Alzheimer's Disease Is Type 3 Diabetes–evidence Reviewed
Go to: Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) has characteristic histopathological, molecular, and biochemical abnormalities, including cell loss; abundant neurofibrillary tangles; dystrophic neurites; amyloid precursor protein, amyloid-β (APP-Aβ) deposits; increased activation of prodeath genes and signaling pathways; impaired energy metabolism; mitochondrial dysfunction; chronic oxidative stress; and DNA damage. Gaining a better understanding of AD pathogenesis will require a framework that mechanistically interlinks all these phenomena. Currently, there is a rapid growth in the literature pointing toward insulin deficiency and insulin resistance as mediators of AD-type neurodegeneration, but this surge of new information is riddled with conflicting and unresolved concepts regarding the potential contributions of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), metabolic syndrome, and obesity to AD pathogenesis. Herein, we review the evidence that (1) T2DM causes brain insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and cognitive impairment, but its aggregate effects fall far short of mimicking AD; (2) extensive disturbances in brain insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling mechanisms represent early and progressive abnormalities and could account for the majority of molecular, biochemical, and histopathological lesions in AD; (3) experimental brain diabetes produced by intracerebral administration of streptozotocin shares many features with AD, including cognitive impairment and disturbances in acetylcholine homeostasis; and (4) experimental brain diabetes is treatable with insulin sensitizer agents, i.e., drugs currently used to treat T2DM. We conclude that the term “type 3 diabetes” accurately reflects the fact that AD represents a form of diabetes that selectively involves t Continue reading >>
World Alzheimer’s Day – Is Alzheimers Type 3 Diabetes?
Is Alzheimers Type 3 Diabetes? by Jonathan Mallory Staring endlessly at a blank screen, waiting restlessly for the words that once flowed so smoothly. Straining with great effort to communicate clearly, wading through an ever-hardening pool of concrete which seems impossible to drain from the mind. Within the slowly shrinking space which is now only a remnant of what once was, those stricken with dementia fight feelings of loneliness, misunderstanding, and frustration. A form of dementia, Alzheimer’s disease is a gradual loss of memory typically observed amongst elderly individuals. Implications of the disease and related symptoms are of growing concern in South Africa. With an estimated 186,000 people living with dementia in 2016, this number is expected to increase by over 50% within the next 15 years. A projection of great consequence, this statistic is overshadowed by the commonly-held, damaging belief that dementia is merely a sign of aging for which there is no cure. These misconceptions prevent elderly individuals from receiving the appropriate medical advice they so desperately need. Initiatives such as World Alzheimer’s Day seek to shed light on the debilitating nature of dementia and its association with Alzheimer’s. On this day of increased awareness and understanding, The Noakes Foundation promotes scientifically grounded advice which negates prevalent misconceptions surrounding the neurodegenerative disease. Although complex and in some cases difficult to process, the proposed pathologies of Alzheimer’s provide insight into potential treatments and lead to a greater understanding of related symptoms. Those diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease experience a slow decline in brain activity. Tissues and nerve cells essential for the retention of short-te Continue reading >>
Alzheimer’s = Type 3 Diabetes
“My parents are getting older and I want to do everything I can to help them prevent Alzheimer’s, considering both my grandmothers had this disease, and I am worried about getting it too.” writes this week’s house call. “What can we do to prevent dementia?” The truth is, dementia is a very big problem that’s becoming bigger every day. Statistics are grim. 10 percent of 65-year-olds, 25 percent of 75-year-olds, and 50 percent of 85-year-olds will develop dementia or Alzheimer’s disease. And the fastest growing segment of our population is the 85-year-olds. Researchers predict Alzheimer’s will affect 106 million people by 2050. It’s now the seventh leading cause of death. Scientists now call Alzheimer’s disease “Type 3 diabetes.” What’s the link between Alzheimer’s and diabetes? Well, new research shows insulin resistance, or what I call diabesity (from eating too many carbs and sugar and not enough fat) is one of the major factors that starts the brain-damage cascade, which robs the memory of over half the people in their 80s, leading to a diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. But don’t think too much insulin affects only older folks’ memories. It doesn’t just suddenly occur once you’re older. Dementia actually begins when you’re younger and takes decades to develop and worsen. Here’s the bad news/good news. Eating sugar and refined carbs can cause pre-dementia and dementia. But cutting out the sugar and refined carbs and adding lots of fat can prevent, and even reverse, pre-dementia and early dementia. More recent studies show people with diabetes have a four-fold risk for developing Alzheimer’s. People with pre-diabetes or metabolic syndrome have an increased risk for having pre-dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). You Continue reading >>
Type 3 Diabetes: An Alias For Alzheimer's Disease?
