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Articles On Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Postnatal Prevention Of Childhood Obesity In Offspring Prenatally Exposed To Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Where Are We Now

Postnatal Prevention Of Childhood Obesity In Offspring Prenatally Exposed To Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Where Are We Now

Postnatal Prevention of Childhood Obesity in Offspring Prenatally Exposed to Gestational Diabetes mellitus: Where Are We Now Dugas C.a,b,c Perron J.b Kearney M.a, b Mercier R.a, b Tchernof A.a,b,c Marc I.c Weisnagel S.J.c, d Robitaille J.a,b,c aSchool of Nutrition, Laval University, Quebec City, QC, Canada; bInstitute of Nutrition and Functional Foods (INAF), Laval University, Quebec City, QC, Canada; cEndocrinology and Nephrology Axis, CHU de Qubec Research Center, Quebec City, QC, Canada; dDiabetes Research Unit, Laval University Medical Research Center, Quebec City, QC, Canada School of Nutrition, Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods (INAF) Pavillon des services, Room 2729N, Quebec City, QC G1V0A6 Canada Children exposed to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in utero are at high risk of developing many health problems such as obesity. There is an urgent need to find new strategies to prevent obesity development among high-risk populations such as those children. Accordingly, the aim of this review was to summarize current knowledge on the postnatal prevention of childhood obesity in offspring born from mothers with GDM. Specifically, this review addresses the impact of breastfeeding, complementary feeding practices as well as dietary intake and physical activity during childhood on obesity risk of children exposed to GDM in utero. Furthermore, breast milk composition of diabetic mothers and its potential impact on growth is discussed. According to the available literature, breastfeeding may reduce obesity risk in children exposed to GDM in utero but a longer duration seems necessary to achieve its protective effect against obesity. Detailed analysis of breast milk composition of mothers with GDM will be necessary to fully understand the relationship between Continue reading >>

Prospective Study Of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Risk In Relation To Maternal Recreational Physical Activity Before And During Pregnancy

Prospective Study Of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Risk In Relation To Maternal Recreational Physical Activity Before And During Pregnancy

Prospective Study of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Risk in Relation to Maternal Recreational Physical Activity before and during Pregnancy American Journal of Epidemiology, Volume 159, Issue 7, 1 April 2004, Pages 663670, Jennifer C. Dempsey, Tanya K. Sorensen, Michelle A. Williams, I-Min Lee, Raymond S. Miller, Edward E. Dashow, David A. Luthy; Prospective Study of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Risk in Relation to Maternal Recreational Physical Activity before and during Pregnancy, American Journal of Epidemiology, Volume 159, Issue 7, 1 April 2004, Pages 663670, Physical activity has been associated with a reduced risk of gestational diabetes mellitus, but inferences have been hampered by recall and selection bias. The authors examined the relation between recreational physical activity before and during pregnancy and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in a prospective cohort study. In 19962000, 909 normotensive, nondiabetic women in Seattle and Tacoma, Washington, were questioned during early gestation about physical activity performed during the year before and 7 days prior to the interview during pregnancy. Compared with inactive women, women who participated in any physical activity during the year before experienced a 56% risk reduction (relative risk (RR) = 0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.21, 0.91). Women spending 4.2 hours/week engaged in physical activity experienced a 76% reduction in gestational diabetes mellitus risk (RR = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.10, 0.64), and those expending 21.1 metabolic equivalent-hours/week experienced a 74% reduction (RR = 0.26, 95% CI: 0.10, 0.65) compared with inactive women. Physical activity during pregnancy was also associated with reductions in gestational diabetes mellitus risk. Women who engaged in physical activity during Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Update And Review Of Literature

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Update And Review Of Literature

