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Anatomy Of Pancreas

114 17.9 The Endocrine Pancreas

114 17.9 The Endocrine Pancreas

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe the location and structure of the pancreas, and the morphology and function of the pancreatic islets Compare and contrast the functions of insulin and glucagon The pancreas is a long, slender organ, most of which is located posterior to the bottom half of the stomach (Figure 1). Although it is primarily an exocrine gland, secreting a variety of digestive enzymes, the pancreas has an endocrine function. Its pancreatic islets—clusters of cells formerly known as the islets of Langerhans—secrete the hormones glucagon, insulin, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide (PP). Figure 1. Pancreas. The pancreatic exocrine function involves the acinar cells secreting digestive enzymes that are transported into the small intestine by the pancreatic duct. Its endocrine function involves the secretion of insulin (produced by beta cells) and glucagon (produced by alpha cells) within the pancreatic islets. These two hormones regulate the rate of glucose metabolism in the body. The micrograph reveals pancreatic islets. LM × 760. (Micrograph provided by the Regents of University of Michigan Medical School © 2012) View the University of Michigan WebScope at to explore the tissue sample in greater detail. View the University of Michigan WebScope at to explore the tissue sample in greater detail. Cells and Secretions of the Pancreatic Islets The pancreatic islets each contain four varieties of cells: The alpha cell produces the hormone glucagon and makes up approximately 20 percent of each islet. Glucagon plays an important role in blood glucose regulation; low blood glucose levels stimulate its release. The beta cell produces the hormone insulin and makes up approximately 75 percent of each islet. Elevated Continue reading >>

Anatomy - The Exocrine Pancreas - Ncbi Bookshelf

Anatomy - The Exocrine Pancreas - Ncbi Bookshelf

NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. Pandol SJ. The Exocrine Pancreas. San Rafael (CA): Morgan & Claypool Life Sciences; 2010. In adult humans, the pancreas weighs about 80 g. The illustration in Figure 1 demonstrates the anatomical relationships between the pancreas and organs surrounding it in the abdomen. The pancreas is a retroperitoneal organ and does not have a capsule. The second and third portions of the duodenum curve around the head of the pancreas. The spleen is adjacent to the pancreatic tail. The regions of the pancreas are the head, body, tail and uncinate process ( Figure 2 ). The distal end of the common bile duct passes through the head of the pancreas and joins the pancreatic duct entering the duodenum ( Figure 1 ). For this reason, pathologic processes of the pancreas, such as a cancer at the head of the pancreas or swelling and/or scarring of the head of the pancreas due to pancreatitis, can lead to biliary system obstruction and injury. Because of its posterior position, the pancreas is usually protected from trauma. However, it is just anterior to the vertebral column, and severe blunt trauma to the upper abdomen as might occur from a steering wheel in an auto accident can crush the pancreas against the vertebral column and cause severe injury. Pancreatic vascular system. The arterial blood supply to the pancreas is from two major arteries supplying the abdominal organs, the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries. The celiac artery branch supplying the pancreas is the superior pancreaticoduodenal (more...) The arterial blood supply to the pancreas is from two major arteries supplying the abdominal organs, the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries. Because of the dual blood supply, ischemi Continue reading >>