Type 3 Diabetes: An Alias for Alzheimer's Disease? When you see the term type 3 diabetes, one may think its simply another type or form of diabetes. This is at least what I thought when Dr. Ronald Peterman, a clinical pharmacy specialist, initially introduced me to this topic. I would have never thought that type 3 diabetes was an alias for Alzheimers disease (AD). Impaired insulin and insulin growth factor (IGF) production seems to play a role in the development of AD. Just like there are insulin genes being expressed in our pancreas, an insulin gene is also expressed in the adult human brain.1 Appropriately controlling blood glucose may not only prevent diabetic complications such as neuropathy, but could also potentially reduce enhancing patient progression to AD. A study showed that type 2 diabetes and impaired fasting glucose occur significantly more frequently in patients with AD than in patients that did not have AD.1 People that have insulin resistance, in particular those with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of suffering from Alzheimer's disease estimated to be between 50% and 65% higher.2 A patient with diabetes may be at an increased risk of developing AD, but no direct causation has been found. It was found that diffuse and neuritic plaques were similarly abundant in the brains of patients with type 2 diabetes and no type 2 diabetes.1 Neurofibrillary tangles, common characteristic in patients with AD, were not increased in type 2 diabetes patients thus inhibiting the assumption of type 2 diabetes causing AD. 1 Various in vitro and in vivo experiments performed by multiple researchers has led to the conclusion that neuronal cell survival and homeostatic function is dependent on the integrity of insulin and IGF signaling mechanism in our brain.1 Insuli Continue reading >>
Type 3 Diabetes: A Brain Insulin-resistant State Linked To Alzheimers Disease
Type 3 diabetes: a brain insulin-resistant state linked to Alzheimers disease Ken Shaw July 11, 2017 Vol 34.6 July / August 2017 Over the years, identifying novel sub-type variants of diabetes has always provided a measure of academic interest as well as an engaging area for debate and discussion. Having established the relatively clear-cut classification of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, it was perhaps inevitable that a further category of type 3 diabetes would in due course emerge. Indeed, a number of putative candidates has been put forward, including Double Diabetes (a combination of type 1 diabetes and insulin resistance), MODY3 and more recently type 3c (pancreatogenic) diabetes. But the most intriguing remains the proposal by Suzanne de la Monte and colleagues1 that the term type 3 diabetes could be appropriately applied to an association between a state of brain insulin resistance and dementia, including Alzheimers disease. Diabetes itself transcends into every aspect of clinical medicine, with familiar consequences to a legion of other specialist disorders. For good reason, a major focus of diabetes in recent years has been directed towards its long-term adverse cardiovascular effects, with clinical trials of new therapeutic interventions designed to evaluate potential benefits, or otherwise, in respect of reducing the substantial risk to the heart, the circulation and to overall mortality. In the same context, the effects of diabetes on the brain should now be considered with comparable concern. Although it may still seem difficult to justify the precise terminology of type 3 diabetes, given that hyperglycaemia itself is not an absolute prerequisite, the concept, nonetheless, of a brain insulin-resistant state, associated with increased risk of developing dement Continue reading >>