Received date: May 09, 2011; Accepted date: June 18, 2012; Published date: June 20, 2012 Citation: Cheung KW, Wong SF (2012) Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Update and Review of Literature. Reproductive Sys Sexual Disord S2:002. doi: 10.4172/2161-038X.S2-002 Copyright: 2012 Cheung KW, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Gestational diabetes mellitus has been associated with various maternal and perinatal adverse outcomes. Screening and subsequent treatment are associated with short term benefit. With the recent recommended diagnostic criteria by the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups and increasing rate of obesity, the prevalence will continue to rise. It remains uncertain whether this new diagnostic criteria is cost effective or beneficial. Interventions include lifestyle modification, oral hypoglycaemic agents and insulin. The encouraging result and safety profile with oral hypoglycaemic agents may provide a safe alterative to insulin in patients who fail lifestyle modification. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined by glucose intolerance of variable severity with onset of first recognition during pregnancy [ 1 ]. Hyperglycaemia during pregnancy is found to be associated with various maternal and perinatal adverse outcomes [ 2 , 3 ]. Their offsprings will have a life-long increase risk of glucose intolerance, obesity and metabolic syndrome whereas the mothers will have a higher risk of metabolic syndrome and diabetes in the future [ 4 ]. The detection of GDM during pregnancy provides an opportunity to identify women at risk of Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus And Pregnancy

Diabetes Mellitus And Pregnancy

Initiate testing early enough to avoid significant stillbirth but not so early that a high rate of false-positive test results is encountered. In patients with poor glycemic control, intrauterine growth restriction, or significant hypertension, begin formal biophysical testing as early as 28 weeks. In patients who are at lower risk, most centers begin formal fetal testing by 34 weeks. Fetal movement counting is performed in all pregnancies from 28 weeks onward. There is no consensus regarding antenatal testing in patients with gestational diabetes that is well controlled with diet. Monitoring fetal growth continues to be a challenging and imprecise process. Although currently available tools (serial plotting of fetal growth parameters based on ultrasonographic measurement) are superior to those used previously for clinical estimations, accuracy is still only within 15%. [ 95 ] In the obese fetus, the inaccuracies are further magnified. In 1992, Bernstein and Catalano reported that significant correlation exists between the degree of error in the ultrasonogram-based estimation of fetal weight and the percentage of body fat on the fetus. [ 96 ] Perhaps this is the reason no single formula has proven to be adequate in identifying a macrosomic fetus with certainty. Despite problems with accuracy, ultrasonogram-based estimations of fetal size have become the standard of care. Estimate fetal size once or twice at least 3 weeks apart in order to establish a trend. Time the last examination to be at 36-37 weeks' gestation or as close to the planned delivery date as possible. Select the timing of delivery to minimize morbidity for the mother and fetus. Delaying delivery to as near as possible to the expected date of confinement helps maximize cervical maturity and improves the Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Gestational diabetes mellitus, temporary condition in which blood sugar ( glucose ) levels increase during pregnancy and return to normal after delivery. A healthy pregnancy is characterized by increased nutrient utilization, increased insulin resistance, and increased insulin secretion. Blood glucose concentrations tend to be lower in pregnant women than in nonpregnant women because the mother is supplying glucose to the growing fetus . All pregnant women have some degree of insulin resistance as a result of the normal secretion of several placental hormones, including placental growth hormone , placental lactogen, progesterone , and corticotropin-releasing hormone , which stimulates the production of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in the pituitary gland and cortisol in the adrenal glands . In some cases, insulin resistance is increased by excessive weight gain during pregnancy. If insulin secretion does not increase sufficiently to counter the insulin resistance imposed by these changes, gestational diabetes occurs. The condition is diagnosed when blood glucose concentrations reach 92125 mg per 100 ml (5.16.9 mmol/l) after fasting or when blood glucose concentrations equal or exceed 180 mg per 100 ml (10.0 mmol/l) one hour after ingesting a glucose-rich solution or reach 153199 mg per 100 ml (8.511.0 mmol/l) two hours after ingesting the solution. The frequency worldwide of gestational diabetes varies from about 1 to 15 percent of pregnant women. The large variability in frequency is partly due to the fact that there is no widely agreed upon definition of gestational diabetes. However, no matter how it is defined, it is more common among obese women and African American and Asian women than among women of European descent. The outcomes of gestational diabetes als Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Challenges In Diagnosis And Management

