hungry when you werent otherwise going to eat. Are there any nonsugar sweeteners that are OK other than the cephalic response of making you think about food and getting your body prepared for food? The excellent article flagged above, The Skinny on Sweeteners by Adam Nally, gives this answer, which accords with my own views: Ive been using ketogenic diets since 2005. In that time, I have found personally, and clinically with the patients in my practice, that combinations of Stevia, chicory root and erythritol, when used in baking, seem to provide adequate texture and remove any aftertaste that may be found when using them individually. These combinations also have no effect on weight loss, weight regain or adverse metabolic changes when used with a ketogenic lifestyle. These sweeteners are equally OK when used in other ways than in baking. weight gain and weight loss are controlled by 30 different Continue reading >>

Do Artificial Sweeteners Cause An Insulin Spike?

Do Artificial Sweeteners Cause An Insulin Spike?

178 Comments The notion that artificial sweeteners (and sweet tastes in general) might produce an insulin response is one of those murky memes that winds itself around the blogs, but it’s never stated one way or the other with any sort of confidence. I briefly mentioned the possibility of non-caloric sweeteners influencing satiety hormones in last week’s diet soda post, and a number of you guys mentioned the same thing. Still, I’ve never seen unequivocal evidence that this is the case. This whole idea first came to my attention some time ago when my dog Buddha got into a bottle of “alternative sleep assists” which contained, among other things, 5 HTP (version of l-tryptophan) and xylitol (sugar alcohol). Long story short, dogs can’t take xylitol because it causes a spike in insulin, which then severely depletes blood glucose. Buddha got past this with a trip to the vet’s at 10:30 Sunday night (thanks, Dr. Dean). But it occurred to me that the same effect might be seen in humans, which is why I pose the question today… Do artificial sweeteners induce insulin secretion (perhaps via cephalic phase insulin release, which is sort of the body’s preemptive strike against foods that will require insulin to deal with)? One of the reasons a definitive answer is rarely given is that the question is improperly framed. Artificial sweeteners is not a monolithic entity. There are multiple types of sweeteners, all of them chemically distinct from each other. A more useful question would be “What effect does [specific artificial sweetener goes here] have on insulin?” So let’s go around the circle and ask. Does aspartame (aka Equal and Nutrasweet) affect insulin? Aspartame is pretty gross stuff, what with its awful taste and hordes of people who get terrible react Continue reading >>

The Relationship Between Diabetes And Sweeteners

The Relationship Between Diabetes And Sweeteners

Artificial sweeteners are always a “hot topic” and many people tend to have strong feelings about them, one way or another. It seems like every other month we get a report on the latest study on what artificial sweeteners do or don’t do to us. The data alternates between saying artificial sweeteners are good for us or they are going to kill us – so which is it? It can be hard to know what to believe and what to do, especially if you have diabetes and see artificial sweeteners as a healthy alternative. They seem like a great option for lowering calories and carbohydrates, but are they too good to be true? Let’s look at some of the claims, myths and facts related to artificial sweeteners. We’ll start with the basics. The Background and the Basics Artificial sweeteners, also called sugar substitutes, were originally created to help people lose weight and manage diabetes. They were thought to be a great alternative. Saccharin was the first artificial sweetener, accidentally discovered by scientists at John’s Hopkins. Eventually there were concerns over the safety of saccharin based on studies done in rodents. Even though the FDA was leaning toward banning it, but they didn’t, and it was partially because of consumer uproar over that possibility. The final ruling was that saccharin was only required to have a warning label about cancer, but could remain on the market. In 2000, the warning label was removed because they could only prove its carcinogenic affect in rodents and not in humans. You will still find saccharin “the pink packet” on the market today. Now, we have a total of 8 sugar substitutes. There are two different kinds, nutritive and non-nutritive. Nutritive means it adds to the caloric value of food and it contains more than 2% of the amount o Continue reading >>

Does Artificial Sweetener Affect Insulin?

Does Artificial Sweetener Affect Insulin?