Review Is Alzheimer's Disease A Type 3 Diabetes? A Critical Appraisal☆
Highlights • • Molecular and cellular mechanisms between Type 2 Diabetes and Alzheimer's disease • Role of insulin signaling on amyloid beta oligomers • Recently researchers proposed the term ‘Type-3-Diabetes’ for Alzheimer's disease (ad) because of the shared molecular and cellular features among Type-1-Diabetes, Type-2-Diabetes and insulin resistance associated with memory deficits and cognitive decline in elderly individuals. Recent clinical and basic studies on patients with diabetes and AD revealed previously unreported cellular and pathological among diabetes, insulin resistance and AD. These studies are also strengthened by various basic biological studies that decipher the effects of insulin in the pathology of AD through cellular and molecular mechanisms. For instance, insulin is involved in the activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β, which in turn causes phosphorylation of tau, which involved in the formation of neurofibrillary tangles. Interestingly, insulin also plays a crucial role in the formation amyloid plaques. In this review, we discussed significant shared mechanisms between AD and diabetes and we also provided therapeutic avenues for diabetes and AD. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Quality in Diabetes/Obesity and Critical Illness Spectrum of Diseases - edited by P. Hemachandra Reddy. Graphical abstract Download high-res image (63KB) Download full-size image Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most common form of diabetes and is currently a major worldwide cause of morbidity and mortality. This is likely to worsen, given the rapidly increasing prevalence of this condition; therefore, an understanding of its etiology and pathogenesis is of considerable importance. By definition, patients Continue reading >>
Connections Between Diabetes And Alzheimer’s Disease
Relatively recently, it has been proposed that Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a form of diabetes that primarily affects the nerve cells of the brain., Many researchers and physicians now refer to AD as Type3Diabetes or T3D. Alzheimer’s Disease Alzheimer’s Disease is a form of dementia characterized by loss of short-term memory, confusion, forgetfulness and difficulties in speech. Later stages can be characterized by delusional thinking, repetitive behaviors, loss of long-term memory, sometime rapid mood swings and incontinence. It can only be definitively diagnosed by autopsy and microscopic examination of the brain when large amounts of protein (beta amyloid, tau) show up as tangled “threads” in the nerve cells. Currently, there is no blood or other test to diagnose AD. Alzheimer’s disease is believed to affect 20% of those over 65 to varying degrees. By the time an individual is in their 80s, the chances that they will show signs of AD reach 50%. AD, like T1D and T2D is a slowly progressive disease with both environmental and genetic factors at play. Studies have indicated that those individuals with T2D have a 50-65% higher risk of AD. Also, both AD and T2D are chronic inflammatory diseases with evidence of similar types of damage (oxidative) to the cells of the body. Most importantly, recent evidence indicates that the nerve cells of the brain show insulin resistance and resistance to another hormone, insulin-like growth factor or IGF. Insulin resistance and IGF resistance is considered a sign of prediabetes. Since glucose (blood sugar) is the primary source of energy for brain cells, it is thought likely that the increasing degree of insulin and IGF resistance essentially starves the brain cells of its most importance energy source. Over the long ter Continue reading >>
Is Alzheimer’s Really Type 3 Diabetes?
