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Advances In Diabetes Treatment

New Drug Appears To Eliminate Type 2 Diabetes For First Time

New Drug Appears To Eliminate Type 2 Diabetes For First Time

Type 2 diabetes, although influenced by a person’s genes, is largely thought to be brought about by a poor diet and being overweight for prolonged periods of time, particularly at an old age. The pancreas is either unable to produce enough insulin, or the body’s cells simply don’t react to insulin, which leads to dangerously high blood sugar levels. This is known as insulin resistance, and at present, there is no medical way to treat this. A new drug forged by a team at the University of California, however, might prove to be a veritable game-changer. As reported by New Scientist, a daily dose of the drug, given to mice with insulin resistance, canceled out the harmful condition. This is the first time that any treatment has effectively “cured” type 2 diabetes. The team of researchers had an inkling that a particular enzyme was responsible for bringing about insulin resistance. The enzyme – cacophonously known as low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphate, or LMPTP – can be found in the liver, and it appears to interact with cells in such a way that they become resistance to the presence of insulin. Conjuring up a brand new drug that was specifically designed to hinder the progress of LMPTP, the team thought that it would allow the cells’ insulin receptors to once again be able to react to insulin as they normally would. Much to their delight, they found that they were correct. “Our findings suggest that LMPTP is a key promoter of insulin resistance and that LMPTP inhibitors would be beneficial for treating type 2 diabetes,” the team noted in their Nature study. For this study, their drug was orally administered to a few unfortunate laboratory mice. These mice had been fed an extremely high-fat diet, and they had developed obesity and type 2 dia Continue reading >>

New Medications For Type 2 Diabetes

New Medications For Type 2 Diabetes

Researchers are constantly working on ways to better control type 2 diabetes, and as they learn more about how it works, they’re able to develop new medications, such as the ones listed below. Most often, you’ll hear gliptins referred to as DPP-4 (or DPP-IV) inhibitors. DPP-4 inhibitors are one of the newest classes of drugs used for type 2 diabetes. The DPP stands for dipeptidyl peptidase IV, and it’s an enzyme that’s supposed to stop a certain hormone called glucagonlike peptide-1 or GLP-1. GLP-1 tells the beta cells to release insulin. How they work: DPP-4 inhibitors lower blood glucose levels by allowing more insulin to be released in the body. There are hormones in the digestive tract that are released when you eat; they go to your pancreas and tell your beta cells to produce insulin. One of those hormones, GLP-1, is quickly destroyed by the enzyme DPP-4, which is fine for someone without diabetes. For someone with type 2 diabetes, though, this prevents them from getting more insulin into their blood. A DPP-4 inhibitor, therefore, prevents the enzyme from destroying the GLP-1 hormone. Right now, there is only one DPP-4 inhibitor with FDA approval—sitagliptin (Januvia). Combination medication with metformin (Janumet) GLP-1 mimetics (also called incretin mimetics) focus on the effects of the GLP-1 hormone that the digestive tract releases when you eat. Researchers found a way to get around the fact that the DPP-4 enzyme destroys the GLP-1 hormone: they created a synthetic (manmade) version that mimics (hence the word mimetic) the GLP-1 hormone. Oddly enough, researchers found that the saliva of a Gila monster (a type of lizard) contains a hormone that mimics GLP-1, so they created a synthetic version using that. How they work: The DPP-4 enzyme doesn’t att Continue reading >>

Synthetic “smart Gel” Provides Glucose-responsive Insulin Delivery In Diabetic Mice

Synthetic “smart Gel” Provides Glucose-responsive Insulin Delivery In Diabetic Mice

Although previous studies have attempted to create “electronics-free” insulin delivery systems using glucose oxidase and sugar-binding lectins as a glucose-sensing mechanism, no successful clinical translation has hitherto been made. These protein-based materials are intolerant of long-term use and storage because of their denaturing and/or cytotoxic properties. We provide a solution by designing a protein-free and totally synthetic material–based approach. Capitalizing on the sugar-responsive properties of boronic acid, we have established a synthetic polymer gel–based insulin delivery device confined within a single catheter, which exhibits an artificial pancreas–like function in vivo. Subcutaneous implantation of the device in healthy and diabetic mice establishes a closed-loop system composed of “continuous glucose sensing” and “skin layer”–regulated insulin release. As a result, glucose metabolism was controlled in response to interstitial glucose fluctuation under both insulin-deficient and insulin-resistant conditions with at least 3-week durability. Our “smart gel” technology could offer a user-friendly and remarkably economic (disposable) alternative to the current state of the art, thereby facilitating availability of effective insulin treatment not only to diabetic patients in developing countries but also to those patients who otherwise may not be strongly motivated, such as the elderly, infants, and patients in need of nursing care. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works. Distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial License 4.0 (CC BY-NC). This is an open-access article distributed under t Continue reading >>

