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Antioxidants Diabetes

Antioxidants, Diabetes, And Endothelial Dysfunction

Antioxidants, Diabetes, And Endothelial Dysfunction

A substantial amount of evidence has demonstrated that diabetes is highly associated with oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction.1–3 It is also well recognised that endothelial dysfunction, which is present even in people at risk of developing diabetes, is strongly connected with oxidative stress and considered as a preliminary risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease.4,5 Given the central pathogenic role of the dysfunctional endothelium in the atherosclerosis of large- and medium-sized arteries,6,7 it is increasingly clear that endothelial cells are the ultimate target for pro-atherogenic mediators in oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and diabetes.7–9 Therefore, there is growing research in the role of antioxidants on endothelial function as a new therapeutic approach for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. This report will describe the association between endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress in diabetic patients. It will also provide the latest data about the role of antioxidants as a new therapeutic intervention for the reduction of cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients. Diabetes is currently recognized as an oxidative stress disorder.10 Oxidative stress per se is characterized by high accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cannot be coerced by the endogenous circulating neutralizing agents and antioxidants. Hyperglycemia can induce oxidative stress through four mechanisms: increased production of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs); increased flux through the polyol/aldose pathway; activation of protein kinase C (PKC); and increased flux through the hexosamine pathway (see Figure 1). Excessive superoxide production by the mitochondrial transport chain11 du Continue reading >>

Diet Rich In Plant Antioxidants Helps Blood Sugar

Diet Rich In Plant Antioxidants Helps Blood Sugar

June 11, 2014 -- A substance found in a variety of plant-based foods may improve blood sugar in people at risk for heart disease and diabetes, according to a recent study. Researchers found that a diet rich in plant antioxidants (called polyphenols) lowered blood sugar. The antioxidants are found in dark chocolate, green tea, coffee, and extra virgin olive oil, among other foods. Lead researcher Lutgarda Bozzetto, MD, says the people in the study felt the diet was easy to stick with. Bozzetto is with the University of Naples Federico II in Italy and presented the study at the European Atherosclerosis Society 2014 Congress. "It's a diet that is realistic for these high-risk patients," she tells Medscape. Study after study has touted the benefits of coffee, green tea, and dark chocolate. The antioxidants found in these foods may help lower the risk of heart disease and diabetes, prevent certain cancers, and even help the brain. Early studies have shown that diets rich in polyphenols may help improve how your body metabolizes sugar, Bozzetto says. In this new study, 45 overweight or obese people followed one of four diets: A diet low in omega-3 fatty acids and polyphenols (consistent with the typical American diet) A diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids A diet rich in polyphenols A diet that included omega-3 fatty acids and polyphenols (in lower amounts than group 3) Those on the omega-3 fatty acid-enriched diets lost more weight during the 8-week study. But blood sugar and insulin levels improved more with the polyphenol-enriched diet. The researchers also noticed improvements in the way the pancreas worked in people on the polyphenol-enriched diet. Bozzetto says this effect of polyphenols is similar to many diabetes medicines. And it may not only help treat diabetes, but may Continue reading >>

Antioxidant Anti-inflammatory Treatment In Type 2 Diabetes

Antioxidant Anti-inflammatory Treatment In Type 2 Diabetes

In the last few decades, the occurrence of type 2 diabetes has rapidly increased internationally, and it has been estimated that the number of diabetic patients will more than double within 15 years (1). Type 2 diabetes is mainly characterized by the development of increased morbidity and mortality for cardiovascular disease (CVD); thus, it has been suggested that diabetes may be considered a CVD (1). However, diabetes is also characterized by dramatic microangiophatic complications, such as retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy (1). Recent evidence suggests that glucose overload may damage the cells through oxidative stress (2). This is currently the basis of the “unifying hypothesis” that hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress may account for the pathogenesis of all diabetic complications (2). CENTRAL ROLE OF OXIDATIVE STRESS IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF DIABETIC COMPLICATIONS It has been suggested that the following four key biochemical changes induced by hyperglycemia are all activated by a common mechanism—overproduction of superoxide radicals (2): 1) increased flux through the polyol pathway (in which glucose is reduced to sorbitol, reducing levels of both NADPH and reduced glutathione); 2) increased formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs); 3) activation of protein kinase C (with effects ranging from vascular occlusion to expression of proinflammatory genes), and 4) increased shunting of excess glucose through the hexosamine pathway (mediating increased transcription of genes for inflammatory cytokines). Excess plasma glucose drives excess production of electron donors (mainly -NADH/H+) from the tricarboxylic acid cycle; in turn, this surfeit results in the transfer of single electrons (instead of the usual electron pairs) to oxygen, producing super Continue reading >>