There is currently no cure for Alzheimer’s Disease, but scientists are making headway on a number of theories about its cause, one being a link to diabetes. Though scientists have presented many theories about Alzheimer’s disease, the true cause of the condition remains elusive. One by one, theories have failed to earn a consensus. But a promising new hypothesis has emerged in recent years: a link to diabetes. It’s one that seems to be supported by a growing amount of clinical evidence. A New Theory About Alzheimer’s and Type 3 Diabetes This new and promising theory suggests there is a connection between a third type of diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease. Though the link to diabetes remains a bit tenuous, experimental evidence does seem to connect Type 2 Diabetes to the progressive cognitive impairment associated with Alzheimer’s disease. We hope to give you a better idea of what this connection might be and to remind the families affected by Alzheimer’s that scientists are inching ever closer to understanding this terrible disease. Even if this theory doesn’t prove to be definitive, it still suggests progress. Understanding the Potential Link between Diabetes and Alzheimer’s The role insulin plays in the body is the key to understanding the relationship between Alzheimer’s and diabetes. Produced in the pancreas, insulin signals the cells in your body to absorb glucose from the bloodstream. In a non-diabetic person, proper amounts of glucose are absorbed into the cells. But both Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes interfere with this absorption of glucose, resulting in a variety of uncomfortable and dangerous symptoms. Type 1 Diabetes is congenital and destroys insulin producing cells in the pancreas, while Type 2 is acquired and prevents cells from absorbing g Continue reading >>
Mayo Clinic Minute: Is Alzheimer’s Type 3 Diabetes?
Are some cases of Alzheimer's disease triggered by a form of diabetes in the brain? Perhaps they are, according to researchers. Mayo Clinic's campuses in Rochester, Minnesota, and Jacksonville, Florida, recently participated in a multi-institution clinical study, testing whether a new insulin nasal spray can improve Alzheimer’s symptoms. “This study has furthered our understanding of the gene that is the strongest genetic risk factor known for Alzheimer’s disease,” says Dr. Guojun Bu, a Mayo Clinic neuroscientist. "About 20 percent of the human population carries this riskier form of [the gene] APOE, called the E4," says Dr. Bu. It's believed that more than 50 percent of Alzheimer’s cases can be linked to APOE4, according to the study, which was published in Neuron. Watch: The Mayo Clinic Minute Journalists: A broadcast-quality video pkg (1:00) is in the downloads. Read the script. It's an accepted fact that people with Type 2 diabetes have a higher risk of Alzheimer's disease. One reason may be reduced blood flow to the brain because of damaged blood vessels, Dr. Bu explains. "And, therefore, the supply of essential nutrients to the brain is also impaired." Dr. Bu has found genetics may also be to blame. A variant of the so-called Alzheimer’s gene, APOE4, seems to interfere with brain cells' ability to use insulin, which may eventually cause the cells to starve and die. Unofficially, it's called Type 3 diabetes. "What it refers [to] is that their brain's insulin utilization or signaling is not functioning. Their risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease is about 10 to 15 times higher." Researchers wondered if it is diabetes of the brain, could insulin delivered in an intranasal mist help patients? The results of a phase 2 clinical trial have raised hope. "Th Continue reading >>
Diabetes And Dementia - Is There A Connection?
Diabetes and dementia - is there a connection? Diabetes and dementia - is there a connection? What do diabetes and dementia have in common? Diabetes occurs when the body is unable to make enough insulin or use the insulin it makes properly. Insulin is a hormone used by the body to control glucose levels, or the amount of sugar, in your blood. Glucose is one of the main sources of fuel for the body, providing energy the body needs to perform all necessary functions. There are two main types of diabetes type 1 and type 2. A third type, gestational diabetes, occurs temporarily during pregnancy.Studies have shown that type 2 diabetes can be a risk factor for Alzheimers disease, vascular dementia and other types of dementia because cardiovascular problems associated with diabetes are also associated with dementia. These include: Heart disease or family history of heart disease Research has also proved that, similar to diabetes, glucose is not used properly in the brains of people with Alzheimers disease. This may be caused by nerve cell death, which reduces the brains ability to interpret messages.In the case of vascular dementia, brain cells die due to lack of oxygen, preventing brain cells from communicating with each other. Beta amyloid plaques, which build up in the brains of people with Alzheimers disease, have also been shown to prevent insulin receptors in the brain from doing their job. This can impact insulin production and cause brain cells to become insensitive to insulin. Is Alzheimers disease type 3 diabetes? Recent studies suggest that the brains of people with Alzheimers disease are in a diabetic state, partly due to the decrease in or insensitivity to insulin.There are many similarities in the brains of people with diabetes and the brains of people with Alzh Continue reading >>