Immunotherapy, Gene Editing Advances Extend To Type 1 Diabetes

Immunotherapy, Gene Editing Advances Extend To Type 1 Diabetes

Immunotherapy, gene editing advances extend to Type 1 Diabetes December 13, 2017, Seattle Children's Research Institute Dr. Jane Buckner of the Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason and Dr. David Rawlings at Seattle Children's Research Institute are leading research to develop an immunotherapy for type 1 diabetes. Credit: Seattle Children's Advances in engineering T cells to treat cancer are paving the way for new immunotherapies targeted at autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes. Now, researchers are also investigating therapies that reprogram T cells to "turn down" an immune response, which may hold promise for curing type 1 diabetes, as well as a number of diseases where overactive T cells attack a person's healthy cells and organs. "Instead of stimulating the immune system to seek and destroy cancer cells , treating autoimmune conditions will require programming a patient's own T cells to tell rogue immune cells to calm down," said Dr. David Rawlings, director of the Center for Immunity and Immunotherapies at Seattle Children's Research Institute and chief of the Division of Immunology at Seattle Children's Hospital. Harnessing gene-editing techniques pioneered by Seattle Children's, Rawlings and colleagues have already made headway in equipping T cells with the instructions needed to potentially reverse type 1 diabetes . In a new $2 million research project funded by The Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust, researchers will leverage these recent successes using this new form of T-cell immunotherapy into first-in-human clinical trials. Developing a type 1 diabetes immunotherapy The new research continues the collaboration with Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, building on significant progress the joint research teams made af Continue reading >>

City Of Hope Aims To Cure Type 1 Diabetes In Six Years

City Of Hope Aims To Cure Type 1 Diabetes In Six Years

It’s an extraordinary goal powered by an extraordinary gift. City of Hope’s Diabetes & Metabolism Research Institute is committed to developing a cure for type 1 diabetes (T1D) within six years, fueled by a $50 million funding program led by the Wanek family. It seems an audacious goal for a comprehensive cancer center, but City of Hope has a long history of groundbreaking work in diabetes. Research conducted by City of Hope led to the development of synthetic human insulin, which is still used today by many of the estimated 1.5 million Americans with T1D and 27 million with type 2 diabetes (T2D). “City of Hope is best positioned to take on this challenge,” said Robert W. Stone, president and chief executive officer of City of Hope. “This is thanks to our 40-year institutional legacy of pioneering treatment and research advances in diabetes.” The funding for the transformative research needed to embark on such an endeavor is led by a gift from the Wanek family, which owns Ashley Furniture Industries, the world’s largest home furniture manufacturer. “City of Hope scientists’ research has revolutionized the understanding and treatment of diabetes,” said Todd Wanek, chief executive officer of Ashley Furniture, speaking on behalf of his family. “It continues today as physicians and scientists gain systemic understanding of diabetes as a complex, multifaceted disease.” Through the generosity of the family and gifts from an anonymous donor, City of Hope will be able to devote more than $50 million over the next six years to an unprecedented research effort: The Wanek Family Project for Type 1 Diabetes at City of Hope. A Multifaceted Approach The Wanek Family Project will result in the creation of a series of highly focused programs at City of Hope. The Continue reading >>

The Top 10 Ways Israel Hopes To Beat Diabetes

The Top 10 Ways Israel Hopes To Beat Diabetes

The latest numbers from the World Health Organization indicate that one in 10 people has diabetes — more than 346 million people worldwide. Diabetes means the pancreas doesn’t produce or release the hormone insulin as it should, so the body can’t metabolize sugars properly. Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States. Spread the Word • Email this article to friends or colleagues • Share this article on Facebook or Twitter • Write about and link to this article on your blog • Local relevancy? Send this article to your local press Type 1 diabetes, or juvenile diabetes, is characterized by a lack of insulin production. Type 2 diabetes is caused by the body’s ineffective use of insulin, often resulting from excess body weight and physical inactivity. Left untreated, either form of diabetes can lead to cardiovascular disease, blindness and kidney failure. Currently, it can be treated by injections of insulin, but there is no cure. Despite its small size, Israel is a major player in diabetes research, with scientists searching for ways to provide better prevention, treatment, and ultimately a cure for this globally rampant disease. ISRAEL21c brings you the top 10 projects in the field. 1. Artificial pancreas People who have diabetes must check their blood-sugar level every few hours throughout the day and night, to determine when and how much insulin is needed to balance it. A new artificial pancreas developed at Schneider Children’s Medical Center in Tel Aviv could make this task automatic. The first diabetes system of its kind for home use, the MD-Logic combines an off-the-shelf glucose sensor and an insulin pump, connected to a computer that programs the information and stipulates the amount of insulin that should be released. It a Continue reading >>

