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Antioxidants Diabetes Type 2

Antioxidant Anti-inflammatory Treatment In Type 2 Diabetes

Antioxidant Anti-inflammatory Treatment In Type 2 Diabetes

Go to: CENTRAL ROLE OF OXIDATIVE STRESS IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF DIABETIC COMPLICATIONS It has been suggested that the following four key biochemical changes induced by hyperglycemia are all activated by a common mechanism—overproduction of superoxide radicals (2): 1) increased flux through the polyol pathway (in which glucose is reduced to sorbitol, reducing levels of both NADPH and reduced glutathione); 2) increased formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs); 3) activation of protein kinase C (with effects ranging from vascular occlusion to expression of proinflammatory genes), and 4) increased shunting of excess glucose through the hexosamine pathway (mediating increased transcription of genes for inflammatory cytokines). Excess plasma glucose drives excess production of electron donors (mainly -NADH/H+) from the tricarboxylic acid cycle; in turn, this surfeit results in the transfer of single electrons (instead of the usual electron pairs) to oxygen, producing superoxide radicals and other reactive oxygen species (instead of the usual H2O end product). The superoxide anion itself inhibits the key glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GADPH), and consequently, glucose and glycolytic intermediates spill into the polyol and hexosamine pathways, as well as additional pathways that culminate in protein kinase C activation and intracellular AGE formation (Fig. 1). However, superoxide overproduction is also accompanied by increased nitric oxide generation, due to endothelial nitric oxide synthase and inducible nitric oxide synthase uncoupled state (3), a phenomenon favoring the formation of the strong oxidant peroxynitrite, which in turn damages DNA (3). The DNA damage is an obligatory stimulus for the activation of the nuclear enzyme poly(AD Continue reading >>

Antioxidant-rich Foods And Nutrients Vs. Oxidation

Antioxidant-rich Foods And Nutrients Vs. Oxidation

What Is Oxidation? Antioxidants Help Reverse Type 2 Diabetes Types of Enzyme Antioxidants Types of Micronutrient Antioxidants Types of Phytonutrient/Phytochemical Antioxidants Major Categories of Antioxidant-rich Foods List of Antioxidants and Antioxidant-rich Foods Next Steps to Reverse Type 2 Diabetes Oxidation is a process where a free radical molecule is created when there is the loss of at least one electron when two or more atoms or molecular compounds interact. Here is what a free radical molecule looks like: Sometimes oxidation is not such a bad thing, as in the formation of super-durable anodized aluminum. Other times, oxidation can be destructive, such as the rusting of an automobile, the spoiling of fresh fruit or the damage to the cells in our body. Examples of oxidation include a freshly-cut apple turning brown, a bicycle fender becomes rusty and LDL cholesterol in the arteries is oxidized due to excess glycation. Free radicals created from oxidation can cause damage our DNA, which may lead to a cell mutation and trigger the development of diseases such as cancer. Free radicals also cause damage to other cells and tissues in the body, which may lead to other diseases such as atherosclerosis, heart disease, and arthritis. When free radicals increase significantly, this can cause oxidative stress. Oxidative stress (chronic oxidation) is an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in favor of the oxidants, potentially leading to cell/tissue damage. Ongoing oxidative stress is dangerous because, over time, it can lead to accelerated aging, cancer, heart disease (atherosclerosis), Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's, autoimmune diseases, Type 2 diabetes, and other systemic diseases. Inflammation & Oxidation web page. Given that oxidation can be harmful to our ce Continue reading >>

