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Animals Used In Diabetes Research

How Animal Testing And Research Is Advancing Treatments For Type 2 Diabetes

How Animal Testing And Research Is Advancing Treatments For Type 2 Diabetes

This is the second installment of a 3-part series covering some of the contributions animals have made to treatments for diabetes. Part 3 will be released next week. Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder in which the body’s cells don’t adequately use insulin from the pancreas to turn glucose into energy. The result is high blood sugar levels. The primary causes of type 2 diabetes are genetic and lifestyle factors, such as a lack of exercise and obesity. With the global rise in obesity, the number of people with the disease has grown profoundly over the past 20 years. In 1980, 5.5 million people in the United States were estimated to have the disease compared with 22 million in 2014, according to the CDC. Scientists work with animal models to better understand type 2 diabetes to treat the disease. They have developed specialized animal models that mimic the condition. One line of mice, known as KK mice, develop obesity and glucose intolerance that lead to type 2 diabetes. Another rodent model, the Zucker diabetic fatty rat, is bred to be a precise model of human type 2 diabetes. Working with Zucker rats, researchers have opened a new front in the war on diabetes: hormone therapy. Using a peptide called TLQP-21, researchers at Duke University were able to demonstrate improved insulin production and blood sugar levels amongst the treated Zucker rats. Follow-up studies suggest the effect may be similar in human cells and the drug could have fewer side effects than other treatments in use today. Animal research into type 2 diabetes is not new. In fact, it has been going on for nearly 100 years and was the basis for the development of the most-prescribed diabetes drug in the world, Metformin. In the 1920s, K. Slotta and R. Tschesche published a paper claiming that metfo Continue reading >>

(pdf) Animal Models In Type 2 Diabetes Research

(pdf) Animal Models In Type 2 Diabetes Research

Diabetes mellitus is characterised by hyperglycemia which is caused by inefficient or insufficient insulin. There are two main types of diabetes mellitus i.e., type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Type- 1 diabetes is caused mainly because of destruction of pancreatic whereas type-2 diabetes is caused by insulin resistance coupled by a -cells to compensate. Animal models have been used extensively in diabetes research. Earlier studies used pancreatectomised dogs to confirm the central role of the pancreas in glucose homeostasis, culminating in the discovery and purification of insulin. Today, animal experimentation is contentious and subject to legal and ethical restrictions that vary throughout the world. Animal model for type 1 diabetes ranges from animals with chemically destroyed spontaneously developing autoimmune diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is modelled in both non-obese and obese animal model with a varying -cell failure and insulin resistance. Apart from their use in studying the pathogenesis of the disease and its complications, all new treatments for diabetes, including islet cell transplantation and preventative strategies, are initially investigated in animals. In recent years, molecular biological techniques have produced a large number of new animal models for the study of diabetes, including knock-in, generalized knock-out and tissue-specific knockout mice. Department of Paramedical sciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Key words:Streptozotocin, Alloxan, Autoimmune, Obese, Type 1 Diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous group of chronic disorders of carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism characterized by high blood glucose levels due to a relative or absolute deficiency of insulin (Eiselein et al., 2004). Chronic hyperglycemia Continue reading >>

The Use Of Animal Models In The Study Of Diabetes Mellitus

The Use Of Animal Models In The Study Of Diabetes Mellitus

Abstract Animal models have enormously contributed to the study of diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease with abnormal glucose homeostasis, due to some defect in the secretion or the action of insulin. They give researchers the opportunity to control in vivo the genetic and environmental factors that may influence the development of the disease and establishment of its complications, and thus gain new information about its handling and treatment in humans. Most experiments are carried out on rodents, even though other species with human-like biological characteristics are also used. Animal models develop diabetes either spontaneously or by using chemical, surgical, genetic or other techniques, and depict many clinical features or related phenotypes of the disease. In this review, an overview of the most commonly used animal models of diabetes are provided, highlighting the advantages and limitations of each model, and discussing their usefulness and contribution in the field of diabetes research. Type I Diabetes (T1DM) Models T1DM, a multifactorial autoimmune disease involving genetic and environmental factors, is hallmarked by T-cell and macrophages-mediated destruction of pancreatic β-cells, resulting in irreversible insulin deficiency. Diabetic ketoacidosis, a T1DM immediate consequence, can be fatal without treatment, while the long-term vascular T1DM complications affecting several organs and tissues can significantly affect life expectancy. There is no doubt that T1DM susceptibility is MHC-dependent and MHC genes account for approximately 50% of the total contribution to the disease. However, although to date studies corroborate that both HLA-DR and HLA-DQ genes are important in determining disease risk, the effects of individual alleles may be modified by the h Continue reading >>