Progress In Research

Progress In Research

Since Banting and Bests discovery of insulin in Toronto in 1921, the scope of diabetes research in Canada has been vast and the numerous studies both varied and unique. There have been huge strides and key advances in mapping and understanding the physiology, biochemistry, and genetics of diabetes. Diabetes Canada understands funding of diabetes research is a crucial step in providing these advances. This is why we choose, each year, to fund Canadas most renowned scientists and clinicians in their quest for new and innovative developments in the prevention, treatment, and management of diabetes. And although the research is diverse in its scope, covering a broad range of specialties, the key aspects of every study and researcher remain the same to improve the quality of life of people living with diabetes and to find a cure. Since Banting and Bests discovery of insulin in Toronto in 1921, the scope of diabetes research in Canada has been vast. The innovative research funded by Diabetes Canada has contributed to key advances in mapping and understanding the physiology, biochemistry, and genetics of the disease. Although the topics of Canadian researchers are varied and unique, the objective of every study remains the same to find a cure and improve the quality of life of people living with diabetes. The known history of diabetes through the ages began in 1552 BCE, when an Egyptian physician first described diabetes and listed remedies to combat the passing of too much urine. The history of Diabetes Canadas relationship with diabetes research is much more recent: Since 1975 and the establishment of the Charles H. Best Research Fund named for insulin co-discoverer and Diabetes Canada co-founder Dr. Charles H. Best Diabetes Canada has awarded more than $120 million in rese Continue reading >>

Diabetes Technology Moves Closer To Making Life Easier For Patients

Diabetes Technology Moves Closer To Making Life Easier For Patients

For people with diabetes, keeping blood sugar levels in a normal range – not too high or too low – is a lifelong challenge. New technologies to ease the burden are emerging rapidly, but insurance reimbursement challenges, supply shortages, and shifting competition make it tough for patients to access them quickly. One new product is a fast-acting insulin from Novo Nordisk. It is designed to help to minimize the high blood sugar spikes that often occur when people with diabetes eat a meal containing carbohydrates. This new formulation, branded "Fiasp," adds niacinamide (vitamin B3), which roughly doubles the speed of initial insulin absorption compared to current fast-acting insulins taken at mealtime. This new insulin hits the bloodstream in under three minutes. Another advance is Abbott's new monitoring device called the FreeStyle Libre Flash. It's new in the U.S. but has been available in Europe since 2014. It's a round patch with a catheter that is inserted on the arm for up to 10 days and a durable scanning device that the user waves over the patch to read the level of sugar in their tissues, which reflects the blood sugar level. The Libre works a bit differently than the two currently available continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) made by Dexcom and Medtronic. The Libre doesn't require users to prick their fingers for blood tests to calibrate it, whereas users of the other monitors must perform twice-daily fingerstick calibrations. Also, the Libre is approved for longer wear – 10 days (14 in Europe) versus seven days for the two current CGMs. And, it is likely to be considerably less expensive, although Abbott isn't providing cost information for the U.S. just yet. In Europe, the Libre system costs about four Euros a day (about $4.70). But, unlike the current d Continue reading >>

Diabetes Developments - A Blog On Latest Developments In Diabetes By David Mendosa

Diabetes Developments - A Blog On Latest Developments In Diabetes By David Mendosa

Avoid Toxic Relationships for Your Health We all need to avoid toxic relationships. But I would argue that, more than most people, those of us who have diabetes need to avoid toxic relationships. These poisonous relationships can get you down, and diabetes and depression go hand in hand. When you are depressed, you are less likely to manage your diabetes as well as you would otherwise. The worst type of toxic relationships for people with diabetes can be those that are closest to us because they can make such an impact on your daily health and mental well-being. The worst is when your partner doesnt support the way you are managing your diabetes and actually discourages it. I learned that lesson the hard way. Not only did one of my partners subtly mock my efforts to lose weight, but her example of not caring for her own health was a big factor that led me to gain almost 80 pounds in the 10 years we lived together. I left the relationship only after I also had been subjected to emotional abuse for more than a year. You dont need to have experiences like this. April 23, 2017 by David Mendosa Will your type 2 diabetes get progressively worse? It will if you follow the advice of most doctors. People believe many diabetes myths, so many in fact that Riva Greenberg wrote a book on the subject, 50 Diabetes Myths That Can Ruin Your Life. Yet she missed the most pernicious one: that diabetes is a progressive disease. Its the worst one that people with type 2 diabetes face because it can be a self-fulfilling prophecy. So when HealthCentral.com deemed the first week in April as myth-busting week, I jumped at the chance to write about it. April 22, 2017 by David Mendosa Gain Less Weight By Starting Insulin Early Three out of every 10 Americanswho have type 2 diabetes inject insuli Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Treatment: Latest Advances In Insulin Injections