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Challenges In Diagnosis And Management

Abstract Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a well-characterized disease affecting a significant population of pregnant women worldwide. It has been widely linked to undue weight gain associated with factors such as diet, obesity, family history, and ethnicity. Poorly controlled GDM results in maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Improved outcomes therefore rely on early diagnosis and tight glycaemic control. While straightforward protocols exist for screening and management of diabetes mellitus in the general population, management of GDM remains controversial with conflicting guidelines and treatment protocols. This review highlights the diagnostic and management options for GDM in light of recent advances in care. Introduction Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), by definition, is any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy [1, 2]. This definition applies regardless of whether treatment involves insulin or diet modification alone; it may also apply to conditions that persist after pregnancy. GDM affects roughly 7 % of pregnancies with an incidence of more than 200,000 cases per year [2]. The prevalence, however, varies from 1–14 %, depending on the population and the diagnostic criteria that have been used [2]. GDM is the most common cause of diabetes during pregnancy, accounting for up to 90 % of pregnancies complicated by diabetes [2]. Women with GDM have a 40–60 % chance of developing diabetes mellitus over the 5–10 years after pregnancy [3]. Although GDM has been recognized as a disease for some time, it remains a controversial entity with conflicting guidelines and treatment protocols. Review Screening The first screening test for GDM, proposed in 1973, consisted of the 1-h 50 gm oral glucose tolerance test Continue reading >>

The Short-term Health And Economic Burden Of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus In China: A Modelling Study

The Short-term Health And Economic Burden Of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus In China: A Modelling Study

Abstract Objectives Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with a higher risk for adverse health outcomes during pregnancy and delivery for both mothers and babies. This study aims to assess the short-term health and economic burden of GDM in China in 2015. Design Using TreeAge Pro, an analytical decision model was built to estimate the incremental costs and quality-of-life loss due to GDM, in comparison with pregnancy without GDM from the 28th gestational week until and including childbirth. The model was populated with probabilities and costs based on current literature, clinical guidelines, price lists and expert interviews. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to test the robustness of the results. Results On average, the cost of a pregnancy with GDM was ¥6677.37 (in 2015 international $1929.87) more (+95%) than a pregnancy without GDM, due to additional expenses during both the pregnancy and delivery: ¥4421.49 for GDM diagnosis and treatment, ¥1340.94 (+26%) for the mother’s complications and ¥914.94 (+52%) for neonatal complications. In China, 16.5 million babies were born in 2015. Given a GDM prevalence of 17.5%, the number of pregnancies affected by GDM was estimated at 2.90 million in 2015. Therefore, the annual societal economic burden of GDM was estimated to be ¥19.36 billion (international $5.59 billion). Sensitivity analyses were used to confirm the robustness of the results. Incremental health losses were estimated to be approximately 260 000 quality-adjusted life years. Conclusion In China, the GDM economic burden is significant, even in the short-term perspective and deserves more attention and awareness. Our findings indicate a clear need to implement GDM prevention and treatment strategies at a national Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes definition and facts Risk factors for gestational diabetes include a history of gestational diabetes in a previous pregnancy, There are typically no noticeable signs or symptoms associated with gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes can cause the fetus to be larger than normal. Delivery of the baby may be more complicated as a result. The baby is also at risk for developing low blood glucose (hypoglycemia) immediately after birth. Following a nutrition plan is the typical treatment for gestational diabetes. Maintaining a healthy weight and following a healthy eating plan may be able to help prevent or minimize the risks of gestational diabetes. Women with gestational diabetes have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes after the pregnancy What is gestational diabetes? Gestational diabetes is diabetes, or high blood sugar levels, that develops during pregnancy. It occurs in about 4% of all pregnancies. It is usually diagnosed in the later stages of pregnancy and often occurs in women who have no prior history of diabetes. What causes gestational diabetes? Gestational diabetes is thought to arise because the many changes, hormonal and otherwise, that occur in the body during pregnancy predispose some women to become resistant to insulin. Insulin is a hormone made by specialized cells in the pancreas that allows the body to effectively metabolize glucose for later usage as fuel (energy). When levels of insulin are low, or the body cannot effectively use insulin (i.e., insulin resistance), blood glucose levels rise. What are the screening guidelines for gestational diabetes? All pregnant women should be screened for gestational diabetes during their pregnancy. Most pregnant women are tested between the 24th and 28th weeks of pregnancy (see Continue reading >>