Effects Of Antioxidants In Diabetes-induced Oxidative Stress In The Glomeruli Of Diabetic Rats

Effects Of Antioxidants In Diabetes-induced Oxidative Stress In The Glomeruli Of Diabetic Rats

Abstract ABSTRACT. Numerous reports have demonstrated that oxidative stress induced by diabetes plays an important role in the development and progression of diabetic vascular complications including nephropathy. Indeed, there is emerging evidence that the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a direct consequence of hyperglycemia. Biomarkers for oxidative damage to DNA, lipids, and proteins are also supporting the concept of increased oxidative stress in diabetes and diabetic nephropathy. However, there is an unanswered question: When does oxidative stress as a pathogenetic event occur in the process of diabetic nephropathy? To answer this question, glomerular ROS was imaged with the use of 2′, 7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). The image of DCF fluorescence was strong in glomeruli from diabetic rats as compared with that of glomeruli from nondiabetic control rats. mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was also determined because oxidative stress definitely refers to the situation of an imbalance between the production of ROS and antioxidant defense. The mRNA expression of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 2 wk after the induction of diabetes was not significantly different from that in control rats. Alternatively, mRNA and protein expression of HO-1 was strongly induced by 16-fold in diabetic glomeruli after the induction of diabetes. Antioxidant treatment with either vitamin E or probucol almost completely normalized HO-1 overexpression in diabetic glomeruli, supporting the existence of oxidative stress in the glomeruli of early diabetes. Furthermore, It has reported that antioxidant treatment with vitamin E, probucol, Continue reading >>

Antioxidants May Help Reduce Diabetes Risk

Antioxidants May Help Reduce Diabetes Risk

Study shows high carotenoid serum concentration may prevent development of type 2. Diabetes is a global health problem. According to the World Health Organization, diabetes is estimated to affect 25.8 million Americans and 346 million people worldwide. The risk factors of developing type 2 diabetes include diet, sedentary lifestyle, body mass index, and genetics. Consistently eating fruit and vegetables can help people maintain healthy body weight. Other than that, a new study published in BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care reported Japanese people with high carotenoids serum concentration showed low risk of developing type 2 diabetes. This study conducted in Japan tried to assess the relationship between antioxidant vitamins like carotenoids and the development of type 2 diabetes. Many fruits and vegetables contain high carotenoids such as carrots, cantaloupe, sweet potato, and kale. In the previous study, oxidative stress was linked to the cause of type 2 diabetes, because reactive oxygen species produced by oxidative stress causes the development of insulin resistance, beta-cell dysfunction, and impaired glucose tolerance. Therefore, researchers suggested consuming antioxidant food should help people fight against the development of type 2 diabetes. This was a population-based prospective survey and a follow-up study from the Mikkabi prospective cohort study. 910 participants ages 30 to 79 years were included in the follow-up study between 2003 to 2013. After excluding participants with diabetes or with a history of diabetes, a total of 264 male and 600 female patients were included in the final results. Researchers found that carotenoids concentration at baseline survey included lutein, lycopene, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and zeaxanthin. Part Continue reading >>

Dossier: Antioxidants In The Prevention Of Human Diseases A Review On The Role Of Antioxidants In The Management Of Diabetes And Its Complications

Dossier: Antioxidants In The Prevention Of Human Diseases A Review On The Role Of Antioxidants In The Management Of Diabetes And Its Complications