Pancreas

Pancreas

For other uses, see Pancreas (disambiguation). This article uses anatomical terminology; for an overview, see Anatomical terminology. The pancreas /ˈpæŋkriəs/ is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates. In humans, it is located in the abdominal cavity behind the stomach. It is an endocrine gland producing several important hormones, including insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide, all of which circulate in the blood.[2] The pancreas is also a digestive organ, secreting pancreatic juice containing bicarbonate to neutralize acidity of chyme moving in from the stomach, as well as digestive enzymes that assist digestion and absorption of nutrients in the small intestine. These enzymes help to further break down the carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids in the chyme. The pancreas is known as a mixed gland. Structure[edit] 1. Bile ducts: 2. Intrahepatic bile ducts, 3. Left and right hepatic ducts, 4. Common hepatic duct, 5. Cystic duct, 6. Common bile duct, 7. Ampulla of Vater, 8. Major duodenal papilla 9. Gallbladder, 10–11. Right and left lobes of liver. 12. Spleen. 13. Esophagus. 14. Stomach. 15. Pancreas: 16. Accessory pancreatic duct, 17. Pancreatic duct. 18. Small intestine: 19. Duodenum, 20. Jejunum 21–22. Right and left kidneys. The front border of the liver has been lifted up (brown arrow).[3] The pancreas is an endocrine and digestive organ that, in humans, lies in the upper left part of the abdomen. It is found behind the stomach.[4] The pancreas is about 15 cm (6 in) long.[5] Anatomically, the pancreas is divided into the head of pancreas, the neck of pancreas, the body of pancreas, and the tail of pancreas.[2] The head is surrounded by the duodenum in its concavity. The head surrounds two blood ves Continue reading >>

Pancreas: Anatomy And Functions

Pancreas: Anatomy And Functions

The pancreas is an elongated, tapered organ located across the back of the abdomen, behind the stomach. The right side of the organ, called the head, is the widest part of the organ. It lies in the curve of the duodenum, the first section of the small intestine. The tapered left side extends slightly upward, called the body of the pancreas, and ends near the spleen, called the tail. The pancreas is made up of2 types of glands: Exocrine. The exocrine gland secretes digestive enzymes. These enzymes are secreted into a network of ducts that join the main pancreatic duct. It runs the length of the pancreas. Endocrine. The endocrine gland consists of the islets of Langerhans and secretes hormones into the bloodstream. The pancreas has digestive and hormonal functions: The enzymes secreted by the exocrine gland in the pancreas help break down carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and acids in the duodenum. These enzymes travel down the pancreatic duct into the bile duct in an inactive form. When they enter the duodenum, they are activated. The exocrine tissue also secretes a bicarbonate to neutralize stomach acid in the duodenum. The main hormones secreted by the endocrine gland in the pancreas are insulin and glucagon. They regulate the level of glucose in the blood, and somatostatin, which prevents the release of the other2 hormones. More Information About the Pancreas in the Health Library Continue reading >>

Pancreas Anatomy, Problems, Tests, And Treatments

Pancreas Anatomy, Problems, Tests, And Treatments

The pancreas is about 6 inches long and sits across the back of the abdomen, behind the stomach. The head of the pancreas is on the right side of the abdomen and is connected to the duodenum (the first section of the small intestine) through a small tube called the pancreatic duct. The narrow end of the pancreas, called the tail, extends to the left side of the body. Diabetes, type 1 : The body’s immune system attacks and destroys the pancreas’ insulin-producing cells. Lifelong insulin injections are required to control blood sugar. Diabetes, type 2 : The pancreas loses the ability to appropriately produce and release insulin. The body also becomes resistant to insulin, and blood sugar rises. Cystic fibrosis : A genetic disorder that affects multiple body systems, usually including the lungs and the pancreas. Digestive problems and diabetes often result. Pancreatic cancer : The pancreas has many different types of cells, each of which can give rise to a different type of tumor. The most common type arises from the cells that line the pancreatic duct. Because there are usually few or no early symptoms, pancreatic cancer is often advanced by the time it’s discovered. Pancreatitis : The pancreas becomes inflamed and damaged by its own digestive chemicals. Swelling and death of tissue of the pancreas can result. Although alcohol or gallstones can contribute, sometimes a cause for pancreatitis is never found. Pancreatic pseudocyst : After a bout of pancreatitis, a fluid-filled cavity called a pseudocyst can form. Pseudocysts may resolve spontaneously, or they may need surgical drainage. Islet cell tumor : The hormone-producing cells of the pancreas multiply abnormally, creating a benign or cancerous tumor.  These tumors produce excess amounts of hormones and then rel Continue reading >>

Figure 1: Anatomy Of The Pancreas.