Alzheimer’s Disease Is Now Called Type 3 Diabetes
- and stable blood sugar helps to prevent it Science has found a link between unstable blood sugar levels, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and an increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (the leading cause of dementia). Type 2 diabetes is spreading like a bushfire, and people many are unware that they have early stages of the disease, typically characterized by fatigue, overweight, and cravings for fast carbohydrates or stimulants. People with Alzheimer’s disease have insulin resistance of the brain, which is why this disease is now referred to as type 3 diabetes. Because it takes many years for Alzheimer’s disease to develop, there is every reason in the world to start early prevention with exercise and a blood sugar-stabilizing diet. Also, a particular trace element may help increase insulin sensitivity, which is why it is vital to get enough of this nutrient. More than 35 million people worldwide are affected by Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s disease causes the brain to malfunction because the neurons in different parts of the brain slowly deteriorate. Science has discovered that a slow build-up of proteins called beta-amyloid plaque displaces normal brain cells, resulting in local inflammation and symptoms such as the loss of memory, orientation, and other cognitive skills. Alzheimer’s develops slowly and usually leads to death after about 7-10 years. New research may be able to change this. Type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease by 50-60% The formation of beta-amyloid plaque in the brain was a mystery to science until the beginning of the third millennium when Professor Suzanne de la Monte from Brown University of Rhode Island, the United States, started blocking the insulin pathways in the brain Continue reading >>
Why Alzheimer's Disease Is Called Type 3 Diabetes
Why Alzheimer's Disease Is Called Type 3 Diabetes ballyscanlon/Digital Vision/ Getty Images Alzheimer's disease is a type of progressive dementia that affects more than 5 million Americans, and those rates are projected to increase dramatically over the next several years. One link to Alzheimer's disease that researchers are exploring is diabetes. There have been several studies that have connected the two diseases together. In fact, some researchers have begun to call Alzheimer's disease "type 3 diabetes." Although a small amount of research found an increased risk of dementia with type 1 diabetes, the vast majority of studies have concluded that this link between diabetes and Alzheimer's is specific to t ype 2 diabetes . Type 2 diabetes develops when insulin becomes less efficient at processing sugar through the bloodstream. Studies show that approximately half of people with type 2 diabetes will go on to develop Alzheimer's disease. With such a strong connection, the focus of some research studies is to explain the connection between the two disease. In type 1 or 2 diabetes, not enough insulin (or none at all) is produced to process glucose (sugar) correctly or the body no longer responds to insulin, and it affects the functioning fn the whole body. In Alzheimer's disease, it appears that a similar problem is occurring, but instead of causing problems in the entire body's functioning, the effects occur in the brain. Alzheimer's Disease & Dementia Newsletter Learn about the effects of Alzheimer's disease and dementia, along with coping skills for you and your loved one. Researchers found interesting evidence of this when they studied people's brains after their death. They noted that the brains of those with Alzheimer's disease who did not have type 1 or type 2 diabe Continue reading >>
Type 3 Diabetes Symptoms
