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Aerobic Breakdown Of Glucose

Carbohydrate Catabolism

Carbohydrate Catabolism

Digestion is the breakdown of carbohydrates to yield an energy rich compound called ATP . The production of ATP is achieved through the oxidation of glucose molecules. In oxidation, the electrons are stripped from a glucose molecule to reduce NAD+ and FAD . NAD+ and FAD possess a high energy potential to drive the production of ATP in the electron transport chain . ATP production occurs in the mitochondria of the cell. There are two methods of producing ATP: aerobic and anaerobic . In aerobic respiration, oxygen is required. Oxygen plays a key role as it increases ATP production from 4 ATP molecules to about 30 ATP molecules. In anaerobic respiration, oxygen is not required. When oxygen is absent, the generation of ATP continues through fermentation.There are two types of fermentation: alcohol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation . There are several different types of carbohydrates : polysaccharides (e.g., starch , amylopectin , glycogen , cellulose ), monosaccharides (e.g., glucose , galactose , fructose , ribose ) and the disaccharides (e.g., sucrose , maltose , lactose ). Glucose reacts with oxygen in the following redox reaction, C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O, Carbon dioxide and water are waste products, and the overall reaction is exothermic . The breakdown of glucose into energy in the form of molecules of ATP is therefore one of the most important biochemical pathways found in living organisms. Glycolysis , which means sugar splitting, is the initial process in the cellular respiration pathway. Glycolysis can be either an aerobic or anaerobic process. When oxygen is present, glycolysis continues along the aerobic respiration pathway. If oxygen is not present, then ATP production is restricted to anaerobic respiration . The location where glycolysis, aerobic or Continue reading >>

4 Steps Of Aerobic Respiration

4 Steps Of Aerobic Respiration

Aerobic respiration is a physiological process that takes place in your body to generate an energy molecule called adenosine-5'-triphosphate, or simply ATP. All of your body's cells rely on ATP for normal functioning. This is especially true as it relates to your musculoskeletal system, which requires a large amount of this molecule to allow for normal movement. There are four main steps during aerobic respiration, each of which contributes to the production of ATP. The first step in aerobic respiration is glycolysis, which literally means the breakdown of glucose. This process takes place in the cytoplasm, which is a jelly-like substance in your cells. During glycolysis, molecules of glucose are broken down to yield four molecules of ATP, two three-carbon molecules called pyruvate and two molecules of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, or NADH. Although four ATP molecules are created here, the net result is only two molecules of ATP. This is because glycolysis actually uses two ATPs during the first phase of the process to generate glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. The next step in aerobic respiration is the formation of acetyl-coenzyme A. This occurs in the mitochondria, which are small energy organelles within your cells. The pyruvate that was created during glycolysis is converted to a two-carbon acetyl group, which then combines with coenzyme A to produce acetyl-coA. The third step in aerobic respiration also takes place in your mitochondria. The acetyl-coA that was produced from pyruvate combines during the Krebs cycle to produce oxaloacetate, thus forming citrate. This citrate then undergoes several conversion steps to form the following compounds, in order: isocitrate, alpha ketoglutarate, succinyl-CoA, succinate, fumarate and malate. Along the way, one molecule of g Continue reading >>

How Do Organisms Generate Energy?

How Do Organisms Generate Energy?