Antioxidants And Diabetes

Antioxidants And Diabetes

Go to: Abstract Hyperglycemia promotes auto-oxidation of glucose to form free radicals. The generation of free radicals beyond the scavenging abilities of endogenous antioxidant defenses results in macro- and microvascular dysfunction. Antioxidants such as N-acetylcysteine, vitamin C and α-lipoic acid are effective in reducing diabetic complications, indicating that it may be beneficial either by ingestion of natural antioxidants or through dietary supplementation. However, while antioxidants are proving essential tools in the investigation of oxidant stress-related diabetic pathologies and despite the obvious potential merit of a replacement style therapy, the safety and efficacy of antioxidant supplementation in any future treatment, remains to be established Keywords: Antioxidants, diabetes mellitus, free radicals Go to: Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder with a rapidly increasing prevalence[1] highlighting the importance of continued research and the need for novel methods to both prevent and treat this pandemic. Although obesity and physical inactivity are known to be major risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2DM), recent evidence suggests that oxidative stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of T2DM by increasing insulin resistance or impairing insulin secretion.[2] While diabetes management has largely focused on control of hyperglycemia, the rising burden of this disease is mainly correlated to its vascular complications. This is reflected by a 4-fold increase in the incidence of coronary artery disease, a 10-fold increase in peripheral vascular disease, and a 3- to 4-fold higher mortality rate with as much as 75% of diabetics ultimately dying from vascular disease.[3] Oxidative stress may play a role in the pathophysiology of diabetes and cardiovascula Continue reading >>

Antioxidants May Help Reduce Diabetes Risk

Antioxidants May Help Reduce Diabetes Risk

Study shows high carotenoid serum concentration may prevent development of type 2. Diabetes is a global health problem. According to the World Health Organization, diabetes is estimated to affect 25.8 million Americans and 346 million people worldwide. The risk factors of developing type 2 diabetes include diet, sedentary lifestyle, body mass index, and genetics. Consistently eating fruit and vegetables can help people maintain healthy body weight. Other than that, a new study published in BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care reported Japanese people with high carotenoids serum concentration showed low risk of developing type 2 diabetes. This study conducted in Japan tried to assess the relationship between antioxidant vitamins like carotenoids and the development of type 2 diabetes. Many fruits and vegetables contain high carotenoids such as carrots, cantaloupe, sweet potato, and kale. In the previous study, oxidative stress was linked to the cause of type 2 diabetes, because reactive oxygen species produced by oxidative stress causes the development of insulin resistance, beta-cell dysfunction, and impaired glucose tolerance. Therefore, researchers suggested consuming antioxidant food should help people fight against the development of type 2 diabetes. This was a population-based prospective survey and a follow-up study from the Mikkabi prospective cohort study. 910 participants ages 30 to 79 years were included in the follow-up study between 2003 to 2013. After excluding participants with diabetes or with a history of diabetes, a total of 264 male and 600 female patients were included in the final results. Researchers found that carotenoids concentration at baseline survey included lutein, lycopene, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and zeaxanthin. Part Continue reading >>

Effective Control Of Type 2 Diabetes Through Antioxidant Defense By Edible Fruits Of Diospyros Peregrina

Effective Control Of Type 2 Diabetes Through Antioxidant Defense By Edible Fruits Of Diospyros Peregrina

Effective Control of Type 2 Diabetes through Antioxidant Defense by Edible Fruits of Diospyros peregrina Division of Pharmacognosy, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032, India Received 25 November 2008; Accepted 28 May 2009 Copyright 2011 Saikat Dewanjee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The matured fruits of Diospyros peregrina are successfully employed by the traditional healers and local people of costal West Bengal, India for the treatment of diabetes. Present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the role of hydroalcoholic extract of D. peregrina (HDP) on type 2 diabetes as well as the augmented oxidative stresses associated with it. Oral administration of HDP at 25, 50 and 100 mg kg1 body weight per day to diabetic rats was found to possess significant dose-dependent hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity. The diabetic rats showed lower activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) content in hepatic and renal tissues as compared to normal rats. The activities of SOD, CAT and GSH were found to be increased in extract-treated diabetic rats in selected tissues. The increased level of lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) in diabetic rats was also found to be reverted back to near normal status in extract-treated groups. Thus it may be concluded that the HDP may produce its hypoglycemic effect through antioxidant defense mechanism. Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by elevated blood glucose concentration caused by insulin deficiency, often combi Continue reading >>