Figure 1: Anatomy Of The Pancreas.

From: Pancreatic cancer biology and genetics The pancreas is comprised of separate functional units that regulate two major physiological processes: digestion and glucose metabolism 136 . The exocrine pancreas consists of acinar and duct cells. The acinar cells produce digestive enzymes and constitute the bulk of the pancreatic tissue. They are organized into grape-like clusters that are at the smallest termini of the branching duct system. The ducts, which add mucous and bicarbonate to the enzyme mixture, form a network of increasing size, culminating in main and accessory pancreatic ducts that empty into the duodenum. The endocrine pancreas, consisting of four specialized cell types that are organized into compact islets embedded within acinar tissue, secretes hormones into the bloodstream. The - and -cells regulate the usage of glucose through the production of glucagon and insulin, respectively. Pancreatic polypeptide and somatostatin that are produced in the PP and -cells modulate the secretory properties of the other pancreatic cell types. a | Gross anatomy of the pancreas. b | The exocrine pancreas. c | A single acinus. d | A pancreatic islet embedded in exocrine tissue. Continue reading >>

Understanding Your Pancreas

Understanding Your Pancreas

What Is the Pancreas? The pancreas is a soft, elongated organ located in the upper abdominal area of the body. It is a component of both the endocrine system and the digestive system. The pancreas is a gland that has both exocrine and endocrine functions. The exocrine portion of the pancreas secretes digestive enzymes, while the endocrine segment of the pancreas produces hormones. Pancreas Location and Anatomy The pancreas is elongated in shape and extends horizontally across the upper abdomen. It consists of a head, body, and tail region. The wider head region is located in the right side of the abdomen, nestled in the arc of the upper portion of the small intestine known as the duodenum. The more slender body region of the pancreas extends behind the stomach. From the body of the pancreas, the organ extends to the tapered tail region located in the left side of the abdomen near the spleen. The pancreas is comprised of glandular tissue and a duct system that runs throughout the organ. The vast majority of glandular tissue is composed of exocrine cells called acinar cells. The acinar cells are assembled together to form clusters called acini. Acini produce digestive enzymes and secrete them into nearby ducts. The ducts collect the enzyme containing pancreatic fluid and drain it into the main pancreatic duct. The pancreatic duct runs through the center of the pancreas and merges with the bile duct before emptying into the duodenum. Only a very small percentage of pancreatic cells are endocrine cells. These small clusters of cells are called islets of Langerhans and they produce and secrete hormones. The islets are surrounded by blood vessels, which quickly transport the hormones into the bloodstream. Pancreas Function The pancreas has two main functions. The exocrine cel Continue reading >>

Anatomy Of The Pancreas - Sciencedirect

Anatomy Of The Pancreas - Sciencedirect

Volume 25, Issue 2 , February 2007, Pages 72-73 Author links open overlay panel HaroldEllis Get rights and content The pancreas comprises the head, uncinate process, neck, body and tail. The head lies within, and closely attached to, the C of the duodenum. The main pancreatic duct (Wirsung) runs the length of the gland. It usually joins the common bile duct at the ampulla of Vater to enter the second part of the duodenum at the duodenal papilla. The accessory duct (Santorini) opens into the duodenum proximal to the main duct. The gland is lobulated and produces the exocrine secretion of digestive hormones from serous-secreting cells, arranged in alveoli. Between these lie the islets of Langerhans, containing A cells (glucagons), B cells (insulin) and D cells (gastrin and somatostatin). The arterial supply is via the splenic artery, and the superior and inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries. Corresponding veins drain into the portal system. The splenic artery is characteristically tortuous and runs along the upper border of the pancreas; the vein lies behind the gland. Embryologically, the pancreas derives from a large dorsal diverticulum from the duodenum and a small ventral bud from the side of the bile duct. The ventral bud swings posteriorly to fuse with the dorsal, trapping the superior mesenteric vessels between and forming the uncinate process. The ducts of the two buds then communicate, that of the ventral bud takes over the main duct, leaving the original duct of the larger dorsal bud as the accessory duct. Continue reading >>