Enzymes of Glycolysis Yeast 20, J.A. Barnett, A history of research on yeast 6: the main respiratory pathway, 1015-44 (2003). All cells need energy, which they get through ATP, an inherently unstable molecule that must continually be produced. Though ATP can be produced in different ways, nearly all living cells can harness ATP through glycolysis, the stepwise degradation of glucose, and other sugars, obtained from the breakdown of carbohydrates without the need for molecular oxygen (anaerobic). Glycolysis is an ancient, universal pathway that probably developed before there was sufficient oxygen in the atmosphere to sustain more effective methods of energy extraction. When aerobic organisms evolved, they simply added more efficient energy extraction pathways onto glycolysis, breaking down the end products from glycolysis (pyruvate) still further through the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Yet, aerobic cells can still rely predominantly on glycolysis when oxygen is limiting, such as in hard working muscle cells where glycolysis ends in the production of lactate, causing muscle fatigue. The aerobic and anaerobic processes are kept separate in eukaryotic cells, with glycolysis occurring in the cytoplasm, and the aerobic tricarboxylic acid cycle occurring in the mitochondria. Glycolysis During glycolysis, glucose is broken down in ten steps to two molecules of pyruvate, which then enters the mitochondria where it is oxidised through the tricarboxylic acid cycle to carbon dioxide and water. Glycolysis can be split into two phases, both of which occur in the cytosol. Phase I involves splitting glucose into two molecules of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) at the expense of 2 ATP molecules, but allows the subsequent energy-producing reactions to be doubled up with a higher net gain Continue reading >>

What Is The Role Of Glucose In Aerobic Respiration?

What Is The Role Of Glucose In Aerobic Respiration?

During aerobic respiration, cells obtain energy in the presence of oxygen through a series of reactions known as the citric acid cycle. Glucose provides a key reaction intermediate necessary for these reactions to occur. Glucose is a six-carbon sugar molecule that gets broken down into two three-carbon pyruvate molecules. These pyruvate molecules, in the presence of oxygen, can enter the citric acid cycle, producing a significant amount of energy for the cell. Glucose can be obtained directly from the diet or by the breaking down of glycogen, a polymer of glucose molecules. During glycolysis, glucose is metabolized by the cell to produce energy. Glycolysis is not very efficient in terms of energy production, but the process itself generates a series of intermediates that can be used for other processes. One such intermediate is pyruvate. In the absence of oxygen, pyruvate can be converted to lactic acid or alcohol through a process known as fermentation. However, in the presence of oxygen, during aerobic respiration, pyruvate can enter the citric acid cycle. The Citric Acid Cycle The citric acid cycle is a series of reactions that ultimately produce a significant amount of energy for the cell. This cycle can only occur under aerobic conditions -- that is, conditions in which sufficient oxygen is present. In the presence of oxygen, the pyruvate molecules formed at the end of glycolysis can enter the citric acid cycle by reacting with a compound called Acetyl-CoA. During this reaction, carbon dioxide is released. In fact, carbon dioxide is released in a number of steps during the citric acid cycle. This is, in part, an explanation of why aerobic respiration involves breathing in oxygen and breathing out carbon dioxide. Electron Transport Chain By definition, aerobic respi Continue reading >>

Aerobic Respiration Equation

Aerobic Respiration Equation

In aerobic respiration, there is a breakdown of glucose molecules into energy. This process takes place in the presence of oxygen. Let's check out the equations related to this process and various steps involved in it. The process of breaking down of a glucose molecules to release energy in the presence of oxygen is known as aerobic respiration. On the other hand, respiration which takes place in the absence of oxygen is known as anaerobic respiration. The energy released in the process is used by the organism for growth, repair, movements, etc. Prokaryotes have their energy generation organ on the cell membrane and in eukaryotes, it is present in the inner membranes of the mitochondrial cell. Aerobic cellular respiration equation shows the reaction between a glucose molecule and oxygen which results in the formation of carbon-dioxide, water and energy. This energy is in the form of ATP. The equation can be represented as, Glucose + Oxygen Carbon dioxide + Water + Energy So, the aerobic respiration chemical equation will be C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy (ATP molecules) Aerobic respiration takes three steps to release energy and complete the process. In the following steps glycolysis process takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell whereas Krebs cycle and electron transport chain process are completed in the mitochondria of the cell. First step of aerobic respiration is glycolysis. It can also take place in the absence of oxygen and is present in almost all the living organisms. The chemical reaction in glycolysis can be explained as follows: The pyruvic acid formed in the glycolysis enters the Krebs cycle and breaks down to form ATP molecules. It is also known as citric acid cycle. The product formed in the Krebs cycle is acetal CoA which forms citric acid and fur Continue reading >>

