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Animal Model For Diabetes

Animal Models Of Type 2 Diabetes: The Gk Rat

Animal Models Of Type 2 Diabetes: The Gk Rat

Animal Models of Type 2 Diabetes: The GK Rat Animal Models of Type 2 Diabetes: The GK Rat Studying the long-term complications of diabetic pathology is more relevant than ever, driving increased interest in animal models of type 2 diabetes. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) the number of people with diabetes (includes both type 1 and type 2) has risen from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014. "[Diabetes] is a major cause of blindness, kidney failure, heart attacks, stroke, and lower limb amputation. Over time, diabetes can damage the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys, and nerves. Adults with diabetes have a 2-3-fold increased risk of heart attacks and strokes. Combined with reduced blood flow, neuropathy in the feet increases the chance of foot ulcers, infection and eventual need for limb amputation. Diabetic retinopathy is an important cause of blindness and occurs as a result of long-term accumulated damage to the small blood vessels in the retina. 2.6% of global blindness can be attributed to diabetes. Diabetes is among the leading causes of kidney failure." (WHO Media Center, 2016). There are a variety of mouse and rat models which can be used to study aspects of type 2 diabetes: Varying aspects and severity of complications + More robust diet induced obesity in C57BL/6NTac (Gareski T, 2009) Studying Long-term Pathology in Animal Models of Type 2 Diabetes The ob/ob and db/db mice, as well as the Zucker Diabetic Fatty rat, are all well-characterized and frequently-used diabetic models which exhibit a mutation in the leptin (ob/ob) or leptin receptor gene (ZDF, db/db). They are useful for studying particular disease characteristics, but do not necessarily represent the human disease state as mutations in these genes are not frequently the caus Continue reading >>

Recipes For Creating Animal Models Of Diabetic Cardiovascular Disease

Recipes For Creating Animal Models Of Diabetic Cardiovascular Disease

Recipes for Creating Animal Models of Diabetic Cardiovascular Disease From the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Hypertension (W.H.), and Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology (R.C.D.), The David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles; Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Diabetes (E.D.A. and D.A.M.) and Program in Human Molecular Biology and Genetics (E.D.A.), University of Utah, Salt Lake City; Laboratory of Biochemical Genetics and Metabolism (J.L.B.), The Rockefeller University, New York; Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine (N.M.), University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Department of Medicine (E.A.F.), The Marc and Ruti Bell Program in Vascular Biology, The Leon H. Charney Division of Cardiology, New York University School of Medicine; Department of Medicine (H.D., I.J.G.), Columbia University, New York; Center for Biotechnology and Genomic Medicine (R.M.), Medical College of Georgia, Augusta; and Division of Heart and Vascular Diseases (M.K.W., C.R.-D.), National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Md. From the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Hypertension (W.H.), and Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology (R.C.D.), The David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles; Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Diabetes (E.D.A. and D.A.M.) and Program in Human Molecular Biology and Genetics (E.D.A.), University of Utah, Salt Lake City; Laboratory of Biochemical Genetics and Metabolism (J.L.B.), The Rockefeller University, New York; Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine (N.M.), University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Department of Medicine (E.A.F.), The Marc and Ruti Bell Program in Vascular Biology, The Leon H. Charney Division of Cardiology, Continue reading >>

A Comprehensive Review: The Use Of Animal Models In Diabetes Research

A Comprehensive Review: The Use Of Animal Models In Diabetes Research

A Comprehensive Review: The Use of Animal Models in Diabetes Research Received: November 14, 2016 | Published: December 12, 2016 *Corresponding author: Reena Rodrigues, Iksula Services Pvt. Ltd, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, Tel: 022-25924504; Email: Citation: Rodrigues R (2016) A Comprehensive Review: The Use of Animal Models in Diabetes Research. J Anal Pharm Res 3(5): 00071. DOI: 10.15406/japlr.2016.03.00071 Diabetes, a lifelong disease for which there is no cure yet. It is caused by reduced production of insulin, or by decreased ability to use insulin. With high prevalence of diabetes worldwide, the disease constitutes a major health concern. Presently, it is an incurable metabolic disorder which affects about 2.8% of the global population. Fifty percent of all people with Type I diabetes are under the age of 20. Insulin-dependent diabetes accounts for 3% of all new cases of diabetes each year. Hence, the search for compounds with novel properties to deal with this disease condition is still in progress. Due to time constrains, the use of experimental models for the disease gives the necessary faster. The current review has attempted to bring together all the reported models, highlighted their short comings and drew the precautions required for each technique. In Type 1 or Diabetes mellitus, the body is unable to store and use glucose as an energy source effectively. Type 2 or diabetes insipidus is a heterogeneous disorder. In this review article we shall bring light as to how hyperglycemia, glucosuria and hyperlipidemia play an important role in the onset of diabetes. Keywords: Diabetes mellitus; Hyperglycemia; Diabetes insipidus; insulin Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder which is illustrated by either the insufficient production or the lack of response to a Continue reading >>