Review Diabetes Mellitus And Oxidative Stress—a Concise Review

Review Diabetes Mellitus And Oxidative Stress—a Concise Review

1. Diabetes mellitus Likewise Osteoporosis, Cushing’s syndrome and Scleroderma, Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders that is characterized by elevated levels of glucose in blood (hyperglycemia) and insufficiency in production or action of insulin produced by the pancreas inside the body (Maritim et al., 2003). Insulin is a protein (hormone) synthesized in beta cells of pancreas in response to various stimuli such as glucose, sulphonylureas, and arginine however glucose is the major determinant (Joshi et al., 2007). Long term elevation in blood glucose levels is associated with macro- and micro-vascular complications leading to heart diseases, stroke, blindness and kidney diseases (Loghmani, 2005). Sidewise to hyperglycemia, there are several other factors that play great role in pathogenesis of diabetes such as hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress leading to high risk of complications (Kangralkar et al., 2010). 2. Types of diabetes mellitus Diabetes mellitus can be classified in different ways but one form of classification is as follow (American Diabetes Association, 2004): 1. Type I diabetes (Insulin dependent) is due to immune mediated beta-cells destruction, leading to insulin deficiency. 2. Idiopathic diabetes is the type 1 diabetes with no known etiologies and is strongly inherited. 3. Type II diabetes (Non-Insulin dependent) is due to insulin secretory defect and insulin resistance. 4. Gestational diabetes mellitus is any form of intolerance to glucose with onset or first recognition of pregnancy. However diabetes is mostly classified basically into TWO major types: Type I Diabetes (IDDM) and Type II Diabetes (NIDDM). 3. Pathophysiology of diabetes Whenever somebody takes the meal, there is rise in blood glucose levels that stimulates insulin secr Continue reading >>

Oxidative Stress And The Use Of Antioxidants In Diabetes: Linking Basic Science To Clinical Practice

Oxidative Stress And The Use Of Antioxidants In Diabetes: Linking Basic Science To Clinical Practice

Abstract Cardiovascular complications, characterized by endothelial dysfunction and accelerated atherosclerosis, are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes. There is growing evidence that excess generation of highly reactive free radicals, largely due to hyperglycemia, causes oxidative stress, which further exacerbates the development and progression of diabetes and its complications. Overproduction and/or insufficient removal of these free radicals result in vascular dysfunction, damage to cellular proteins, membrane lipids and nucleic acids. Despite overwhelming evidence on the damaging consequences of oxidative stress and its role in experimental diabetes, large scale clinical trials with classic antioxidants failed to demonstrate any benefit for diabetic patients. As our understanding of the mechanisms of free radical generation evolves, it is becoming clear that rather than merely scavenging reactive radicals, a more comprehensive approach aimed at preventing the generation of these reactive species as well as scavenging may prove more beneficial. Therefore, new strategies with classic as well as new antioxidants should be implemented in the treatment of diabetes. Introduction It is a well-established fact that diabetes is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease [1, 2]. While microvascular complications of diabetes include nephropathy and retinopathy, macrovascular complications resulting in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease such as coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease and peripheral vascular disease are the leading cause of death in the diabetic population [3, 4]. The Diabetes Control and Complications trial (DCCT) demonstrated that tight control of blood glucose is effective in reducing clinical complications signi Continue reading >>