Glycolysis

Glycolysis

Suppose that we gave one molecule of glucose to you and one molecule of glucose to Lactobacillus acidophilus—the friendly bacterium that turns milk into yogurt. What would you and the bacterium do with your respective glucose molecules? Glycolysis is a series of reactions that and extract energy from glucose by splitting it into two three-carbon molecules called pyruvates. Glycolysis is an ancient metabolic pathway, meaning that it evolved long ago, and it is found in the great majority of organisms alive today​. In organisms that perform cellular respiration, glycolysis is the first stage of this process. However, glycolysis doesn’t require oxygen, and many anaerobic organisms—organisms that do not use oxygen—also have this pathway. Glycolysis has ten steps, and depending on your interests—and the classes you’re taking—you may want to know the details of all of them. However, you may also be looking for a greatest hits version of glycolysis, something that highlights the key steps and principles without tracing the fate of every single atom. Let’s start with a simplified version of the pathway that does just that. Glycolysis takes place in the cytosol of a cell, and it can be broken down into two main phases: the energy-requiring phase, above the dotted line in the image below, and the energy-releasing phase, below the dotted line. Energy investment phase. Glucose is first converted to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate in a series of steps that use up two ATP. Then, unstable fructose-1,6-bisphosphate splits in two, forming two three-carbon molecules called DHAP and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphae. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate can continue with the next steps of the pathway, and DHAP can be readily converted into glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. Energy payoff phase. In a s Continue reading >>

Section 16.1oxidation Of Glucose And Fatty Acids To Co2

Section 16.1oxidation Of Glucose And Fatty Acids To Co2

The complete aerobic oxidation of glucose is coupled to the synthesis of as many as 36 molecules of ATP: Glycolysis, the initial stage of glucose metabolism, takes place in the cytosol and does not involve molecular O. It produces a small amount of ATP and the three-carbon compound pyruvate. In aerobic cells, pyruvate formed in glycolysis is transported into the mitochondria, where it is oxidized by O to CO. Via chemiosmotic coupling, the oxidation of pyruvate in the mitochondria generates the bulk of the ATP produced during the conversion of glucose to CO. In this section, we discuss the biochemical pathways that oxidize glucose and fatty acids to CO and HO; the fate of the released electrons is described in the next section. Go to: Cytosolic Enzymes Convert Glucose to Pyruvate A set of 10 enzymes catalyze the reactions, constituting the glycolytic pathway, that degrade one molecule of glucose to two molecules of pyruvate (Figure 16-3). All the metabolic intermediates between glucose and pyruvate are watersoluble phosphorylated compounds. Four molecules of ATP are formed from ADP in glycolysis (reactions 6 and 9). However, two ATP molecules are consumed during earlier steps of this pathway: the first by the addition of a phosphate residue to glucose in the reaction catalyzed by hexokinase (reaction 1), and the second by the addition of a second phosphate to fructose 6-phosphate in the reaction catalyzed by phosphofructokinase-1 (reaction 3). Thus there is a net gain of two ATP molecules. The balanced chemical equation for the conversion of glucose to pyruvate shows that four hydrogen atoms (four protons and four electrons) are also formed: (For convenience, we show pyruvate in its un-ionized form, pyruvic acid, although at physiological pH it would be largely dissociat Continue reading >>

The Aerobic System Pt Direct

The Aerobic System Pt Direct

Youare here: Home Training Design Anatomy and Physiology The Aerobic System The aerobic system accesses a massive store of virtually unlimited energy. On this page you'll learn how this system will keep you chugging along forever without ever letting you get out of 2nd gear! The aerobic energy system utilises fats, carbohydrate and sometimes proteins for re-synthesising ATP for energy use. The aerobic system produces far more ATP than either of the other energy systems but it produces the ATP much more slowly, therefore it cannot fuel intense exercise that demands the fast production of ATP. Think of the aerobic system as the big diesel bus with a massive fuel tank as opposed to the V8 car of the ATP-PC system and the V6 car of the anaerobic glycolytic system. While the aerobic system doesnt produce nearly as much power as the other systems, a major feature is its capacity which is virtually limitless, as it just keeps on producing ATP. Think of this capacity as the fuel tank of the diesel bus it is so big that itll hardly ever run out of fuel. The aerobic system consists of three processes or stages each of which produce ATP. These stages involve more complex chemical reactions than the other energy systems which is why ATP production is much slower. (The more complex the process - the longer it takes to produce ATP) The three stages which will be discussed in greater detail are: 1. Aerobic glycolysis (slow glycolysis) 2. Krebs cycle (also known as the citric acid cycle) Aerobic glycolysis is exactly the same series of reactions as anaerobic (fast) glycolysis, except it just has a different outcome because sufficient oxygen is present. Initially stored glycogen is converted to glucose. Glucose is then broken down by a series of enzymes. 2 ATP are used to fuel glycolys Continue reading >>