The Use Of Animal Models In Diabetes Research

The Use Of Animal Models In Diabetes Research

The use of animal models in diabetes research Diabetes Research Group, King's College London, London, UK Aileen King, Diabetes Research Group, Guy's Campus, King's College London, London SE1 1UL, UK. E-mail: [email protected] Received 2011 Aug 19; Revised 2012 Feb 10; Accepted 2012 Feb 13. Copyright 2012 The Author. British Journal of Pharmacology 2012 The British Pharmacological Society This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Diabetes is a disease characterized by a relative or absolute lack of insulin, leading to hyperglycaemia. There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is due to an autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells, and type 2 diabetes is caused by insulin resistance coupled by a failure of the beta cell to compensate. Animal models for type 1 diabetes range from animals with spontaneously developing autoimmune diabetes to chemical ablation of the pancreatic beta cells. Type 2 diabetes is modelled in both obese and non-obese animal models with varying degrees of insulin resistance and beta cell failure. This review outlines some of the models currently used in diabetes research. In addition, the use of transgenic and knock-out mouse models is discussed. Ideally, more than one animal model should be used to represent the diversity seen in human diabetic patients. This paper is the latest in a series of publications on the use of animal models in pharmacology research. Readers might be interested in the previous papers. Robinson V (2009). Less is more: reducing the reliance on animal models for nausea and vomiting research. Holmes AM, Rudd JA, Tattersall FD, Aziz Q, Andrews PLR (2009). Opportunities for the replacement of animals in the study of nausea and vomiting. Continue reading >>

Animal Research And Diabetes: Now The Truth Must Be Told – Part 1

Animal Research And Diabetes: Now The Truth Must Be Told – Part 1

Today we will take a look at the series of discoveries and innovations that led to the development of insulin therapy for type 1 diabetes, and tomorrow we will take a closer look at some of that claims made about this by animal rights activists. With the World Diabetes Day coming up on 14th November, it is no surprise that activists are targeting diabetics by saying that cures and supportive treatment of this disease owe nothing to research on animals. They as usual, support their claim by a series of misinformation, statements taken out of context and in some arguments, deliberate distortions. Although the remedy for diabetes was discovered in the 20th century, it is a disease that has plagued mankind since the ancient times. It was first described some 3,500 years ago by Egyptian physicians. Since then, various physicians of different civilizations – Greek, Roman, Indian, Chinese, Japanese and Arabic – have separately recorded descriptions of this disease, with the Greeks giving it the name ‘diabetes’ in reference to the increased frequency of urination that is characteristic of it. The predominant school of thought at that time was that the disease was due to kidney malfunction. From the 16th to 18th century, diabetes was further described by European doctors, and from the idea that the disease was caused by kidney malfunction, various other hypotheses were also put forward – liver malfunction, systemic disease or even a malfunction of the central nervous system. Amongst the various hypotheses put forward, one from Dr Thomas Cawley in the late 1700’s, linking diabetes to a damaged pancreas, based on the autopsy of a diabetic patient. During the 19th century evidence for a role of the pancreas in diabetes increased, but it was not clear if the damage seen Continue reading >>

The Use Of Animal Models In Diabetes Research.

The Use Of Animal Models In Diabetes Research.

Br J Pharmacol. 2012 Jun;166(3):877-94. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.01911.x. The use of animal models in diabetes research. Diabetes Research Group, King's College London, London, UK. [email protected] Diabetes is a disease characterized by a relative or absolute lack of insulin, leading to hyperglycaemia. There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is due to an autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells, and type 2 diabetes is caused by insulin resistance coupled by a failure of the beta cell to compensate. Animal models for type 1 diabetes range from animals with spontaneously developing autoimmune diabetes to chemical ablation of the pancreatic beta cells. Type 2 diabetes is modelled in both obese and non-obese animal models with varying degrees of insulin resistance and beta cell failure. This review outlines some of the models currently used in diabetes research. In addition, the use of transgenic and knock-out mouse models is discussed. Ideally, more than one animal model should be used to represent the diversity seen in human diabetic patients. Continue reading >>