Antioxidant-rich Diet May Prevent Diabetes

Antioxidant-rich Diet May Prevent Diabetes

Antioxidant-Rich Diet May Prevent Diabetes Eating Foods High in Antioxidants, Especially Vitamin E, May Lower Risk Feb. 20, 2004 -- Eating a colorful diet full of antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables may help prevent diabetes . A new study shows that people whose diets had the highest levels vitamin E were 30% less likely to develop type 2 diabetes than those who ate the least amounts of the antioxidant. In addition, researchers found that people who ate a lot of carotenoids, a type of antioxidant found in colorful fruits and vegetables , also had a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes . But the study showed one of the most popular antioxidants , vitamin C , seemed to offer no protection against the disease. Antioxidants are found in whole grains, fruits, and vegetables. Previous research has suggested that eating a diet rich in these compounds can have a variety of healthy effects, such as preventing chronic diseases like diabetes , by fighting free radicals, unstable molecules that cause cell damage within the body. Antioxidants Protect Against Risk of Type 2 Diabetes In the study, which appears in the current issue of Diabetes Care, researchers looked at antioxidant content of the diets of more than 4,000 men and women between the ages of 40 and 69 who were free of diabetes at the start of the study. Specifically, they tracked the amount of vitamin E, vitamin C, carotenoids, and other forms or derivatives of vitamin E, such as tocopherols. After 23 years of follow-up, the study showed that people who consumed more vitamin E and carotenoids had a lower risk of type 2 diabetes compared with people who consumed lower levels of the antioxidant, but no such effect was linked to vitamin C intake. "This study adds weight to the hypothesis that antioxidant intake may Continue reading >>

Eating More Antioxidant-rich Food Could Reduce Type 2 Diabetes Risk

Eating More Antioxidant-rich Food Could Reduce Type 2 Diabetes Risk

Eating more antioxidant-rich food could reduce type 2 diabetes risk Eating more antioxidant-rich food could reduce type 2 diabetes risk Liraglutide helps reduce visceral fat in prediabetes, early type 2 diabetes 03 November 2017 Regular consumption of antioxidant-rich foods such as tea , walnuts and blueberries can help to lower the risk of type 2 diabetes , researchers say. A French study published in the journal Diabetologia has reported that women with higher antioxidant scores had a 27 per cent reduced risk of type 2 diabetes compared to those with the lowest scores. Scientists analysed total antioxidant capacity in 64,223 women between 1993 and 2008 to see whether overall diet was associated with type 2 diabetes risk. At the beginning of the study the participants completed a dietary questionnaire, which included information on more than 200 food items. This enabled researchers to assess the 'total dietary antioxidant capacity' for each participant. None of the women had diabetes before the study began. A total of 1,751 women developed type 2 diabetes during the 15-year follow-up period. When the associations between antioxidant score and diabetes risk were analysed, the risk was diminished with increased antioxidant consumption. "This link persists after taking into account all the other principal diabetes risk factors: smoking , education level, hypertension , high cholesterol levels, family history of diabetes and, above all, BMI , the most important factor," said first author Francesca Romana Mancini, who is part of the French National Institute of Health and Medical Research. The foods and drink that contributed most to a higher dietary antioxidant score were fruits and vegetables , tea and red wine (in moderation), while coffee was excluded from the analysis Continue reading >>

Antioxidants

Antioxidants

Should You Supplement? Oxygen is a Jekyll and Hyde element. We need it for critical body functions, such as respiration and immune response, but the element’s dark side is a reactive chemical nature that can damage body cells and tissues. The perpetrators of this “oxidative damage” are various oxygen-containing molecules, most of which are types of free radicals—unstable, highly energized molecules that contain an unpaired electron. Since stable chemical bonds require electron pairs, free radicals generated in the body steal electrons from nearby molecules, damaging vital cell components and body tissues. Oxidative damage in the body is akin to rusting of metal, the browning of freshly cut apples, or fats going rancid. Certain substances known as antioxidants, however, can help prevent this kind of damage. This article examines the special relationship between oxidative damage, antioxidant protection, diabetes, and complications of diabetes. Oxidative damage Free radicals and other “reactive oxygen species” are formed by a variety of normal processes within the body (including respiration and immune and inflammatory responses) as well as by elements outside the body, such as air pollutants, sunlight, and radiation. Whatever their source, reactive oxygen species can promote damage that is linked to increased risk of a variety of diseases and even to the aging process itself. Oxidative damage to LDL (low-density lipoprotein or “bad”) cholesterol particles in the blood is believed to be a key factor in the progression of heart disease. Oxidative damage to fatty nerve tissue is linked to increased risk of various nervous system disorders, including Parkinson disease. Free radical damage to DNA can alter genetic material in the cell nucleus and, as a result, Continue reading >>