Atp Consumption During Glucose Breakdown

Atp Consumption During Glucose Breakdown

A comparison of the sites and the amounts of ATP produced and consumed during the anaerobic and aerobic breakdown of glucose Glycolysis is the first type of metabolic pathway in the cell (it takes place in the cytosol cytoplasm of cells) in all types of living organisms. This pathway does not require oxygen; this is why it is also the first pathway in the anaerobic breakdown of glucose (in addition to the aerobic breakdown of glucose and is the primary energy source for most organism, such as bacteria). In this process, one molecule of glucose is converted into two molecules of pyruvate (or pyruvic acid), which generates energy in the form of two ATP molecules (two net molecules). In actual fact, there are four molecules of ATP which are produced per molecule of glucose; however, two of these are used, which is why at this stage, the net total of ATP molecules is +2. ATP molecules for phosphorolation: 2ATP 2 NADH2 go through oxidative phosphorolation therefore (2 x 3) = 6ATP moleculesSo, to sum up, this process uses 2 ATP molecules, and it produces four ATP molecules and two NADH2+ molecules (it converts 1 glucose molecule into 2 molecules of pyruvate) and is also carried out as the first stage of the anaerobic breakdown of glucose, because this process does not require the use of oxygen. Then after each molecule of glucose has been converted into 2 molecules of pyruvate it then takes part in the Link reaction, the Krebbs cycle and the electron transport chain (which produces ATP through phophorrolation) where it is then converted into more usable forms of energy for the cell and is further broken down. From link reaction:3 x NADH2 (there are 2 pyruvates, so it is x 2), 6 NADH2 go through phosphololation, therefore (6 x 3) = 18 ATP 2 FADH2 (because there are 2 pyruvate Continue reading >>

Aerobic Respiration

Aerobic Respiration

Hydrogenions (protons) are pumped across the inner membrane of the mitochondrion. Theseprotons flow through ATP synthase enzyme molecules, and thereby release energywhich drives the formation of 34 ATP molecules. Each of the 2-carbon acetyl groups produced from the original glucose molecule is bonded to a pre-existing molecule of oxaloacetate to form citrate (i.e. citric acid). These two citric acid molecules are gradually oxidized, and the hydrogen ions are bound to NAD to form NADH and to FAD to form FADH2. Oxaloacetate is produced when the last carbon atom is released in the form of carbon dioxide. Video clip summarizing the citric acid(Krebs) cycle: Having played the trombone in high schoolmarching band, I have a soft spot in my heart for THIS version The electrons removed from the molecules inglycolysis and citric acid follow a series of cytochromes on the mitochondrialmembrane, while the hydrogen ions (protons) are pumped across the innermembrane of the mitochondrion. The fluid is this sector of the mitochondrionhas, therefore, a very low pH. These protons flow through ATP synthase enzymemolecules, and thereby release energy which drives the formation of ATPmolecules. The last step in aerobic respiration is thebonding of 2 electrons, 2 protons, and oxygen to form water. Aerobic respiration is much more efficient atextracting chemical energy than is fermentation: Efficiency of Fermentation versus Aerobic Respiration Continue reading >>