Prevalence Of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus And Pregnancy Outcomes In Iranian Women - Sciencedirect

Prevalence Of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus And Pregnancy Outcomes In Iranian Women - Sciencedirect

Volume 46, Issue 3 , September 2007, Pages 236-241 Author links open overlay panel ArashHossein-Nezhad ZhilaMaghbooli Ali-RezaVassigh BagherLarijani Open Access funded by Taiwan Association of Obstetrics & Gynecology We investigated the prevalence and outcome of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in pregnant Iranian women. A total of 2,416 women, who were consecutive referrals for antenatal care to five university teaching hospitals in Tehran, were recruited. Patients with known diabetes were excluded. All 2,416 women were screened with a 50-g 1-hour glucose challenge test, and any woman with a plasma glucose concentration more than or equal to 130 mg/dL was given a 100-g 3-hour glucose tolerance test. Diagnosis of GDM was according to Carpenter and Coustan's criteria. The remainder served as controls for the study. There were 114 women (4.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.95.6%) who had GDM. Women with GDM had a significantly higher parity and body mass index than non-diabetic women. Women with GDM were also more likely to have a family history of diabetes and a history of poor obstetric outcome. Of the 114 women, 27 (23.6%) were younger than 25 years old, and 16 (14.0%) had no recognizable risk factor for diabetes. The odds ratio (OR) for cesarean section (OR, 2.28; p = 0.0002), macrosomia (OR, 1.93; p = 0.0374), neonatal hypoglycemia (OR, 3.2; p = 0.011) and hypocalcemia (OR, 3.045; p = 0.0195), and still birth (OR, 4.8; p = 0.003) were all significantly higher in women with GDM than non-GDM controls. One out of every 20 pregnant Iranian women will develop GDM, with significantly increased odds of adverse maternal and fetal outcome. The significant proportion of young and/or risk factor-free women in our sample means that there seems to be a case for universal GD Continue reading >>

Prospective Study Of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Risk In Relation To Maternal Recreational Physical Activity Before And During Pregnancy

Prospective Study Of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Risk In Relation To Maternal Recreational Physical Activity Before And During Pregnancy

Prospective Study of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Risk in Relation to Maternal Recreational Physical Activity before and during Pregnancy American Journal of Epidemiology, Volume 159, Issue 7, 1 April 2004, Pages 663670, Jennifer C. Dempsey, Tanya K. Sorensen, Michelle A. Williams, I-Min Lee, Raymond S. Miller, Edward E. Dashow, David A. Luthy; Prospective Study of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Risk in Relation to Maternal Recreational Physical Activity before and during Pregnancy, American Journal of Epidemiology, Volume 159, Issue 7, 1 April 2004, Pages 663670, Physical activity has been associated with a reduced risk of gestational diabetes mellitus, but inferences have been hampered by recall and selection bias. The authors examined the relation between recreational physical activity before and during pregnancy and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in a prospective cohort study. In 19962000, 909 normotensive, nondiabetic women in Seattle and Tacoma, Washington, were questioned during early gestation about physical activity performed during the year before and 7 days prior to the interview during pregnancy. Compared with inactive women, women who participated in any physical activity during the year before experienced a 56% risk reduction (relative risk (RR) = 0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.21, 0.91). Women spending 4.2 hours/week engaged in physical activity experienced a 76% reduction in gestational diabetes mellitus risk (RR = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.10, 0.64), and those expending 21.1 metabolic equivalent-hours/week experienced a 74% reduction (RR = 0.26, 95% CI: 0.10, 0.65) compared with inactive women. Physical activity during pregnancy was also associated with reductions in gestational diabetes mellitus risk. Women who engaged in physical activity during Continue reading >>