Diabetes

Diabetes

An estimated 347 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes1,or nearly five per cent of the population, with approximately 3.4 million dying as a consequence per year2. Currently eighty per cent of diabetes deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries3, driving the need for cheaper, easier treatments. The World Health Organisation predicts that diabetes will be the 7th largest cause of death in 20304. Symptoms include raging thirst, rapid weight loss, tiredness and passing large quantities of sugary urine. Diabetes also increases the risk of heart disease and stroke - 50% of people with diabetes die of cardiovascular disease (primarily heart disease and stroke), compared to 30% across the world population5 6. Type 1 diabetes (previously known as insulin-dependent, juvenile or childhood-onset) is characterized by deficient insulin production. Type 2 diabetes (formerly called non-insulin-dependent or adult-onset) results from the body’s ineffective use of insulin. Treatment of diabetes involves lowering blood glucose and the levels of other known risk factors that damage blood vessels. People with type 1 diabetes require insulin; people with type 2 diabetes can be treated with oral medication, but may also require insulin. Discovery of insulin Type 1 diabetes Type 2 diabetes Animal Models Current treatments Current research References Discovery of insulin The discovery, isolation and purification of insulin in the 1920s was a significant medical advance, preventing premature deaths in many sufferers. In 1889 Joseph von Mering and Oskar Minkowski showed that removing the pancreas from a dog produced diabetes7. This was the first demonstration that there was an anti-diabetic factor produced by the pancreas which enabled the body to use sugars in the blood properly. Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Animal Research

Diabetes And Animal Research

Insulin Nation recently had a conversation with a reader, Mary Clemens, about the moral conflicts of respecting animals rights while also benefiting from the research conducted on animals. Q1. How long have you had Type 1 Diabetes? Q2. Please describe your work as an advocate for animal rights. I wouldnt describe myself as an advocate, just a person who has become increasingly aware of the importance of the lives of animals and the debt that humans owe them. I translate that awareness into action by supporting my local humane society with donations. Ive left a bequest to the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) for their program to eliminate testing on animals in research. But, being human, Im inconsistent. Im still a meat-eater, although now I only buy meat from local farmers where I know the animals are humanely treated. Q3. What sorts of moral conflicts do you experience as someone who both has T1D and supports animals? Have you always had these conflicts? Have they transformed over time? I recognize the tremendous personal value animals used in experiments have had for me. Insulin from pigs for human use required the pigs sacrifice for my benefit. As Ive aged and as technology has advanced, Ive become more and more aware of what animals have been forced to give up for me. And, yes, Ive become more conflicted. I believe that animals want what we all wantto live out our lives as nature intended. Despite the attention scientists give to the ethics of animal use in experimentation, many animals are living lives that are not suitable for their species. And Ive become more hopeful, as technology advances, that there will soon be alternatives to the use of animals in research and experimentation. Q4. Supporters of the use of animals in scientific research say that i Continue reading >>

Experimental Diabetes Mellitus In Different Animal Models

Experimental Diabetes Mellitus In Different Animal Models

Experimental Diabetes Mellitus in Different Animal Models Amin Al-awar ,1 Krisztina Kupai ,1 Mdea Veszelka ,1 Gerg Szcs ,1 Zouhair Attieh ,2 Zsolt Murlasits ,3 Szilvia Trk ,1 Anik Psa ,1and Csaba Varga 1 1Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Neuroscience, Faculty of Science and Informatics, University of Szeged, Kozep Fasor 52, 6726 Szeged, Hungary 2Department of Laboratory Science and Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, American University of Science and Technology, Alfred Naccache Avenue, Beirut 1100, Lebanon 3Sport Science Program, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar Received 16 May 2016; Revised 27 June 2016; Accepted 28 June 2016 Copyright 2016 Amin Al-awar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Animal models have historically played a critical role in the exploration and characterization of disease pathophysiology and target identification and in the evaluation of novel therapeutic agents and treatments in vivo. Diabetes mellitus disease, commonly known as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by high blood glucose levels for a prolonged time. To avoid late complications of diabetes and related costs, primary prevention and early treatment are therefore necessary. Due to its chronic symptoms, new treatment strategies need to be developed, because of the limited effectiveness of the current therapies. We overviewed the pathophysiological features of diabetes in relation to its complications in type 1 and type 2 mice along with rat models, including Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats, BB rats, LEW 1AR1/-iddm rats, Goto-Kakizaki rats, chemically induced diabetic models Continue reading >>