Some alternative sweeteners might cause an insulin spike.Photo Credit: Gajus/iStock/Getty Images Does Artificial Sweetener Affect Insulin? Artificial sweeteners are non-nutritive alternatives to sugar. These sweeteners are generally at least 30 times sweeter than sugar. Some examples of sweeteners in use in the United States include saccharin, acesulfame-K, sucralose, aspartame, refined stevia and neotame. These sweeteners provide an alternative to high-calorie sugars. As a diabetic, you might be tempted to choose an artificial sweetener. Consult with your doctor, as some artificial sweeteners may affect insulin. Insulin is responsible for breaking down carbohydrates and fats, making them ready for transport throughout your body for energy. Insulin is a hormone your pancreas secretes when glucose enters your blood. Carbohydrates, including nutritive sugars, become glucose in your bloodstream. Table sugar, as well as other simple sugars such as fructose, is broken down quickly into glucose in the blood, resulting in a spike in blood sugar and a subsequent spike in insulin. As of the time of publication, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration considers a number of artificial sweeteners "generally safe. Aspartame, a sweetener approximately 200 times sweeter than sucrose, received FDA approval after nearly two decades of testing. Sucralose, marketed under the name Splenda, is approximately 600 times sweeter than sucrose. Acesulfame-K is a sweetener similar in flavor to aspartame, approved by the FDA for limited use in chewing gum and soft drinks. The FDA also approves S. rebaudiana, a species of stevia shrub, for use as a sweetener; however, it has not approved whole leaf or unrefined stevia. One of the earliest artificial sweeteners, aspartame, was shown early on to have a Continue reading >>

Artificial Sweeteners May Be Worse Than Sugar For Diabetics

Artificial Sweeteners May Be Worse Than Sugar For Diabetics

Diet foods and drinks are widely promoted to help you lose weight but mounting evidence shows aspartame actually makes you fatter, increases dangerous visceral fat deposits, and adversely affects your blood glucose levels and worsens insulin sensitivity The classic study conducted by the American Cancer Society 25 years ago of 80,000 women, which showed those who consumed diet sodas gained more weight than those that consumed regular sodas, is routinely ignored. Newer studies have also supported this early finding. Recent animal research also shows exposure to aspartame in utero has a detrimental effect on learning and memory. Excitotoxins like aspartate and MSG have also been implicated in worsening fibromyalgia and irritable bowel symptoms If you suspect an artificial sweetener might be to blame for a symptom you're having, a good way to help you weed out the culprit is to do an elimination challenge. Guidelines are included. By Dr. Mercola Diet foods and drinks are promoted to help you lose weight but compelling evidence shows that artificial sweeteners like aspartame cause weight gain rather than weight loss. That's right, aspartame―which was once hailed as a wonder chemical because it tastes like sugar without the calories―actually makes you fatter, and adversely affects your blood glucose levels and insulin sensitivity. Studies Repeatedly Find Aspartame Causes Weight Gain The fact that aspartame is NOT a dieter's best friend has been known by scientists for some time. The problem is this news has not received the necessary traction in the media. For example, a study from 19861, which included nearly 80,000 women, found that those who used artificial sweeteners were significantly more likely than non-users to gain weight over time, regardless of initial weight. Continue reading >>

Non-nutritive Sweeteners And Their Contradictory Effect On The Control Of Energetic And Glycemic Homeostasis | Silva | Journal Of Endocrinology And Metabolism

Non-nutritive Sweeteners And Their Contradictory Effect On The Control Of Energetic And Glycemic Homeostasis | Silva | Journal Of Endocrinology And Metabolism

Volume 8, Number 6, December 2018, pages 119-125 Non-Nutritive Sweeteners and Their Contradictory Effect on the Control of Energetic and Glycemic Homeostasis Ana Paula Souza Silvaa, Poliana Guiomar Brasiela, b, Sheila Cristina Potente Dutra Luquettia aDepartment of Nutrition, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil bCorresponding Author: Poliana Guiomar Brasiel, Department of Nutrition, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil Manuscript submitted December 23, 2018, accepted December 31, 2018 Short title: NNSs and Their Contradictory Effect Non-nutritive sweeteners (NNSs) gained attention as dietary tools that provide a free sweet taste of energy to foods. However, its health benefits have been questioned. The aim of this review is to present and discuss the effects of NNSs on energy and glycemic homeostasis, as well as the mechanisms involved. Recent studies in animals and humans have shown that consumption of NNSs appears to have a negative effect on the energy and glycemic homeostasis, promoting body weight gain, insulin resistance, and hyperglycemia. The hypotheses proposed to explain these effects are changes in the perception of taste sweet and weakening of the cephalic response, interaction of NNSs with sweet-taste receptors in the intestinal tract, and changes in intestinal microbiota. However, the determinants of energy and glucose homeostasis are diverse, which may explain in part the unclear effects evidenced in many studies. Therefore, other studies are important to clarify the conflicts between the safety of NNSs and metabolic disorders. Keywords: Artificial sweeteners; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Obesity; Weight gain; Insulin resi Continue reading >>