Abstract Diabetes is a prevalent systemic disease affecting a significant proportion of the population worldwide. The effects of diabetes are devastating and well documented. There is increasing evidence that in certain pathologic states, especially chronic diseases, the increased production and/or ineffective scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may play a critical role. High reactivity of ROS determines chemical changes in virtually all cellular components, leading to lipid peroxidation. Production of ROS and disturbed capacity of antioxidant defense in diabetic subjects have been reported. It has been suggested that enhanced production of free radicals and oxidative stress is central event to the development of diabetic complications. This suggestion has been supported by demonstration of increased levels of indicators of oxidative stress in diabetic individuals suffering from complications. Therefore, it seems reasonable that antioxidants can play an important role in the improvement of diabetes. There are many reports on effects of antioxidants in the management of diabetes. In this paper, after complete bibliography and criticizing all relevant articles, the relationships between diabetes and oxidative stress and use of antioxidants in the management of diabetes and its complications have been well reviewed. This review well indicates that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications. Use of antioxidants reduces oxidative stress and alleviates diabetic complications. Continue reading >>

Antioxidant-rich Foods And Nutrients Vs. Oxidation

Antioxidant-rich Foods And Nutrients Vs. Oxidation

What Is Oxidation? Antioxidants Help Reverse Type 2 Diabetes Types of Enzyme Antioxidants Types of Micronutrient Antioxidants Types of Phytonutrient/Phytochemical Antioxidants Major Categories of Antioxidant-rich Foods List of Antioxidants and Antioxidant-rich Foods Next Steps to Reverse Type 2 Diabetes Oxidation is a process where a free radical molecule is created when there is the loss of at least one electron when two or more atoms or molecular compounds interact. Here is what a free radical molecule looks like: Sometimes oxidation is not such a bad thing, as in the formation of super-durable anodized aluminum. Other times, oxidation can be destructive, such as the rusting of an automobile, the spoiling of fresh fruit or the damage to the cells in our body. Examples of oxidation include a freshly-cut apple turning brown, a bicycle fender becomes rusty and LDL cholesterol in the arteries is oxidized due to excess glycation. Free radicals created from oxidation can cause damage our DNA, which may lead to a cell mutation and trigger the development of diseases such as cancer. Free radicals also cause damage to other cells and tissues in the body, which may lead to other diseases such as atherosclerosis, heart disease, and arthritis. When free radicals increase significantly, this can cause oxidative stress. Oxidative stress (chronic oxidation) is an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in favor of the oxidants, potentially leading to cell/tissue damage. Ongoing oxidative stress is dangerous because, over time, it can lead to accelerated aging, cancer, heart disease (atherosclerosis), Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's, autoimmune diseases, Type 2 diabetes, and other systemic diseases. Inflammation & Oxidation web page. Given that oxidation can be harmful to our ce Continue reading >>

Antioxidants And Diabetes

Antioxidants And Diabetes

Go to: Abstract Hyperglycemia promotes auto-oxidation of glucose to form free radicals. The generation of free radicals beyond the scavenging abilities of endogenous antioxidant defenses results in macro- and microvascular dysfunction. Antioxidants such as N-acetylcysteine, vitamin C and α-lipoic acid are effective in reducing diabetic complications, indicating that it may be beneficial either by ingestion of natural antioxidants or through dietary supplementation. However, while antioxidants are proving essential tools in the investigation of oxidant stress-related diabetic pathologies and despite the obvious potential merit of a replacement style therapy, the safety and efficacy of antioxidant supplementation in any future treatment, remains to be established Keywords: Antioxidants, diabetes mellitus, free radicals Go to: Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder with a rapidly increasing prevalence[1] highlighting the importance of continued research and the need for novel methods to both prevent and treat this pandemic. Although obesity and physical inactivity are known to be major risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2DM), recent evidence suggests that oxidative stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of T2DM by increasing insulin resistance or impairing insulin secretion.[2] While diabetes management has largely focused on control of hyperglycemia, the rising burden of this disease is mainly correlated to its vascular complications. This is reflected by a 4-fold increase in the incidence of coronary artery disease, a 10-fold increase in peripheral vascular disease, and a 3- to 4-fold higher mortality rate with as much as 75% of diabetics ultimately dying from vascular disease.[3] Oxidative stress may play a role in the pathophysiology of diabetes and cardiovascula Continue reading >>