Antioxidants In The Treatment Of Diabetes

Antioxidants In The Treatment Of Diabetes

Abstract Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder that continues to present as a major health problem worldwide. It is characterized by absolute or relative deficiencies in insulin secretion and/or insulin action and is associated with chronic hyperglycemia and disturbances of carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism. Many studies suggest a central role for oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of this multi-faceted metabolic disorder. This has prompted investigations in the use of antioxidants as a complementary therapeutic approach. In this review we briefly summarize oxidative mechanisms implicated in diabetic complications and then focus on the findings resulting from human clinical trials where antioxidants were studied as an adjuvant to standard diabetes treatment during the last ten years. A literature search using PubMed (last ten years) was performed using the following terms: vitamin E, vitamin C, coenzyme Q10, alpha lipoic acid, L-carnitine, ruboxistaurin or LY 333531 and diabetes. This search was limited to human clinical trials. We concluded there is not any established benefit for antioxidants use in the management of diabetic complications. Therefore, routine vitamin or mineral supplementation is not generally recommended. Discover the world's research 14+ million members 100+ million publications 700k+ research projects Join for free Continue reading >>

Antioxidants May Raise Diabetes Risk

Antioxidants May Raise Diabetes Risk

Australian researchers have found that antioxidants may increase your risk of developing diabetes in the early stages. "In the case of early type 2 diabetes ... our studies suggest that antioxidants would be bad for you," says Associate Professor Tony Tiganis of Monash University in Melbourne, whose study appears in the journal Cell Metabolism . Antioxidants are protective proteins that can prevent cell damage caused by charged particles known as reactive oxygen species. This oxidative stress is thought to add to the progression of several diseases, including type 2 diabetes. Because antioxidants fight oxidative stress, they have become a popular food supplement. But Tiganis says the picture appears to be a bit more complicated. "We think there is a delicate balance, and that too much of a good thing - surprise, surprise - might be bad," he says. Tiganis' team studied the effects of oxidative stress in mice fed a high-fat diet for 12 weeks. One group of mice lacked an enzyme known as Gpxl, which helps counter oxidative stress. They found mice that lacked the enzyme were less likely to develop insulin resistance - an early sign of diabetes - than normal mice. But when they treated the enzyme-deficient mice with an antioxidant, "they lost this advantage and become more diabetic," says Tiganis. He says oxidative stress may be working not to damage the body, but to inhibit enzymes that hurt the body's ability to use insulin early on in the development of diabetes, and that antioxidants remove this protective mechanism. "Our work suggests that antioxidants may contribute to early development of insulin resistance, a key pathological hallmark of type 2 diabetes," says Tiganis. He cautioned that the study was in mice and more study in people is needed. But he says other studi Continue reading >>

Antioxidants' Benefits: Mostly Hype?

Antioxidants' Benefits: Mostly Hype?

Before it became a household word, antioxidant was just a term you might have heard in science class and long forgotten. Yet now these chemicals are available everywhere, in fruits like cranberries and pomegranates, in dietary supplements, and in the "antioxidant powerhouses" that flood our health food stores and supermarkets. The number of products making antioxidant claims rose over 300 percent between 2002 and 2006, according to the market research firm Packaged Facts. But did the idea that antioxidants improve health come from hard science or from savvy marketers of the latest health craze? The purported health benefits of antioxidantsincluding the prevention of cancer, heart disease, dementia, diabetes, eye disease, and even aging itselfare believed to arise from their ability to combat oxidative processes in the body. Oxidation is what makes a fender get rusty or an apple turn brown. But squeezing lemon juice on an apple keeps the fruit looking tasty: That's because antioxidants in the juice neutralize chemicals that cause the oxidation. These chemicals are called free radicals, which are side products of normal metabolism. They can also be created by environmental factors like ultraviolet radiation or pollution. First isolated by scientists in the early 1900s, they weren't linked to health until the free-radical theory of aging was developed in the 1950s. Since free radicals are highly chemically reactive, they frantically couple with whatever molecules are nearby, destroying vital DNA or protein and causing age-related maladies. This is known as oxidative stress. The body has its own natural defenses against free radicals, but they aren't 100 percent effective. The free-radical theory of aging suggests that antioxidants could intercept free radicals before they Continue reading >>