National Study Of The Prevalence Of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Among Danish Women From 2004 To 2012

National Study Of The Prevalence Of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Among Danish Women From 2004 To 2012

Aims: The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing worldwide. We studied the prevalence of GDM from 2004 to 2012 in Danish women aged 15–49 years using registries with records of the diagnosis of GDM at delivery. Methods: We conducted a national register-based study of 12,538 women with a diagnosis of GDM during a pregnancy leading to a live birth in the period 2004–2012. The diagnosis of GDM was taken from the National Patient Registry and combined with the total number of births at the national level from Statistics Denmark. Prevalence estimates were reported as crude and age-standardized using Danish and international data for women aged 15–49 years. Results: A total of 566,083 live births was registered in Denmark from 2004 to 2012. The age-standardized prevalence of GDM increased from 1.7% (1095/63,465) of the total births in 2004 to 2.9% (1721/56,894) of the total births in 2012. During the period 2004–2012, the age-stratified prevalence increased from 1.1 to 1.8% among women aged 15–24 years, from 1.5 to 2.6% among women aged 25–34 years and from 2.9 to 4.7% among women aged 35–49 years. The prevalence was higher among immigrants and their descendants than in native Danish women (4.06 and 2.09% in 2007 vs. 4.51 and 2.72% in 2012, respectively). Conclusions:The prevalence of GDM in Denmark has increased across all age groups. Although the prevalence is low on a global scale, attention should be paid to this development by preventive health services. [1] Hod, M, Kapur, A, Sacks, DA The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) initiative on gestational diabetes mellitus: A pragmatic guide for diagnosis, management, and care. Int J Gynecol Obst 2015;131:S173–211. Google Scholar, Crossref, Medline [2] Damm, P, Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Does An Effective Prevention Strategy Exist?

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Does An Effective Prevention Strategy Exist?

Gestational diabetes mellitus: does an effective prevention strategy exist? Rochan Agha-Jaffar graduated from the University of Nottingham, UK (Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery) in 2004. She is currently a clinical research fellow based at Imperial College London, UK, and has a specialist interest in gestational diabetes mellitus. Her fellowship is funded by the Novo Nordisk UK Research Foundation. Nick Oliver graduated in 1999 from Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK (Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery) and is currently a consultant diabetologist at Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust and Reader in diabetes mellitus at Imperial College, London, UK. He is a clinical academic with an interest in type 1 diabetes mellitus, technology to treat diabetes mellitus, including continuous glucose monitoring and artificial pancreas development, and diabetes prevention. Desmond Johnston trained at the University of Edinburgh and University of Southampton, both in the UK where, as an MRC Training Fellow, he did his PhD with Professor Sir George Alberti. He is the Vice Dean for the Faculty of Medicine and is the head of the Diabetes Endocrinology and Metabolism Section within the Department of Medicine at Imperial College London, UK. His major interests currently are in investigating early changes in insulin secretion and sensitivity, and other aspects of metabolism in people predisposed to type 2 diabetes mellitus before the disease develops. Stephen Robinson is an Adjunct Professor in Endocrinology at Imperial College London,and Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, UK. He has a particular interest in medical problems in pregnancy, diabetes mellitus, thyroid disease and pituitary disease. Professor Robinson has contributed to specialist working group Continue reading >>

Frontiers | Effects Of Vitamin D Deficiency On Incidence Risk Of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis | Endocrinology

Frontiers | Effects Of Vitamin D Deficiency On Incidence Risk Of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis | Endocrinology