Animal Models Of Obesity And Diabetes Mellitus

Animal Models Of Obesity And Diabetes Mellitus

Animal models of obesity and diabetes mellitus Nature Reviews Endocrinology volume 14, pages 140162 (2018) | Download Citation More than one-third of the worldwide population is overweight or obese and therefore at risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. In order to mitigate this pandemic, safer and more potent therapeutics are urgently required. This necessitates the continued use of animal models to discover, validate and optimize novel therapeutics for their safe use in humans. In order to improve the transition from bench to bedside, researchers must not only carefully select the appropriate model but also draw the right conclusions. In this Review, we consolidate the key information on the currently available animal models of obesity and diabetes and highlight the advantages, limitations and important caveats of each of these models. Development of safe and potent therapeutics is required to combat the obesity and diabetes mellitus pandemic Animal models remain indispensable for discovering, validating and optimizing novel therapeutics for their safe use in humans To improve the transition from bench to bedside, researchers must select the appropriate models, beware a myriad of confounding factors and draw appropriate conclusions Experimental procedures and conditions should be accurately detailed to improve the reproducibility and translation of findings in preclinical animal models Different animal models, ranging from non-mammalian models to non-human primates, each have distinct advantages and limitations Continue reading >>

Animal Models In Diabetes Research

Animal Models In Diabetes Research

Editors: Joost, Hans-Georg, Al-Hasani, Hadi, Schrmann, Annette (Eds.) Emphasizes rodent strains that develop autoimmunity such as the NOD mouse, the Akita mouse, and the BB rat Features practical, cutting-edge protocols that are ready for the lab Includes expert tips and key implementation advice to ensure successful results ebooks can be used on all reading devices Usually dispatched within 3 to 5 business days. Usually dispatched within 3 to 5 business days. In recent years, human studies have made enormous contributions towards an understanding of the genetic basis of diabetes mellitus; however, most of the experimentation needed for the invention and testing of novel therapeutic approaches cannot be performed in humans. Thus, there is no alternative to appropriate animal models. In Animal Models in Diabetes Research, expert researchers explore the current status of the most important models and procedures in order to provide a timely resource in experimental diabetology. The first half of the volume serves as a comprehensive overview on our current knowledge of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of diabetes in animal models through a series of reviews in model strains. The book then continues with vital, established protocols that are employed in the characterization and study of animal models of diabetes. As a volume in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series, this work contains the type of detailed description and key implementation advice necessary to achieve successful results. Authoritative and cutting-edge, Animal Models in Diabetes Research delivers essential content that will be an important resource to advance diabetes research in the years to come. The Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) Mouse as a Model of Human Type 1 Diabetes Assessment of Dia Continue reading >>

The Use Of Animal Models In Diabetes Research

The Use Of Animal Models In Diabetes Research

The use of animal models in diabetes research Diabetes Research Group, King's College London, London, UK Aileen King, Diabetes Research Group, Guy's Campus, King's College London, London SE1 1UL, UK. E-mail: [email protected] Received 2011 Aug 19; Revised 2012 Feb 10; Accepted 2012 Feb 13. Copyright 2012 The Author. British Journal of Pharmacology 2012 The British Pharmacological Society This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Diabetes is a disease characterized by a relative or absolute lack of insulin, leading to hyperglycaemia. There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is due to an autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells, and type 2 diabetes is caused by insulin resistance coupled by a failure of the beta cell to compensate. Animal models for type 1 diabetes range from animals with spontaneously developing autoimmune diabetes to chemical ablation of the pancreatic beta cells. Type 2 diabetes is modelled in both obese and non-obese animal models with varying degrees of insulin resistance and beta cell failure. This review outlines some of the models currently used in diabetes research. In addition, the use of transgenic and knock-out mouse models is discussed. Ideally, more than one animal model should be used to represent the diversity seen in human diabetic patients. This paper is the latest in a series of publications on the use of animal models in pharmacology research. Readers might be interested in the previous papers. Robinson V (2009). Less is more: reducing the reliance on animal models for nausea and vomiting research. Holmes AM, Rudd JA, Tattersall FD, Aziz Q, Andrews PLR (2009). Opportunities for the replacement of animals in the study of nausea and vomiting. Continue reading >>