Reshaping The Gut Microbiota: Impact Of Low Calorie Sweeteners And The Link To Insulin Resistance? - Sciencedirect

Reshaping The Gut Microbiota: Impact Of Low Calorie Sweeteners And The Link To Insulin Resistance? - Sciencedirect

Volume 164, Part B , 1 October 2016, Pages 488-493 Reshaping the gut microbiota: Impact of low calorie sweeteners and the link to insulin resistance? Author links open overlay panel Jodi E.Nettletona Diet can influence the gut microbiota profile. The gut microbiome is a factor contributing to obesity and insulin resistance. Artificial sweeteners may perturb gut microbiota contributing to metabolic disease. Further studies examining the influence of sweeteners on metabolism are needed. Disruption in the gut microbiota is now recognized as an active contributor towards the development of obesity and insulin resistance. This review considers one class of dietary additives known to influence the gut microbiota that may predispose susceptible individuals to insulin resistance - the regular, long-term consumption of low-dose, low calorie sweeteners. While the data are controversial, mounting evidence suggests that low calorie sweeteners should not be dismissed as inert in the gut environment. Sucralose, aspartame and saccharin, all widely used to reduce energy content in foods and beverages to promote satiety and encourage weight loss, have been shown to disrupt the balance and diversity of gut microbiota. Fecal transplant experiments, wherein microbiota from low calorie sweetener consuming hosts are transferred into germ-free mice, show that this disruption is transferable and results in impaired glucose tolerance, a well-known risk factor towards the development of a number of metabolic disease states. As our understanding of the importance of the gut microbiota in metabolic health continues to grow, it will be increasingly important to consider the impact of all dietary components, including low calorie sweeteners, on gut microbiota and metabolic health. Continue reading >>

How Artificial Sweeteners Confuse Your Body Into Storing Fat And Inducing Diabetes

How Artificial Sweeteners Confuse Your Body Into Storing Fat And Inducing Diabetes

Research shows that aspartame worsens insulin sensitivity to a greater degree than sugar Artificial sweeteners promote weight gain by tricking your body into thinking it will receive sugar (calories); when the sugar doesn’t arrive, carb cravings can result Artificial sweeteners likely also cause weight gain by disrupting your intestinal microflora, thereby raising your risk of both obesity and diabetes By Dr. Mercola As noted in the featured video, there are currently five different artificial sweeteners on the market. The one you're most likely to encounter is aspartame, which also tends to be the worst of the bunch. Aspartame and other artificial sweeteners are primarily promoted to diabetics and those concerned about their weight. This despite the fact that artificial sweeteners have repeatedly been shown to produce the exact opposite effects: Artificial sweeteners have also been found to promote weight gain, in more ways than one Over time, artificial sweeteners have also crept into a wide variety of products not directly targeting diabetics and dieters. Artificial sweeteners are added to about 6,000 different beverages, snacks, and food products, making label-reading an ever pressing necessity. Disturbingly, food industry groups are now trying to hide the presence of artificial sweeteners in certain foods... Like GMOs, Industry Wants to Hide Artificial Sweeteners in Foods Last year, the International Dairy Foods Association (IDFA) filed a petition with the FDA requesting the agency amend the standard of identity for milk and 17 other dairy products, in order to allow for the addition of artificial sweeteners without having to indicate their use on the label. The IDFA claims the proposed amendments would "promote more healthful eating practices and reduce childhoo Continue reading >>

Non-nutritive Sweeteners And Their Implications On The Development Of Metabolic Syndrome

Non-nutritive Sweeteners And Their Implications On The Development Of Metabolic Syndrome