Diabetes Mellitus Treatment: Latest Advances In Insulin Injections

/ Diabetes mellitus treatment: Latest advances in insulin injections Diabetes mellitus treatment: Latest advances in insulin injections Dr Pradeep Gadge talks about advances in the insulin injections for diabetes mellitus. Bhavyajyoti Chilukoti | Updated: January 27, 2018 1:11 pm Tags: Diabetes treatment Expert tips Insulin Insulin injections Is insulin necessary for diabetes? The answer is YES. Not everyone might need it but people with uncontrolled and high blood glucose levelsneed insulin injections to keep the glucose levels in control. So when we askedDr Pradeep Gadge, Diabetologist,Gadge Diabetes Centre, Mumbai about what are the latest advances in the diabetes treatment and insulin injections, here is what he said. Heres more on treatments for diabete s: Oral medications, insulin and other methods that you should know. #1: Thin insulin needles:Earlier insulin injectables were available, which most people with diabetes also use till date. The regular types of syringes with big needles, which were common earlier were supposed to be boiled and extra precautionswere taken. However, with currently available thin syringes that is 32gauge (fine needle), insulin injections are preferable than the 29 gauge needles (which is the thickest one). The one with 32-gauge is slightly less painful as the needle is thin compared to the others. So you can pick this one. #2. Insulin pens:If you are scared about the use of insulin injection, then you can tryinsulin delivery devices like insulin pens. It is available in the size of a pen that easily in a pocket. All you have to do is dial the button and accordingly putinsulin in the body. The insulin pen gives a click when rotated, hence easy to use. Whether you understand or are not aware of the counting, with a click you can know ab Continue reading >>

9 Diabetes Breakthroughs You Need To Know About

9 Diabetes Breakthroughs You Need To Know About

Diabetes is not just one condition - but whether your body is struggling with blood sugar levels due to type 1, or type 2, or even only during pregnancy, it's a serious condition that requires daily care and still doesn't have a cure. But scientists have been working hard to find cures, new treatments, and better management techniques for the millions of people worldwide dealing with diabetes. Here are some of the latest developments you need to know about. 1. Brand new beta cells. Type 1 diabetes develops when a person's immune system wipes out insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. But it turns out that another type of immature beta cell has been hiding in our pancreases all along, and scientists think it might be possible to use these 'virgin beta cells' to restore the functionality of the pancreas. 2. A preventative vaccine. Finnish researchers are about to embark on the first-ever clinical trial for a type 1 diabetes prevention vaccine. While it's not a cure for those who already have the condition, a successful vaccine could potentially prevent thousands of cases each year, as the vaccine targets a virus linked with the development of an autoimmune reaction in the pancreas. 3. A unique transplant. One woman with severe type 1 diabetes has spent a year without insulin injections thanks to an experimental transplant. Doctors implanted insulin-producing cells into a fatty membrane in the stomach cavity, and the success of the operation is paving the way towards more people receiving artificial pancreases. 4. New pancreas tissue. Earlier this year scientists announced that they reversed type 1 diabetes in mice by giving them a transplant of pancreatic tissue. The tissue was grown using stem cells from non-diabetic mice, and the success of this method suggests i Continue reading >>

Three New Treatment Options For Type 2 Diabetes Recommended By Nice

Three New Treatment Options For Type 2 Diabetes Recommended By Nice

The drugs will help to control blood sugar in those patients who cannot take more commonly prescribed medicines meaning their condition remains stable for longer. An estimated 31,000 people may be eligible for the three recommended treatments: canagliflozin (Invokana), dapagliflozin (Forxiga) and empagliflozin (Jardiance). The three drugs can all be used on their own if a person can’t use metformin, sulfonylurea or pioglitazone, and diet and exercise alone isn’t controlling their blood glucose levels. In the UK, almost 3.5 million people who have been diagnosed with diabetes and it’s estimated that about 90% of adults with the condition have type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes causes elevated blood sugar levels which damages blood vessels leading to increased risk of heart attack, stroke and limb amputation. Sugar levels rise because their body doesn’t produce enough insulin – the hormone which controls the amount of glucose in blood – or their body doesn’t use insulin effectively. Professor Carole Longson, director of the NICE Centre for Health Technology Evaluation, said: “Type 2 diabetes is long-term condition that has a serious impact on people who live with it, and the treatments given should be tailored for the individual. “For many people whose blood glucose levels aren’t controlled by diet and exercise alone, metformin is the first drug treatment that they’ll be offered. But some people may experience nausea and diarrhoea, and they may not be able to take it if they have kidney damage. For people who can’t take a sulfonylurea or pioglitazone, then the three drugs recommended in this guidance can be considered. This is as an alternative to the separate group of drugs called dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors. “The committee agreed th Continue reading >>