Study Of The Pathogenesis And Treatment Of Diabetes Mellitus Through Animal Models | Endocrinologa Y Nutricin (english Edition)

Study Of The Pathogenesis And Treatment Of Diabetes Mellitus Through Animal Models | Endocrinologa Y Nutricin (english Edition)

Endocrinologa y Nutricin (English Edition) Endocrinologa y Nutricin (English Edition) Inicio Endocrinologa y Nutricin (English Edition) Study of the pathogenesis and treatment of diabetes mellitus through animal mode... Endocrinologa y Nutricin is the official publication of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition (SEEN) and the Diabetes Spanish Society (SED) . It is the best journal to keep up to date with endocrine pathophysiology both in the clinical and in the research field. It publishes the best original articles of large research institutions, as well as prestigious reviews. Index Medicus/MEDLINE, Excerpta Medica/EMBASE, SCOPUS, Science Citation Index Expanded, Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition, IBECS The Impact Factor measures the average number of citations received in a particular year by papers published in the journal during the two receding years. Clarivate Analytics, Journal Citation Reports 2017 2017 SRJ is a prestige metric based on the idea that not all citations are the same. SJR uses a similar algorithm as the Google page rank; it provides a quantitative and qualitative measure of the journal's impact. SNIP measures contextual citation impact by wighting citations based on the total number of citations in a subject field. The Non-Obese-Diabetic (NOD) mouse and the BioBreeding Diabetes-Prone (BB-DP) rat Zucker fatty rat (ZFR) and Zucker diabetic fatty rat (ZDF) Study of the pathogenesis and treatment of diabetes mellitus through animal models Estudio de la patognesis y tratamiento de la diabetes mellitus a travs de modelos animales Yeray Brito-Casillas a , b , Carlos Melin b , c , Ana Mara Wgner a , b , a Seccin de Endocrinologa y Nutricin, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario Insular Materno Infantil de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gr Continue reading >>

Mouse Models Of Diabetes, Obesity And Related Kidney Disease

Mouse Models Of Diabetes, Obesity And Related Kidney Disease

Mouse Models of Diabetes, Obesity and Related Kidney Disease Affiliations Department of Medicine, Kolling Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia, Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, NSW 2065, Australia Affiliation School of Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, Australia Affiliation Department of Medicine, Kolling Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia Affiliation Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, NSW 2065, Australia Affiliation Department of Anatomical Pathology, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, NSW, Australia Affiliation Department of Medicine, Kolling Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia Affiliation Department of Medicine, Kolling Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia Affiliation Department of Medicine, Kolling Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia Continue reading >>

Experimental Diabetes Mellitus In Different Animal Models

Experimental Diabetes Mellitus In Different Animal Models

Experimental Diabetes Mellitus in Different Animal Models Amin Al-awar ,1 Krisztina Kupai ,1,* Mdea Veszelka ,1 Gerg Szcs ,1 Zouhair Attieh ,2 Zsolt Murlasits ,3 Szilvia Trk ,1 Anik Psa ,1 and Csaba Varga 1 1Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Neuroscience, Faculty of Science and Informatics, University of Szeged, Kozep Fasor 52, 6726 Szeged, Hungary 1Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Neuroscience, Faculty of Science and Informatics, University of Szeged, Kozep Fasor 52, 6726 Szeged, Hungary 1Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Neuroscience, Faculty of Science and Informatics, University of Szeged, Kozep Fasor 52, 6726 Szeged, Hungary 1Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Neuroscience, Faculty of Science and Informatics, University of Szeged, Kozep Fasor 52, 6726 Szeged, Hungary 2Department of Laboratory Science and Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, American University of Science and Technology, Alfred Naccache Avenue, Beirut 1100, Lebanon 1Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Neuroscience, Faculty of Science and Informatics, University of Szeged, Kozep Fasor 52, 6726 Szeged, Hungary 1Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Neuroscience, Faculty of Science and Informatics, University of Szeged, Kozep Fasor 52, 6726 Szeged, Hungary 1Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Neuroscience, Faculty of Science and Informatics, University of Szeged, Kozep Fasor 52, 6726 Szeged, Hungary 1Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Neuroscience, Faculty of Science and Informatics, University of Szeged, Kozep Fasor 52, 6726 Szeged, Hungary 2Department of Laboratory Science and Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, American University of Science and Technology, Alfred Naccache Avenue, Beirut 1100, Lebanon 3Sport Science Program, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar Received 2016 Continue reading >>