Why is Alzheimer’s dementia (AD) sometimes called “Type 3 diabetes?” What are the symptoms, and how can it be prevented? Alzheimer’s is a progressive brain disease. People who have this condition gradually lose memory and mental focus. They may have emotional and behavioral changes that put a great load on their families. The course of Alzheimer’s disease varies dramatically. Some people become severely disabled and die from it. Others may experience only a mild slowing of brain function. What causes Type 3 diabetes? How might diabetes cause Alzheimer’s symptoms? Gary Small, MD, a professor of psychiatry at the Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior at UCLA and author of The Alzheimer’s Prevention Program said that high blood sugars cause inflammation throughout the body and brain. Chronic inflammation has been linked with two brain changes typical of Alzheimer’s disease. In Alzheimer’s, clumps of protein called beta-amyloid plaques form between the brain cells and may block communication. Researchers have discovered that many people with Type 2 diabetes have beta-amyloid deposits in their pancreas like the ones found in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s. Tau tangles are twisted-up proteins that form within nerve cells of people with Alzheimer’s, interfering with cell function. We don’t know what causes this nerve damage, but studies done at Brown University and the University of Pennsylvania indicate that insulin resistance, the core of Type 2 diabetes, is a big part of it. Insulin resistance may deprive brain cells of glucose they need to function, causing damage. On Verywell.com, health writer Esther Heerema, MSW, said, “The brains of those with Alzheimer’s disease who did not have diabetes showed many of the same abnormal Continue reading >>
Type 3 Diabetes: The Alarming Link Between Alzheimers And Diet
If you haven’t heard of it, type 3 diabetes is what many specialists are now calling Alzheimer’s disease. The name covers the belief that Alzheimer’s results from insulin resistance of the brain. Alzheimer’s is a cruel, degenerative condition that devastates millions of lives around the world. And unfortunately, it’s only increasing in prevalence; as of 2016, 1 in 9 people over the age of 65 have Alzheimer’s. Surprisingly, the number of individuals aged 65 and over with the condition is expected to triple by the year 2050 ( 1 ). Could abnormal blood glucose regulation play a role? This article takes a look at the metabolic theory of type 3 diabetes, and how we might be able to prevent (or potentially halt) the condition. Type 3 diabetes—or Alzheimer’s disease—is a chronic condition in which brain neurons slowly degenerate and die ( 2 , 3 ). As a result, we see progressive memory loss and rapid declines in cognitive ability ( 4 ). I’ve personally seen the terrible effects of Alzheimer’s. As a young boy, I remember seeing my great grandfather hospitalized with late-stage Alzheimer’s. And then from the start of my late teenage years, I saw my granddad—a strong, well-built man—slowly succumb to the disease. Someone being physically fit or having an intelligent mind is not relevant; the disease doesn’t discriminate, and it takes no prisoners. Experiencing a slow deterioration, patients eventually lose the ability to interact with their environment, communicate, and even remember their family. Ultimately, Alzheimer’s disease is fatal, and patients usually die from a resulting complication such as pneumonia ( 5 ). Worse still, it’s not only the patient that suffers. Alzheimer’s caregivers often have to spend all their time and money to Continue reading >>
What Is Type 3 Diabetes?
At first blush, it may be hard to imagine a connection between type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease or other forms of dementia. But it’s real—and it’s so strong that some experts are now referring to it as type 3 diabetes or brain diabetes. By any name, it’s the progression from type 2 diabetes to Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia marked by memory deficits and a dramatic decline in cognitive function. While all people with diabetes have a 60 percent increased risk of developing any type of dementia, including Alzheimer’s, recent research suggests that women with type 2 diabetes have a 19 percent greater risk of a certain type, known as vascular dementia (which is caused by problems with blood supply to the brain) than men do. Overall, older adults with type 2 diabetes suffer from greater declines in working memory and executive functioning (a set of mental processes that involve planning, organization, controlling attention, and flexible thinking) than their peers do. Granted, not everyone who has type 2 diabetes will develop Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, or any other form of dementia, and there are many people who have Alzheimer’s or another form of dementia who don’t have diabetes, notes Gary Small, M.D., a professor of psychiatry at the UCLA Semel Institute and author of The Alzheimer’s Prevention Program. But the reality is, “these risk factors tend to add up: If you have diabetes, that doubles the risk of developing Alzheimer’s. If you have a first-degree relative—a parent or sibling, for example—with Alzheimer’s, that doubles your risk.” And if you have poorly controlled blood pressure, abdominal (a.k.a., central) obesity, or sleep apnea, your risk of developing dementia is increased even more. Surprisin Continue reading >>