Non-Nutritive Sweeteners and Their Implications on the Development of Metabolic Syndrome Iryna Liauchonak ,1, Bessi Qorri ,2, Fady Dawoud ,1, Yatin Riat ,1, and Myron R. Szewczuk 2,* 1Graduate Diploma and Professional Master in Medical Sciences, Postgraduate Medical Education, School of Medicine, Queens University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada; [email protected] (I.L.); [email protected] (F.D.); [email protected] (Y.R.) 1Graduate Diploma and Professional Master in Medical Sciences, Postgraduate Medical Education, School of Medicine, Queens University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada; [email protected] (I.L.); [email protected] (F.D.); [email protected] (Y.R.) 1Graduate Diploma and Professional Master in Medical Sciences, Postgraduate Medical Education, School of Medicine, Queens University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada; [email protected] (I.L.); [email protected] (F.D.); [email protected] (Y.R.) 1Graduate Diploma and Professional Master in Medical Sciences, Postgraduate Medical Education, School of Medicine, Queens University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada; [email protected] (I.L.); [email protected] (F.D.); [email protected] (Y.R.) 2Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queens University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada; [email protected] *Correspondence: [email protected] ; Tel.: +1-613-533-2457; Fax: +1-613-533-6796 These authors contributed equally to this work. Current address: Emergency Medicine, Resident Physician, Brooklyn Hospital Centre, 121 DeKalb Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11201, USA. Received 2019 Feb 28; Accepted 2019 Mar 13. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) Continue reading >>

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A new study may make you think twice before adding Splenda to your coffee. Published in the journal Diabetes Care, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis researchers found that sucralose, most popularly known by the brand name Splenda, has effects on the body’s responses to sugar (glucose) — which could thereby affect diabetes risk — despite the fact that it has zero calories. “Our results indicate that this artificial sweetener is not inert — it does have an effect,” study researcher M. Yanina Pepino, Ph.D., research assistant professor of medicine at the university, said in a statement. “And we need to do more studies to determine whether this observation means long-term use could be harmful.” The new study included 17 people who were severely obese (they had a body mass index over 42; 30 is considered the starting point for obesity) and who didn’t regularly consume artificially sweetened products. The study participants drank sucralose or water before taking a glucose challenge test. This test involves drinking a sugary solution before undergoing blood sugar measurements in order to see how well the body responds to sugar; it’s typically used as a tool to determine if a woman has gestational diabetes, according to the Mayo Clinic. After that, the researchers asked all the study participants who first drank water to then drink sucralose before undergoing another glucose challenge test, and all those who first drank sucralose to then drink water before undergoing another glucose challenge test. Researchers found that consuming the sucralose was associated with higher blood sugar peaks and 20 percent higher insulin levels compared with consuming the water, though they noted more studies are needed to determine the actual health effects Continue reading >>

Artificial Sweeteners: Agents Of Insulin Resistance, Obesity And Disease

Artificial Sweeteners: Agents Of Insulin Resistance, Obesity And Disease

Its pretty clear that if we follow the example of our hunter gatherer ancestors, artificial sweeteners should not be part of contemporary Stone Age diets. In my book, The Paleo Diet Revised (2010) 1 I warned against drinking artificially sweetened soft drinks and further strengthened my opposition to all artificial sweeteners in 2012 with The Paleo Answer .2 Over the past few years numerous epidemiological (population), animal, tissue and human studies have demonstrated the adverse health effects of these synthetic chemicals. A particularly powerful study just published in the October 2014 issue of Nature3 provides a convincing argument against the use of artificial sweeteners in our food supply. If you consume artificial sweeteners in the form of sodas or foods once in a blue moon, they will have little or no adverse effects upon your long term health. However, I would never recommend that you drink artificially sweetened beverages or foods on a daily or even weekly basis, as they may promote insulin resistance, 3, 4 obesity in adults5-7, 30-33 and children,8-11, 32, 44 metabolic syndrome diseases ,12-18, 33 migraine headaches,19-23 adverse pregnancy outcomes,24-26 childhood allergies,24 and certain cancers.27-29 The table* below shows the five artificial sweeteners that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved for consumption. *Note that the artificial sweetener cyclamate was banned in the U.S. in 1969, but is still available in certain countries outside of the U.S. In addition to these artificial sweeteners, the FDA has sanctioned a sugar substitute, stevia , as a dietary supplement since 1995. Stevia is a crystalline substance made from the leaves of a plant native to central and South America and is 100 to 300 times sweeter than table sugar. A conc Continue reading >>