A Comparison Of The Anatomical Structure Of The Pancreas In Experimentalanimals

A Comparison Of The Anatomical Structure Of The Pancreas In Experimentalanimals

A comparison of the anatomical structure of the pancreas in experimentalanimals 1Pathology Department, Nonclinical Research Center, LSI Medience Corporation, 14-1 Sunayama, Kamisu, Ibaraki 314-0255, Japan *Corresponding author: M Tsuchitani (e-mail: [email protected] ) Received 2016 Feb 18; Accepted 2016 Mar 10. Copyright 2016 The Japanese Society of ToxicologicPathology This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the CreativeCommons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives (by-nc-nd) License. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. As basic knowledge for evaluation of pancreatic toxicity, anatomical structures werecompared among experimental animal species, including rats, dogs, monkeys, and minipigs.In terms of gross anatomy, the pancreases of dogs, monkeys, and minipigs are compact andsimilar to that of humans. The rat pancreas is relatively compact at the splenic segment,but the duodenal segment is dispersed within the mesentery. In terms of histology, theislet of each animal is characterized by a topographic distribution pattern of - versus-cells. -cells occupy the large central part of the rat islet, and -cells are locatedin the periphery and occasionally exhibit cuffing. In dog islets, -cells are distributedin all parts and -cells are scattered in the center or periphery of the islet (at bodyand left lobe); whereas -cells occupy all parts of the islet and no -cells are presentin the islet (at right lobe). Monkey islets show two distinct patterns, that is,-cell-rich or -cell-rich islets, and the former represent peripheral -cells forming anirregular ring. Minipig islets show an irregular outline, and both - and -cells arepresent in all parts of the islet, intermingling with each other. According tomorphometry, th Continue reading >>

Pancreas: Anatomy And Functions - Health Encyclopedia - University Of Rochester Medical Center

Pancreas: Anatomy And Functions - Health Encyclopedia - University Of Rochester Medical Center

The pancreas is an elongated, tapered organ located across the back of the abdomen, behind the stomach. The right side of the organ, called the head, is the widest part of the organ. It lies in the curve of the duodenum, the first section of the small intestine. The tapered left side extends slightly upward, called the body of the pancreas, and ends near the spleen, called the tail. The pancreas is made up of2 types of glands: Exocrine. The exocrine gland secretes digestive enzymes. These enzymes are secreted into a network of ducts that join the main pancreatic duct. It runs the length of the pancreas. Endocrine. The endocrine gland consists of the islets of Langerhans and secretes hormones into the bloodstream. The pancreas has digestive and hormonal functions: The enzymes secreted by the exocrine gland in the pancreas help break down carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and acids in the duodenum. These enzymes travel down the pancreatic duct into the bile duct in an inactive form. When they enter the duodenum, they are activated. The exocrine tissue also secretes a bicarbonate to neutralize stomach acid in the duodenum. The main hormones secreted by the endocrine gland in the pancreas are insulin and glucagon. They regulate the level of glucose in the blood, and somatostatin, which prevents the release of the other2 hormones. Continue reading >>