Of Mice, Dogs, And Men

Of Mice, Dogs, And Men

Yes. Some animals do get diabetes naturally or in the wild, including apes, pigs, sheep, horses, cats, and dogs. All mammals produce insulin, and will develop diabetes (defined as high blood glucose levels) if their pancreatic beta cells are removed. Vets classify canine diabetes into "insulin deficiency diabetes" and "insulin resistance" diabetes (somewhat analogous to type 1 and type 2 in humans). Female dogs may also develop a canine form of gestational diabetes. There is some evidence that dogs do actually develop a form of autoimmune diabetes, that is more similar to Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA) than to childhood type 1 diabetes. (Gale 2005c; Nelson and Reusch, 2014), although overall, canine diabetes is very similar to type 1 (O'Kell et al. 2017a, O'Kell et al. 2017b). Interestingly, some of the same autoantibodies found in humans with type 1 diabetes have also been found in some dogs with diabetes (Davison et al. 2008), although not all studies have found these antibodies in dogs with diabetes (Ahlgren et al. 2014). Technically, only humans get type 1 diabetes (Gale 2008), although some authors do use the term type 1 to describe autoimmune diabetes in animals. Cats, meanwhile, develop a diabetes that is more similar to type 2 (Nelson and Reusch, 2014). Scientists generally use rodents as animal models of type 1 diabetes in the laboratory. The two main rodent strains used are non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice and Biobreeding (BB) rats. These rodents have been bred to spontaneously develop diabetes. Both animals develop a form of autoimmune diabetes that includes the presence of some autoantibodies, although there are also differences between the autoimmune diabetes in these animals and type 1 diabetes in humans. While these animals may be useful for som Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes: How Are Animal Research And Testing Advancing Treatments?

Type 2 Diabetes: How Are Animal Research And Testing Advancing Treatments?

Type 2 Diabetes: How Are Animal Research and Testing Advancing Treatments? As we reported recently , the Foundation for Biomedical Research (FBR) launched a three-part series taking a closer look at the valuable contributions animal models have made in the hunt to treat and cure diabetes. Yesterday, FBR released the second part of the series, How Animal Testing and Research is Advancing Treatments for Type 2 Diabetes. A metabolic disorder in which the bodys cells dont sufficiently use insulin from the pancreas to turn glucose into energy, type 2 diabetes results in high blood sugar levels. Genetic and lifestyle factors, like obesity and lack of exercise, are the primary causes. Obesity is rising globally and it was estimated by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) that in 2014 22 million Americans had the disease, compared to 5.5 million in 1980. Science, once again, has turned to animal models to stem the tide of diseases like type 2 diabetes. A special line of mice has been developed that have the obesity and glucose intolerance that leads to type 2 diabetes. Another rodent model, a rat, is even an identical model of human type 2 diabetes. Animal research and testing in diabetes research is not new but it continues to be a priority for science as 1 in 3 Americans has prediabetes. To read how rodents and even Gila monsters are helping researchers find a cure for type 2 diabetes, please click here to read, How Animal Testing and Research is Advancing Treatments for Type 2 Diabetes. The first segment of the series, Animal Research Creates Treatments and Advances for Type 1 Diabetes, can be found here . Please be sure to share this interesting coverage of diabetes research with your friends, family, colleagues, and on social media. Continue reading >>

Animal Research | Diabetes Uk

Animal Research | Diabetes Uk

Diabetes UK appreciates that some people have concerns about the use of animals in medical research. However, we are also aware of the important contribution this research has made to improve the lives of people with diabetes across the world. There is currently no cure for any form of diabetes. Many people with diabetes would not be leading the lives they are today if the major advances in understanding and treating diabetes had not been made through research, some of which has involved the use of animals. Knowledge gained from animal research has been significant and essential in many diabetes breakthroughs, from insulin therapy to islet transplants. Diabetes UK is a member of the Association of Medical Research Charities (AMRC). We support the principle of using animals in research when it is necessary to advance understanding of health and disease and to develop new treatments.The AMRC statement on the use of animals in research can be found here . We only fund animal research when there is no alternative available, and all Diabetes UK-funded researchers must follow the three Rs: Replace: use non-animal alternatives as much as possibleuse non-animal alternatives as much as possible Reduce: minimise the number of animals used in experimentsminimise the number of animals used in experiments Refine: improve the care and attention of animalsimprove the care and attention of animals Every research application is reviewed by national and international experts, before being furtherreviewed by Diabetes UKs Research Committee of scientists, healthcare professionals and people with diabetes. There is a dedicated section within our application form that asks for a justification for the use of animals which must be completed satisfactorily. Diabetes UK research projects involv Continue reading >>