Insulin, Weight Gain And Artificial Sweeteners

Insulin, Weight Gain And Artificial Sweeteners

There is a debate about the risks of artificial sweeteners on insulin levels.Photo Credit: Nastco/iStock/Getty Images Insulin, Weight Gain and Artificial Sweeteners A registered nurse with more than 25 years of experience in oncology, labor/delivery, neonatal intensive care, infertility and ophthalmology, Sharon Perkins has also coauthored and edited numerous health books for the Wiley "Dummies" series. Perkins also has extensive experience working in home health with medically fragile pediatric patients. Since their inception, artificial sweeteners have been hailed as a boon to weight loss. Their health benefits have been questioned, but their weight loss benefits have only recently come under fire. Opponents of artificial sweeteners believe that they can trigger a response that increases insulin release, which can cause weight gain, rather than loss. Proponents firmly stand behind the idea that substances that contain little to no calories cannot trigger an insulin response. Insulin, a hormone released from the pancreas in response to glucose entering the bloodstream, assists cells in absorbing glucose for energy. Insulin plays an essential part in carbohydrate use. But too much insulin release -- which occurs when high levels of glucose in the bloodstream continually stimulate the pancreas to produce more insulin -- leads to type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Cells become resistance to insulin, so more insulin must be produced to remove glucose from the bloodstream. Artificial sweeteners do not contain carbohydrates and should not stimulate insulin release. The theory behind the idea that artificial sweeteners can trigger an insulin rise states that sweet foods or substances set off a chemical reaction that leads to insulin release, even when no carbohydrate is Continue reading >>

Artificial Sweeteners Increase Insulin Resistance Making It Hard To Lose Weight

Artificial Sweeteners Increase Insulin Resistance Making It Hard To Lose Weight

There are many non-caloric sweeteners that you can use to replace sugar in your diet. They are in everything from diet sodas and sugar-free treats to coffee or tea. However, if you are relying on them to lose weight, you might be inadvertently hampering your progress. In this post, I share the overwhelming evidence against artificial sweeteners. Follow along to learn how artificial sweeteners increase insulin resistance and turn you into a good fat-storer and a poor fat-burner. How Non-Caloric Sweeteners Slow Weight Loss [Video] Does your diet include artificial sweeteners? The research presented in this video reveals that non-caloric sweeteners have an impact on insulin levels. Since insulin is your fat-storing hormone, you may want to rethink how often you rely on artificial sweeteners, especially if you are a slow loser. (Sweeteners shown in the video include: Splenda, Equal, Sweet-n-Low, Stevia, Xylitol, Monk Fruit, Erythritol, and Allulose) Artificial Sweeteners Our Blood Glucose & Ketone Results For those of you that dont know, I have a second YouTube channel that I run with my husband. On that channel, we tested our blood glucose and ketone levels after drinking coffee with different sugar substitutes stirred in to see how they would affect intermittent fasting. Before we ran the tests, our assumption was that since the sweeteners did not contain calories, they would have little effect on our blood glucose and ketones. Therefore they would be fine to consume during our intermittent fasting window . What we found instead, was that each sweetener performed worse in some capacity than black coffee alone! Some sweeteners seemed to blunt our ketone production while others caused a bump up in our glucose readings. What Do Our Bodies Reactions to the Artificial Sweeten Continue reading >>

Artificial Sweeteners: A Systematic Review Of Metabolic Effects In Youth

Artificial Sweeteners: A Systematic Review Of Metabolic Effects In Youth

Artificial Sweeteners: A systematic review of metabolic effects in youth Rebecca J. Brown , Mary Ann De Banate , and Kristina I. Rother National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA Correspondence: Rebecca J. Brown, Building 10, Room 7C-432A, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Fax: 301 402 8573. [email protected] See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Epidemiological data have demonstrated an association between artificial sweetener use and weight gain. Evidence of a causal relationship linking artificial sweetener use to weight gain and other metabolic health effects is limited. However, recent animal studies provide intriguing information that supports an active metabolic role of artificial sweeteners. This systematic review examines the current literature on artificial sweetener consumption in children and its health effects. Eighteen studies were identified. Data from large, epidemiologic studies support the existence of an association between artificially-sweetened beverage consumption and weight gain in children. Randomized controlled trials in children are very limited, and do not clearly demonstrate either beneficial or adverse metabolic effects of artificial sweeteners. Presently, there is no strong clinical evidence for causality regarding artificial sweetener use and metabolic health effects, but it is important to examine possible contributions of these common food additives to the global rise in pediatric obesity and diabetes. Keywords: Acesulfame-K, artificial sweetener, aspartame, neotame, obesity, saccharine, sucralose, weight gain Artificial sweeteners and the obesity epidemic As a means to help curtail the obesity epidemic, small dietary changes to Continue reading >>

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