(pdf) Animal Models In Type 2 Diabetes Research

(pdf) Animal Models In Type 2 Diabetes Research

Diabetes mellitus is characterised by hyperglycemia which is caused by inefficient or insufficient insulin. There are two main types of diabetes mellitus i.e., type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Type- 1 diabetes is caused mainly because of destruction of pancreatic whereas type-2 diabetes is caused by insulin resistance coupled by a -cells to compensate. Animal models have been used extensively in diabetes research. Earlier studies used pancreatectomised dogs to confirm the central role of the pancreas in glucose homeostasis, culminating in the discovery and purification of insulin. Today, animal experimentation is contentious and subject to legal and ethical restrictions that vary throughout the world. Animal model for type 1 diabetes ranges from animals with chemically destroyed spontaneously developing autoimmune diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is modelled in both non-obese and obese animal model with a varying -cell failure and insulin resistance. Apart from their use in studying the pathogenesis of the disease and its complications, all new treatments for diabetes, including islet cell transplantation and preventative strategies, are initially investigated in animals. In recent years, molecular biological techniques have produced a large number of new animal models for the study of diabetes, including knock-in, generalized knock-out and tissue-specific knockout mice. Department of Paramedical sciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Key words:Streptozotocin, Alloxan, Autoimmune, Obese, Type 1 Diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous group of chronic disorders of carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism characterized by high blood glucose levels due to a relative or absolute deficiency of insulin (Eiselein et al., 2004). Chronic hyperglycemia Continue reading >>

The Use Of Animal Models In The Study Of Diabetes Mellitus

The Use Of Animal Models In The Study Of Diabetes Mellitus

Abstract Animal models have enormously contributed to the study of diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease with abnormal glucose homeostasis, due to some defect in the secretion or the action of insulin. They give researchers the opportunity to control in vivo the genetic and environmental factors that may influence the development of the disease and establishment of its complications, and thus gain new information about its handling and treatment in humans. Most experiments are carried out on rodents, even though other species with human-like biological characteristics are also used. Animal models develop diabetes either spontaneously or by using chemical, surgical, genetic or other techniques, and depict many clinical features or related phenotypes of the disease. In this review, an overview of the most commonly used animal models of diabetes are provided, highlighting the advantages and limitations of each model, and discussing their usefulness and contribution in the field of diabetes research. Type I Diabetes (T1DM) Models T1DM, a multifactorial autoimmune disease involving genetic and environmental factors, is hallmarked by T-cell and macrophages-mediated destruction of pancreatic β-cells, resulting in irreversible insulin deficiency. Diabetic ketoacidosis, a T1DM immediate consequence, can be fatal without treatment, while the long-term vascular T1DM complications affecting several organs and tissues can significantly affect life expectancy. There is no doubt that T1DM susceptibility is MHC-dependent and MHC genes account for approximately 50% of the total contribution to the disease. However, although to date studies corroborate that both HLA-DR and HLA-DQ genes are important in determining disease risk, the effects of individual alleles may be modified by the h Continue reading >>

Animal Models Of Diabetes Mellitus.

Animal Models Of Diabetes Mellitus.

Department of Medicine, University of Wales College of Medicine, Cardiff, UK. Animal models have been used extensively in diabetes research. Early studies used pancreatectomised dogs to confirm the central role of the pancreas in glucose homeostasis, culminating in the discovery and purification of insulin. Today, animal experimentation is contentious and subject to legal and ethical restrictions that vary throughout the world. Most experiments are carried out on rodents, although some studies are still performed on larger animals. Several toxins, including streptozotocin and alloxan, induce hyperglycaemia in rats and mice. Selective inbreeding has produced several strains of animal that are considered reasonable models of Type 1 diabetes, Type 2 diabetes and related phenotypes such as obesity and insulin resistance. Apart from their use in studying the pathogenesis of the disease and its complications, all new treatments for diabetes, including islet cell transplantation and preventative strategies, are initially investigated in animals. In recent years, molecular biological techniques have produced a large number of new animal models for the study of diabetes, including knock-in, generalized knock-out and tissue-specific knockout mice. Continue reading >>