Insulin For Diabetes

Insulin For Diabetes

The Nobel Prize-winning discovery of insulin in 1920-21 at the University of Toronto is one of the most spectacular examples of the contribution of animal research to medical progress. Many millions of people with diabetes are alive and well as a result - as are many diabetic dogs. Surgeon Frederick Banting and graduate student Charles Best found that injections of pancreatic cell extracts relieved diabetic symptoms in dogs. The extracts contained insulin, which was then purified using a technique developed in rabbits. It had already been established that diabetes disrupted the body's ability to metabolise or utilise food, especially carbohydrates, and that experimental animals died if their pancreases were removed. The pancreas was known to hold the key to carbohydrate metabolism which led to speculation that it must produce another metabolism-promoting substance. Banting, Best and their colleagues John Macleod and James Collip established that this substance was insulin. Diabetes is a relatively common condition which occurs because some people do not make, or cannot respond to, the natural hormone insulin, which regulates the body's use of glucose. It can lead to serious conditions such as stroke, circulation problems, and damage to the kidneys and eyes. Diabetes UK estimates that nearly three million British people know they have the condition, while another half a million are unaware of it. Developing new treatments Insulin is normally produced by islet or beta cells in the pancreas. As with any long-term condition, the ultimate goal for researchers is a cure. In type 1 diabetes, islet transplantation is one way to achieve this. Successfully carried out in rats, dogs, monkeys and humans, this treatment requires the patient to take immunosuppressants to prevent reje Continue reading >>

Animal Testing For Diabetes Statement

Animal Testing For Diabetes Statement

Our Position On The Use Of Animals In Research We appreciate the concerns of the public and recognise that many may have questions about the use of animals in research work funded by DRWF. The literature from many anti-vivisection organisations is often both emotive and shocking, but it is also misleading in parts and does not present an accurate picture of medical research in the UK today. We hope that we can explain why our charity (and many other leading medical research organisations, see www.amrc.org.uk ) supports some research involving animals in order to try to save thousands of lives. We would like to underline the fact that we only ever fund research involving animals where there is no other feasible alternative. Every grant application received by DRWF is checked carefully and goes through a rigorous peer review procedure. Researchers work must be based on a clear set of principles: to REDUCE the number of animals used, REPLACE experiments with non-animal alternatives and to REFINE the care and attention of animals - in line with the '3R' agenda. As you probably know, diabetes affects every nation aroundthe world and it is anticipated that if current trends continue more than 640 million people will be affected by 2040. It costs health services enormous sums of money, and much trauma to the many people who have it. In the UK, diabetes accounts for a large percentage of amputations in our hospitals and is considered the leading cause of blindness in the working age population. It is also true that diabetes can strike anyone at any time, given the right circumstances, so no-one should feel very safe from it. Before the discovery of insulin in 1921, people with type 1 diabetes usually died, so the discovery was heralded at the time as the most important step in Continue reading >>

Animal Models For Study Of Diabetes Mellitus

Animal Models For Study Of Diabetes Mellitus

Animal Models for Study of Diabetes Mellitus [2] Department of Medical and Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Šafárik University, Košice, Slovak Republic [3] Department of Pathological Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Šafárik University, Košice, Slovak Republic 1. Introduction Diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous group of chronic disorders of carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism characterized by high blood glucose levels due to relative or absolute deficiency of insulin (Eiselein et al., 2004). Hyperglycemia, the primary clinical manifestation of diabetes, is associated with the development of diabetic complications. Several studies have suggested that hyperglycemia accelerates the development of chronic complications via several mechanisms, including increased aldose reductase related polyol pathway flux, increased formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), activation of protein kinase C isoforms, increased hexosamine pathway flux, and overproduction of reactive forms of oxygen (Brownlee, 2001). AGEs are a group of complex and heterogeneous compounds, including brown and fluorescent cross-linking substances (e.g., pentosidine), non-fluorescent cross-linking products (e.g., methylglyoxal lysine dimers), or non-fluorescent, non-cross linking adducts (e.g., carboxymethyl lysine) (Dyer et al., 1991). Increasing evidence identifies AGE formation as the critical pathogenic link between hyperglycemia and long-term complications of diabetes: nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy (Wada & Yagihashi, 2005). Therefore, another mode of diabetes treatment independent of blood glucose levels, inhibition of AGE formation, could be useful in the prevention or reduction of certain diabetic complications (Dong et al., 2010) in both main forms of the illn Continue reading >>

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