Front. Endocrinol., 01 February 2018 | Effects of Vitamin D Deficiency on Incidence Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis 1Biotechnology and Medicinal Plants Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran 2Faculty of Medicine, Department of Physiology, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran 3Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran 4Faculty of Medicine, Department of Anatomy, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran Introduction: Proper nutrition is important for overall health, and it reduces healthcare costs associated with malnutrition. Many studies have investigated vitamin D deficiency and its role in gestational diabetes and controversial data have reported. A comprehensive consideration of articles in this field provides the possibility of a general study of this relationship. This meta-analysis is an evaluation of the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and gestational diabetes. Material and methods: Different databases (such as PubMed, Science Information Institute, EmBase, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library) were searched for studies and eligible English articles published before February 2017 that have reported the risk of gestational diabetes in relation to vitamin D deficiency. This relationship was measured using odds ratios (ORs) with a confidence interval (CI) of 95%. The influence of each study was measured through sensitivity analysis. Funnel plots, Egger regression tests, and the BeggMazumdar correlation test were used to determine bias or publication bias. STATA (version 11.2) was used for all analyses. Results: Twenty-six studies were selected as eligible for this research and included in the final analysis. In general, vitamin Continue reading >>

Educational And Intervention Programmes For Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (gdm) Management: An Integrative Review

Educational And Intervention Programmes For Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (gdm) Management: An Integrative Review

Volume 23, Issue 1 , March 2016, Pages 103-114 Educational and intervention programmes for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) management: An integrative review Author links open overlay panel Mary C.Carolan-OlahPhD Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a serious pregnancy disorder, which is linked to stillbirth, birth damage and later development of type 2 diabetes. Rates of GDM have increased dramatically in the past 20 years, related to obesity, sedentary lifestyles and ethnicity. The aim of this integrative review was to identify and to critically review existing self-management programmes for GDM. A search for studies published between 2000 and 2013 was conducted on: PubMed, CINAHL, Medline, OvidSP, ProQuest, SCOPUS and Wiley online library. GDM search terms included gestational diabetes mellitus; GDM, pregnancy diabetes. Search terms for self-management programmes, included educational programmes; lifestyle intervention; exercise, diet, weight management in pregnancy; life-style interventions. Fifty papers were located in the search, and 12 were included in the review. Interventions fell into three main groups: (1) dietary and exercise interventions; (2) self-monitoring of blood glucose levels; and (3) counselling/behavioural interventions. This review found that although interventions varied in approach, most were successful in reducing insulin requirements; in reducing rates of macrosomia and hypertensive disorders, and in improving levels of knowledge and pregnancy outcomes. Only one study found that the intervention did not contribute some positive outcome. Interventions that include adopting a low glycemic index diet and increasing levels of activity appear to be successful at reducing maternal blood glucose levels and reducing insulin requirements during p Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes: A Clinical Update

Gestational Diabetes: A Clinical Update

Ulla Kampmann , Lene Ring Madsen , Gitte Oeskov Skajaa , Ditte Smed Iversen , Niels Moeller , and Per Ovesen Ulla Kampmann, Lene Ring Madsen, Niels Moeller, Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark Gitte Oeskov Skajaa, Ditte Smed Iversen, Per Ovesen, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aarhus University Hospital, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark Author contributions: Kampmann U designed and wrote the manuscript; Madsen LR, Skajaa GO, Iversen DS and Moeller N wrote the manuscript; Ovesen P wrote the manuscript and generated the table. Correspondence to: Ulla Kampmann, MD, PhD, Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Nrrebrogade 44, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark. [email protected] Telephone: +45-2-2370857 Fax: +45-8-9492072 Received 2014 Aug 28; Revised 2015 Feb 14; Accepted 2015 Apr 16. Copyright The Author(s) 2015. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing in prevalence in tandem with the dramatic increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in women of childbearing age. Much controversy surrounds the diagnosis and management of gestational diabetes, emphasizing the importance and relevance of clarity and consensus. If newly proposed criteria are adopted universally a significantly growing number of women will be diagnosed as having GDM, implying new therapeutic challenges to avoid foetal and maternal complications related to the hyperglycemia of gestational diabetes. This review provides an overview of clinical issues related to GDM, including the challenges of screening and diagnosis, the pathophysiology behind GDM, the treatment and prevention of GDM an Continue reading >>

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