The Pancreas - Anatomy - Duct System - Vasculature - Teachmeanatomy

The Pancreas - Anatomy - Duct System - Vasculature - Teachmeanatomy

The pancreas is an abdominal glandular organ, with adigestive (exocrine) and hormonal (endocrine) function. In this article, we shall look at the anatomy of the pancreas its structure, anatomical position and neurovascular supply. The pancreas is anoblong-shaped and flattened organ, about the size of a hand.Aside from the tail, it is a retroperitonealstructure (lies behind the peritoneal cavity),located deep within the upper abdomen in the epigastrium and left hypochodrium regions. Within the abdomen, the pancreas is surrounded by other viscera and vessels: Stomach lies anteriorly and superiorly. Duodenum situated anteriorly and medially, curving around the head of the pancreas. Spleen located posteriorly and laterally. It is connected by ligaments to the tail of the pancreas. Vasculature the aorta and inferior vena cava pass posteriorly to the head of the pancreas. Fig 1 Anterior view of the abdomen. The stomach, transverse colon, and the majority of the small intestine have been removed to expose the underlying pancreas The pancreas is typically divided into five parts; Head: This is the widest part of the pancreas. It lies within the C-shaped curve created by the duodenum, and is connected to it by connective tissue. Uncinate process: This is a projection arising from the lower part of the head and extending medially to lie beneath the body of the pancreas. It lies posterior to the superior mesenteric vessels. Neck:Located between the head and the body of the pancreas. It overlies the superior mesenteric vessels which form a groove in its posterior aspect. Body: The body is centrally located, crossing the midline of the human body to liebehind the stomach and to the left of the superior mesenteric vessels. Tail: The left end of the pancreas that lies within close pr Continue reading >>

Pancreas Anatomy: Overview, Gross Anatomy, Microscopic Anatomy

Pancreas Anatomy: Overview, Gross Anatomy, Microscopic Anatomy

Thepancreas, named for the Greek words pan (all) and kreas (flesh), is a 12-15cm long J-shaped (like a hockey stick), soft, lobulated, retroperitoneal organ. It lies transversely, although a bit obliquely, on the posterior abdominal wall behind the stomach, across the lumbar (L1-2) spine (see the image below). [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ] The pancreas develops as 2 buds (outpouchings) of endoderm from the primitive duodenum at the junction of the foregut and the midgut. A small ventral bud (pouch) forms the lower (inferior) part of the head and the uncinate process of pancreas, whereas a large dorsal bud (pouch) forms the upper (superior) part of the head as well as the body and tail of the pancreas. The ventral bud rotates behind the duodenum dorsally from right to left and fuses with the dorsal bud, and the duct of the distal part (body and tail) of the dorsal bud unites with the duct of the ventral bud to form the main pancreatic duct (of Wirsung). Because the common bile duct (CBD) also arises from the ventral bud, it forms a common channel with the main pancreatic duct. The remaining proximal part (head) of the duct of the dorsal bud remains as the accessory pancreatic duct (of Santorini). The pancreas is arbitrarily divided into head, uncinate process, neck, body and tail. The pancreatic head constitutes about 50% and the body and tail the remaining 50% of the pancreatic parenchymal mass. The pancreas is prismoid in shape and appears triangular in cut section with superior, inferior, and anterior borders as well as anterosuperior, anteroinferior, and posterior surfaces. On the cut surface of the pancreas at its neck, the main pancreatic duct lies closer to the superior border and the posterior surface. The head of the pancreas lies in the duodenal C loop in front of the Continue reading >>

Pancreas

Pancreas

Pancreas, compound gland that discharges digestive enzymes into the gut and secretes the hormones insulin and glucagon, vital in carbohydrate (sugar) metabolism, into the bloodstream. Anatomy and exocrine and endocrine functions In humans the pancreas weighs approximately 80 grams (about 3 ounces) and is shaped like a pear. It is located in the upper abdomen, with the head lying immediately adjacent to the duodenum (the upper portion of the small intestine) and the body and tail extending across the midline nearly to the spleen. In adults, most of the pancreatic tissue is devoted to exocrine function, in which digestive enzymes are secreted via the pancreatic ducts into the duodenum. The cells in the pancreas that produce digestive enzymes are called acinar cells (from Latin acinus, meaning “grape”), so named because the cells aggregate to form bundles that resemble a cluster of grapes. Located between the clusters of acinar cells are scattered patches of another type of secretory tissue, collectively known as the islets of Langerhans, named for the 19th-century German pathologist Paul Langerhans. The islets carry out the endocrine functions of the pancreas, though they account for only 1 to 2 percent of pancreatic tissue. A large main duct, the duct of Wirsung, collects pancreatic juice and empties into the duodenum. In many individuals a smaller duct (the duct of Santorini) also empties into the duodenum. Enzymes active in the digestion of carbohydrates, fat, and protein continuously flow from the pancreas through these ducts. Their flow is controlled by the vagus nerve and by the hormones secretin and cholecystokinin, which are produced in the intestinal mucosa. When food enters the duodenum, secretin and cholecystokinin are released into the bloodstream by secre Continue reading >>