Antioxidants May Help Lower Diabetes Rates, Study

Antioxidants May Help Lower Diabetes Rates, Study

The findings of the study, published in the journal Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases​ supports the view that dietary antioxidants are associated with improved glycemic biomarkers in healthy adults, as well as in diabetic patients. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately 150 million people have diabetes mellitus worldwide, and this number may double by the year 2025 due to population growth, ageing, unhealthy diet, obesity and sedentary lifestyle. The researchers, based at the University of Athens, said recent studies suggested that oxidative stress is related to diabetes, possibly originating through increased free-radical production, with the theory proposed that pancreatic cells are particularly susceptible to reactive oxygen species, due to their low free-radical quenching enzymes.​ “Thus, by damaging mitochondria, oxidative stress could induce apoptosis of pancreatic beta cells, blunt insulin secretion and dysregulate glucose levels,” ​they continued. The Greek scientists also report that total dietary antioxidant capacity has been found to be inversely related to markers of inflammation, suggesting that inflammation and oxidative stress are interrelated. ​ And they explained that the hypothesis that a diet high in antioxidants could be inversely related to the development of diabetes prompted their decision to evaluate the relationship between glycemic indices (glucose, insulin and insulin resistance) and dietary antioxidant intake, in apparently healthy adults as well as in adults with diabetes. Method ​ The authors said they based this study on a random sub-sample from the well documented ATTICA study, with participants consisting of 551 men and 467 women from all parts of the Attica region in Greece. Complete Continue reading >>

Antioxidants

Antioxidants

Should You Supplement? Oxygen is a Jekyll and Hyde element. We need it for critical body functions, such as respiration and immune response, but the element’s dark side is a reactive chemical nature that can damage body cells and tissues. The perpetrators of this “oxidative damage” are various oxygen-containing molecules, most of which are types of free radicals—unstable, highly energized molecules that contain an unpaired electron. Since stable chemical bonds require electron pairs, free radicals generated in the body steal electrons from nearby molecules, damaging vital cell components and body tissues. Oxidative damage in the body is akin to rusting of metal, the browning of freshly cut apples, or fats going rancid. Certain substances known as antioxidants, however, can help prevent this kind of damage. This article examines the special relationship between oxidative damage, antioxidant protection, diabetes, and complications of diabetes. Oxidative damage Free radicals and other “reactive oxygen species” are formed by a variety of normal processes within the body (including respiration and immune and inflammatory responses) as well as by elements outside the body, such as air pollutants, sunlight, and radiation. Whatever their source, reactive oxygen species can promote damage that is linked to increased risk of a variety of diseases and even to the aging process itself. Oxidative damage to LDL (low-density lipoprotein or “bad”) cholesterol particles in the blood is believed to be a key factor in the progression of heart disease. Oxidative damage to fatty nerve tissue is linked to increased risk of various nervous system disorders, including Parkinson disease. Free radical damage to DNA can alter genetic material in the cell nucleus and, as a result, Continue reading >>