Recent Advances In The Pathogenesis, Prevention And Management Of Type 2 Diabetes And Its Complications

Recent Advances In The Pathogenesis, Prevention And Management Of Type 2 Diabetes And Its Complications

DOI: 10.5772/1541 Edited Volume Type 2 diabetes "mellitus" affects nearly 120 million persons worldwide- and according to the World Health Organization this number is expected to double by the year 2030. Owing to a rapidly increasing disease prevalence, the medical, social and economic burdens associated with the microvascular and macrovascular complications of type 2 diabetes are likely to increase dramatically in the coming decades. In this volume, leading contributors to the field review the pathogenesis, treatment and management of type 2 diabetes and its complications. They provide invaluable insight and share their discoveries about potentially important new techniques for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diabetic complications. Continue reading >>

Advances In The Treatment Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Advances In The Treatment Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Advances in the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus There is a rising worldwide prevalence of diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which is one of the most challenging health problems in the 21st century. The associated complications of diabetes, such as cardiovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, stroke, diabetic neuropathy, amputations, renal failure, and blindness result in increasing disability, reduced life expectancy, and enormous health costs. T2DM is a polygenic disease characterized by multiple defects in insulin action in tissues and defects in pancreatic insulin secretion, which eventually leads to loss of pancreatic insulin-secreting cells. The treatment goals for T2DM patients are effective control of blood glucose, blood pressure, and lipids (if elevated) and, ultimately, to avert the serious complications associated with sustained tissue exposure to excessively high glucose concentrations. Prevention and control of diabetes with diet, weight control, and physical activity has been difficult. Treatment of T2DM has centered on increasing insulin levels, either by direct insulin administration or oral agents that promote insulin secretion, improving sensitivity to insulin in tissues, or reducing the rate of carbohydrate absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. This review presents comprehensive and up-to-date information on the mechanism(s) of action, efficacy, pharmacokinetics, pleiotropic effects, drug interactions, and adverse effects of the newer antidiabetic drugs, including (1) peroxisome proliferator-activated-receptor- agonists (thiazolidinediones, pioglitazone, and rosiglitazone); (2) the incretin, glucagon-like peptide-) receptor agonists (incretin-mimetics, exenatide. and liraglutide), (3) inhibitors of dipeptidyl-p Continue reading >>

Advances In The Diagnosis And Treatment Of Painful Diabetic Neuropathy

Advances In The Diagnosis And Treatment Of Painful Diabetic Neuropathy

Advances in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Painful Diabetic Neuropathy European Endocrinology, 2008; 4:48-51; DOI: Citation European Endocrinology, 2008; 4:48-51; DOI: Symptoms of painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) occur in 3040% of patients with diabetic neuropathy.1 It is most commonly associated with distal symmetrical neuropathy affecting the lower limbs (especially toes and feet), and patients present with burning, stabbing and tingling sensations. PDN is extremely distressing and significantly reduces the quality of life of patients.2 Hyperglycaemia is clearly important in the genesis of nerve damage, and recent studies suggest that even minimal perturbations in blood glucose in those with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) may lead to the development of small nerve fibre damage and neuropathic pain.3 The causes and consequences of diabetic neuropathy are complex and not well understood. Several hypotheses have been advocated in an attempt to explain the pathophysiology of diabetic neuropathy and include a combination of increased oxidative stress, advanced glycation, polyol accumulation, decreased nitric oxide and impaired sodium+/ potassium+ (Na+/K+)adenosine triphosphate (ATPase).4 Paradoxically, a lack of treatment for underlying nerve damage has improved our understanding of the natural history of PDN because, although nerve damage may initiate PDN, it is clear that as nerve damage progresses pain may diminish.5 Standard measures of neuropathy such as nerve conduction studies and vibration perception thresholds (VPTs) can be used to detect abnormalities of nerve function, but they focus on large nerve fibres. However, pain is generated and mediated by small c and a fibres. Thus, it is no surprise that VPT does not differ between diabetic patients with painful a Continue reading >>

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