Aerobic Vs Anaerobic Respiration - Difference And Comparison | Diffen

Aerobic Vs Anaerobic Respiration - Difference And Comparison | Diffen

Aerobic respiration, a process that uses oxygen, and anaerobic respiration, a process that doesn't use oxygen, are two forms of cellular respiration. Although some cells may engage in just one type of respiration, most cells use both types, depending on an organism's needs. Cellular respiration also occurs outside of macro-organisms, as chemical processes for example, in fermentation. In general, respiration is used to eliminate waste products and generate energy. Aerobic Respiration versus Anaerobic Respiration comparison chart Anaerobic respiration is respiration without oxygen; the process uses a respiratory electron transport chain but does not use oxygen as the electron acceptors. Aerobic respiration occurs in most cells. Anaerobic respiration occurs mostly in prokaryotes Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, Electron Transport Chain Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, Electron Transport Chain Contents: Aerobic vs Anaerobic Respiration Aerobic processes in cellular respiration can only occur if oxygen is present. When a cell needs to release energy, the cytoplasm (a substance between a cell's nucleus and its membrane) and mitochondria ( organelles in cytoplasm that help with metabolic processes) initiate chemical exchanges that launch the breakdown of glucose . This sugar is carried through the blood and stored in the body as a fast source of energy. The breakdown of glucose into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) releases carbon dioxide (CO2), a byproduct that needs to be removed from the body. In plants, the energy-releasing process of photosynthesis uses CO2 and releases oxygen as its byproduct. Anaerobic processes do not use oxygen, so the pyruvate product ATP is one kind of pyruvate remains in place to be broken down or catalyzed by other reactions, such as what occurs in muscle tissue or Continue reading >>

All Of The Information In These Notes

All Of The Information In These Notes

Cellular respiration is the enzymatic breakdown of glucose (C6H12O6) in the presence of oxygen (O2) to produce cellular energy (ATP): 1. Glycolysis: (Fig. 18-2) a ten-step process that occurs in the cytoplasm converts each molecule of glucose to two molecules of pyruvic acid (a 3-carbon molecule) an anaerobic process - proceeds whether or not O2 is present ; O2 is not required net yield of 2 ATP per glucose molecule net yield of 2 NADH per glucose (NADH is nicotine adenine dinucleotide, a co-enzyme that serves as a carrier for H+ ions liberated as glucose is oxidized.) The pyruvic acid diffuses into the inner compartment of the mitochondrion where a transition reaction (Fig. 18-3) occurs that serves to prepare pyruvic acid for entry into the next stage of respiration: (a) pyruvic acid ® acetic acid + CO2 (a waste product of cell metabolism) + NADH+ (b) acetic acid + co-enzyme A ® acetyl CoA 2. Citric Acid or TCA Cycle:(Fig. 18-3) occurs in the inner mitochondrial matrix the acetyl group detaches from the co-enzyme A and enters the reaction cycle an aerobic process; will proceed only in the presence of O2 net yield of 2 ATP per glucose molecule (per 2 acetyl CoA) net yield of 6 NADH and 2 FADH2 (FAD serves the same purpose as NAD) in this stage of cellular respiration, the oxidation of glucose to CO2 is completed 3. Electron Transport System: consists of a series of enzymes on the inner mitochondrial membrane electrons are released from NADH and from FADH2 and as they are passed along the series of enzymes, they give up energy which is used to fuel a process called chemiosmosis by which H+ ions are actively transported across the inner mitochondrial membrane into the outer mitochondrial compartment. The H+ ions then flow back through special pores in the membrane, a pr Continue reading >>

Aerobic Respiration And Anaerobic Respiration - Pass My Exams: Easy Exam Revision Notes For Gsce Biology

Aerobic Respiration And Anaerobic Respiration - Pass My Exams: Easy Exam Revision Notes For Gsce Biology