Antioxidants & Diabetes: What You Need To Know

Antioxidants & Diabetes: What You Need To Know

A question we get asked all the time, are antioxidants good for diabetics? Can it help in diabetes management? Is it possible that antioxidants may help reduce the risk of diabetes? Let’s answer this frequently asked question. What are Antioxidants? Antioxidants are substances that inhibit oxidation. Oxidation is a chemical process that results in the transfer of electrons—it always occurs along with a reduction—one substance is oxidized while another is reduced. These are termed “redox reactions”. Rust, corrosion and the internal combustion engine are examples of redox reactions that we are all familiar with. In the body, these types of reactions are occurring all the time producing end products that are known as free radicals. Free radicals are highly reactive substances and can bind to DNA and proteins, damaging them permanently and causing cell, tissue and organ damage. The body has natural antioxidants (eg. Vitamin C, Vitamin E and glutathione) that normally sop up all these free radicals, reducing and often eliminating the damage caused. In many different chronic diseases, including diabetes, the levels of free radicals overcome the body’s ability to soak or sop them up. The high level of antioxidants leads to a condition in the cells, tissues and organs known as oxidative stress. We see oxidative stress show up as chronic inflammation and damage to nerves, blood vessels, tissues and organs. In diabetes, the blood sugar glucose is heavily oxidized as are proteins and lipids (fats) leading to what is known as Advanced Glycation End products or AGEs. In fact, A1c, often followed to monitor how well someone is controlling their blood sugar levels is an AGE.[1] How can Antioxidants Benefit Diabetics? Many studies have shown that oxidative stress is strongl Continue reading >>

Oxidative Stress And The Use Of Antioxidants In Diabetes: Linking Basic Science To Clinical Practice

Oxidative Stress And The Use Of Antioxidants In Diabetes: Linking Basic Science To Clinical Practice

Abstract Cardiovascular complications, characterized by endothelial dysfunction and accelerated atherosclerosis, are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes. There is growing evidence that excess generation of highly reactive free radicals, largely due to hyperglycemia, causes oxidative stress, which further exacerbates the development and progression of diabetes and its complications. Overproduction and/or insufficient removal of these free radicals result in vascular dysfunction, damage to cellular proteins, membrane lipids and nucleic acids. Despite overwhelming evidence on the damaging consequences of oxidative stress and its role in experimental diabetes, large scale clinical trials with classic antioxidants failed to demonstrate any benefit for diabetic patients. As our understanding of the mechanisms of free radical generation evolves, it is becoming clear that rather than merely scavenging reactive radicals, a more comprehensive approach aimed at preventing the generation of these reactive species as well as scavenging may prove more beneficial. Therefore, new strategies with classic as well as new antioxidants should be implemented in the treatment of diabetes. Introduction It is a well-established fact that diabetes is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease [1, 2]. While microvascular complications of diabetes include nephropathy and retinopathy, macrovascular complications resulting in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease such as coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease and peripheral vascular disease are the leading cause of death in the diabetic population [3, 4]. The Diabetes Control and Complications trial (DCCT) demonstrated that tight control of blood glucose is effective in reducing clinical complications signi Continue reading >>

How Effective Are Antioxidant Supplements In Obesity And Diabetes?

How Effective Are Antioxidant Supplements In Obesity And Diabetes?

Abstract Obesity is a central health issue due to its epidemic prevalence and its association with type 2 diabetes and other comorbidities. Obesity is not just being overweight. It is a metabolic disorder due to the accumulation of excess dietary calories into visceral fat and the release of high concentrations of free fatty acids into various organs. It represents a state of chronic oxidative stress and low-grade inflammation whose intermediary molecules may include leptin, adiponectin and cytokines. It may progress to hyperglycemia, leading to type 2 diabetes. Whether or not dietary antioxidant supplements are useful in the management of obesity and type 2 diabetes is discussed in this review. Only the benefits for obesity and diabetes are examined here. Other health benefits of antioxidants are not considered. There are difficulties in comparing studies in this field because they differ in the time frame, participants' ethnicity, administration of antioxidant supplements, and even in how obesity was measured. However, the literature presents reasonable evidence for marginal benefits of supplementation with zinc, lipoic acid, carnitine, cinnamon, green tea, and possibly vitamin C plus E, although the evidence is much weaker for omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, coenzyme Q10, green coffee, resveratrol, or lycopene. Overall, antioxidant supplements are not a panacea to compensate for a fast-food and video-game way of living, but antioxidant-rich foods are recommended as part of the lifestyle. Such antioxidant foods are commonly available. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel Introduction Obesity and the associated comorbidities such as diabetes and cardiac diseases are lead causes of human morbidity and mortality. The epidemic prevalence of obesity has been associated by some Continue reading >>

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