Pancreas | Radiology Reference Article | Radiopaedia.org

Pancreas | Radiology Reference Article | Radiopaedia.org

The pancreas can be divided into four main parts: head: thickest part; lies to the right of the superior mesenteric vessels ( superior mesenteric artery (SMA) , superior mesenteric vein (SMV) ) uncinate process: extension of the head, posterior to SMV attached to "C" loop of duodenum (D2 and D3) neck: thinnest part; lies anterior to SMA, SMV SMV joins splenic vein behind pancreatic neck to form portal vein body: main part; lies to left of SMA, SMV anterior surface is covered with peritoneum forming the posterior surface of the omental bursa (lesser sac) splenic vein lies in groove on posterior surface of body tail: lies between layers of the splenorenal ligament in the splenic hilum Pancreatic juice is secreted into a branching system of pancreatic ducts that extend throughout the gland. In the majority of individuals, the main pancreatic duct empties into the second part of duodenum at the ampulla of Vater . See article: pancreatic ducts for more information. Arterial supply to the head is primarily from the inferior and superior pancreaticoduodenal arteries .Branches of the splenic artery supply the body and tail via multiple branches including the dorsal pancreatic artery and great pancreatic artery (arteria pancreatica magna). The pancreatic and pancreaticoduodenal veins drain blood from the pancreas draining to the splenic vein , and the splenic and portal veins respectively. An annular pancreas is an uncommon (~1 in 20,000 1) variation with partial or complete surrounding of the duodenum with pancreatic tissue.The ventral pancreatic anlage is responsible for this anomaly by dividing early into two segments: often detected incidentally in asymptomatic patients may be associated with duodenal stenosis, postbulbar ulcerations, pancreatitis or biliary obstruction Rar Continue reading >>

Anatomy And Histology Of The Pancreas

Anatomy And Histology Of The Pancreas

1. Introduction The mandate for this chapter is to review the anatomy and histology of the pancreas. The pancreas (meaning all flesh) lies in the upper abdomen behind the stomach. The pancreas is part of the gastrointestinal system that makes and secretes digestive enzymes into the intestine, and also an endocrine organ that makes and secretes hormones into the blood to control energy metabolism and storage throughout the body. It is worthwhile to mention a few definitions for key terms as used in the context of the pancreas: Exocrine pancreas, the portion of the pancreas that makes and secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum. This includes acinar and duct cells with associated connective tissue, vessels, and nerves. The exocrine components comprise more than 95% of the pancreatic mass. Endocrine pancreas, the portions of the pancreas (the islets) that make and secrete insulin, glucagon, somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide into the blood. Islets comprise 1-2% of pancreatic mass. Since we are dealing with a three dimensional solid structure, the aphorism that “a picture is worth a thousand words” seems to pertain (1). Accordingly, this chapter will largely consist of images with extended legends. The images range from classic work of skilled medical artists to original drawings and photomicrographs from leaders in the study of pancreatic anatomy and structure. Text is interspersed as appropriate. Additional useful images are available online at other websites. We provide a list of some of these sites at the end with the references. 2. Gross Anatomy Figs. 1-13 depict the gross anatomy of the pancreas and its relationship to surrounding organs in adults. It is customary to refer to various portions of the pancreas as head, body, and tail. The head lies near th Continue reading >>

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