Home > GCSE Biology > Breathing and Respiration Respiration is the process of releasing energy from the breakdown of glucose. Respiration takes place in every living cell, all of the time and all cells need to respire in order to produce the energy that they require. The energy produced during respiration is used in many different ways, some examples of what it is used for are: Building larger molecules from smaller ones i.e. proteins from amino acids Allowing chemical reactions to take place There are two main types of respiration, aerobic and anaerobic we will look at each one of these in detail now. Aerobic means with air. This type of respiration needs oxygen for it to occur so it is called aerobic respiration. The word equation for aerobic respiration is: It is important that you learn both the word and chemical equation. In the above equations we see that glucose is broken down by oxygen to release energy with carbon dioxide and water being produced as by-products of the reaction. Approximately 2900 kJ of energy is released when one mole of glucose is broken down. The released energy is used to make a special energy molecule called Adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is where the energy is stored for use later on by the body. Aerobic respiration occurs in plants as well as animals. Oxygen enters plant cells through the stomata. Plants produce their food via photosynthesis and release energy from it through the process of respiration. Below is a reminder of what the equation for photosynthesis is: Comparing the two equations we can see that aerobic respiration works in the opposite way to photosynthesis. During the day both photosynthesis and respiration are taking place at the same time, though photosynthesis is occurring at a faster rate. At night when there is no Continue reading >>

Biology-the Cell-aerobic Respiration

Biology-the Cell-aerobic Respiration

Glucose is an energy rich molecule. If the energy were released quickly in an uncontrolled manner enough heat can be released to destroy the cell. Click to see a demonstration of the amount of energy in glucose. Energy is released from a glucose molecule in the cell slowly and in a controlled manner involving many chemical reactions. The amount of energy that can be released from these reactions depends on the presence of oxygen. Aerobic respiration involves the breakdown of organic molecules in a three part process, which includes glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Glycolysis produces products that feed into the Krebs cycle and the Krebs cycle produces products that feed into the electron transport chain. Click to see a summary of inputs and outputs of each stage of aerobic cellular respiration process The first step to the breakdown of glucose is glycolysis. Glycolysis occurs in the cytosol and through a number of chemical reactions glucose is split into two pyruvate molecules with the net release of two ATP molecules. It takes two ATP molecules to split the glucose molecule but four molecules of ATP are produced. Glycolysis occurs rapidly and in the absence of oxygen. The next step in the breakdown of glucose depends on the absence or presence of oxygen. If there is no oxygen present pyruvate is converted into lactic acid in most animals and into ethanol and carbon dioxide as occurs in certain microorganisms. This is known as fermentation and no more ATP is produced. However, in the presence of oxygen, pyruvate enters the mitochondria, bonded to a coenzyme , where it undergoes complete breakdown in a process called the Krebs Cycle. Products of the Krebs cycle are then fed into the electron transport chain where the bulk of AT Continue reading >>

Aerobic Respiration | Big Picture

Aerobic Respiration | Big Picture

A closer look at the reactions following glycolysis, should oxygen be available Aerobic respiration uses oxygen to break down glucose, amino acids and fatty acids and is the main way the body generates adenosine triphosphate (ATP) , which supplies energy to the muscles. After glycolysis (the anaerobic breakdown of glucose into pyruvate see our separate article for more detail), pyruvate is converted to acetyl CoA in the matrix of the energy-transferring mitochondria, via the link reaction . Next is the Krebs cycle , which occurs twice per glucose molecule, producing among other chemicals that feed into the aerobic part of the process more ATP. A diagram showing the stages of the link reaction and Krebs cycle, taken from our cellular respiration poster . Big Picture: Exercise, Energy and Movement (2012) The aerobic part of the process depends on a series of protein complexesthat are organised along the folds of the inner membrane(cristae) of the mitochondria. These are arranged so that electrons pass from one reacting molecule to the next, in a series of steps known as the electron transport chain . This process ends with ATP synthase , an enzyme that produces ATP from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate (up to around 30 molecules of ATP per molecule of glucose, according to current thinking), capturing the final portion of the energy released by the whole process in a form that the rest of the cell can use. Below, we look a little closer at the specific reactions that take place during the steps of aerobic respiration. The link reaction occurs in the mitochondrial matrix, and converts pyruvate into the two-carbon molecule acetyl CoA by removing carbon dioxide and hydrogen, through the process of decarboxylation . Carbon dioxide and hydrogen are removed Continue reading >>

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