Diet Rich In Plant Antioxidants Helps Blood Sugar

Diet Rich In Plant Antioxidants Helps Blood Sugar

June 11, 2014 -- A substance found in a variety of plant-based foods may improve blood sugar in people at risk for heart disease and diabetes, according to a recent study. Researchers found that a diet rich in plant antioxidants (called polyphenols) lowered blood sugar. The antioxidants are found in dark chocolate, green tea, coffee, and extra virgin olive oil, among other foods. Lead researcher Lutgarda Bozzetto, MD, says the people in the study felt the diet was easy to stick with. Bozzetto is with the University of Naples Federico II in Italy and presented the study at the European Atherosclerosis Society 2014 Congress. "It's a diet that is realistic for these high-risk patients," she tells Medscape. Study after study has touted the benefits of coffee, green tea, and dark chocolate. The antioxidants found in these foods may help lower the risk of heart disease and diabetes, prevent certain cancers, and even help the brain. Early studies have shown that diets rich in polyphenols may help improve how your body metabolizes sugar, Bozzetto says. In this new study, 45 overweight or obese people followed one of four diets: A diet low in omega-3 fatty acids and polyphenols (consistent with the typical American diet) A diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids A diet rich in polyphenols A diet that included omega-3 fatty acids and polyphenols (in lower amounts than group 3) Those on the omega-3 fatty acid-enriched diets lost more weight during the 8-week study. But blood sugar and insulin levels improved more with the polyphenol-enriched diet. The researchers also noticed improvements in the way the pancreas worked in people on the polyphenol-enriched diet. Bozzetto says this effect of polyphenols is similar to many diabetes medicines. And it may not only help treat diabetes, but may Continue reading >>

New Study Shows Antioxidant-rich Foods Diminish Diabetes Risk

New Study Shows Antioxidant-rich Foods Diminish Diabetes Risk

New Study Shows Antioxidant-Rich Foods Diminish Diabetes Risk Consuming a diet rich in antioxidant foods may help decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes, according to a new study published November 9 in Diabetologia. The trial is the first prospective investigation into the link between total antioxidant consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes, say the researchers. "This work complements our current knowledge of the effect of isolated foods and nutrients and provides a more comprehensive view of the relationship between food and type 2 diabetes," senior author Guy Fagherazzi, PhD, of the University Paris-Sud, Villejuif Cedex, France, said in a press release. Prior research has suggested that oxidative stress may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. While some studies have found that the antioxidant vitamin E may help decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes, others have not confirmed this effect for the antioxidants vitamin C, flavonoids, and lycopene. However, these studies looked only at isolated nutrients, and there is some evidence to suggest that ingredients in the diet may have a cumulative or synergistic effect and that the total antioxidant capacity may help reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. In particular, fruits, vegetables, wine, coffee, and tea have been identified as important sources of antioxidants. "Ceiling Effect" for Total Antioxidant Intake and Diabetes Risk To examine whether overall antioxidant content in the diet has an impact on diabetes risk, Dr Fagherazzi and colleagues analyzed data from the large E3N-EPIC prospective cohort study, begun in France in 1990 with the aim of studying risk factors for cancer and severe chronic conditions in women born between 1925 and 1990. The current analysis included a subset of 64,223 women who had a me Continue reading >>

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