Animal Models For Study Of Diabetes Mellitus

Animal Models For Study Of Diabetes Mellitus

Animal Models for Study of Diabetes Mellitus [2] Department of Medical and Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Šafárik University, Košice, Slovak Republic [3] Department of Pathological Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Šafárik University, Košice, Slovak Republic 1. Introduction Diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous group of chronic disorders of carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism characterized by high blood glucose levels due to relative or absolute deficiency of insulin (Eiselein et al., 2004). Hyperglycemia, the primary clinical manifestation of diabetes, is associated with the development of diabetic complications. Several studies have suggested that hyperglycemia accelerates the development of chronic complications via several mechanisms, including increased aldose reductase related polyol pathway flux, increased formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), activation of protein kinase C isoforms, increased hexosamine pathway flux, and overproduction of reactive forms of oxygen (Brownlee, 2001). AGEs are a group of complex and heterogeneous compounds, including brown and fluorescent cross-linking substances (e.g., pentosidine), non-fluorescent cross-linking products (e.g., methylglyoxal lysine dimers), or non-fluorescent, non-cross linking adducts (e.g., carboxymethyl lysine) (Dyer et al., 1991). Increasing evidence identifies AGE formation as the critical pathogenic link between hyperglycemia and long-term complications of diabetes: nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy (Wada & Yagihashi, 2005). Therefore, another mode of diabetes treatment independent of blood glucose levels, inhibition of AGE formation, could be useful in the prevention or reduction of certain diabetic complications (Dong et al., 2010) in both main forms of the illn Continue reading >>

Novel Insights Into The Animal Models Of Diabetes Mellitus

Novel Insights Into The Animal Models Of Diabetes Mellitus

Novel Insights into the Animal models of Diabetes Mellitus Animal models of disease have historically played a crucial role in the investigation and explanation of disease pathophysiology and identification of drug targets. Moreover, animal models also played important role in the assessment of new drugs in vivo. Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic ailments, which is characterized by high blood sugar levels for a longer period. To avoid complications of disease and related economic losses and untoward concerns, prevention and early therapy are therefore necessary. Because of the inadequate usefulness of the current therapies, new therapeutic agents are required to be developed. This paper briefly reviews the animal models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, which include natural model of diabetes, models of diabetes induced by chemicals, genetic models of diabetes, physiological model, non-obese model, surgery induced model of diabetes mellitus. Our study found that animal models played an important role in the investigation of the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus. Also, they helped in the understanding of drug targets and testing new drugs for the mentioned disease. Additionally, a number of animal models for type 2 diabetes mellitus have been developed which also has obesity. This reflects the linkage between obesity and diabetes, a condition similar to that of the human type i.e. connection between obesity and diabetes mellitus. These animal models have abnormality in one or more genes that are connected to obesity and insulin resistance, which leads to the development of hyperglycemia [11]. There are a number of factors that affect pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and its complications; they include obesity, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, hyperli Continue reading >>

Choosing Among Type Ii Diabetes Mouse Models

Choosing Among Type Ii Diabetes Mouse Models

JAX has been distributing mouse models for type II diabetes (Non-insulin Dependent Diabetes; NIDD; T2D) since the 1960s, and today there are several models to choose from. Unfortunately, no single diabetic mouse model recapitulates all of the features or complications of human diabetes. How, then, do you choose which model (or models) to use in your research? Indeed, one of the most common diabetes-related questions we receive in Technical Information is “Which diabetes model is ‘The Best’?” Below is a broad overview of diabetes models that are available from JAX and some considerations to help you to make your decision. Diabetes Phase I, II or III? First some orientation: Diabetes in humans typically develops through a progressive series of increasingly severe stages (or phases): • Pre-diabetes: Characterized by impaired glucose tolerance – difficulty clearing glucose following a meal – postprandial hyperglycemia, and (or) decreased sensitivity to insulin. • Phase I: Postprandial as well as basal hyperglycemia; insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas are increasingly dysfunctional. • Phase II: Fasting hyperglycemia and significant beta cell atrophy. • Phase III (end stage): Beta cells can no longer release insulin; insulin replacement therapy is required. Choosing an appropriate diabetes model depends on the severity of diabetes you wish to study. As in humans, mouse models of T2D are obese, but vary in severity – some models are morbidly obese, whereas others manifest more moderate obesity. Diet-induced Obesity (DIO) Mice: Modeling Pre-Diabetes Obesity is one of the greatest risk factors linked to diabetes in humans, and similar to humans, some mouse strains become obese when fed high-fat or so-called “Western” diets. Among mouse strains Continue reading >>

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