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Adolescent Diabetes Symptoms

Diabetes In Children And Adolescents

Diabetes In Children And Adolescents

By Andrew Calabria, MD, Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine at The University of Pennsylvania; Attending Physician, Division of Endocrinology & Diabetes, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Caused by 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency Diabetes mellitus involves absence of insulin secretion (type 1) or peripheral insulin resistance (type 2), causing hyperglycemia. Early symptoms are related to hyperglycemia and include polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria, and weight loss. Diagnosis is by measuring plasma glucose levels. Treatment depends on type but includes drugs that reduce blood glucose levels, diet, and exercise. The types of diabetes mellitus (DM) in children are similar to those in adults, but psychosocial problems are different and can complicate treatment. Type 1 DM is the most common type in children, accounting for two thirds of new cases in children of all ethnic groups. It is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases, occurring in 1 in 350 children by age 18; the incidence has recently been increasing, particularly in children < 5 yr. Although type 1 can occur at any age, it typically manifests between age 4 yr and 6 yr and between 10 yr and 14 yr. Type 2 DM, once rare in children, has been increasing in frequency in parallel with the increase in childhood obesity (see obesity in children and see Obesity in Adolescents ). It typically manifests after puberty, with the highest rate between age 15 yr and 19 yr. Monogenic forms of diabetes, previously termed maturity-onset diabetes of youth (MODY), are not considered type 1 or type 2 (although they are sometimes mistaken for them) and are uncommon (1 to 4% of cases). Prediabetes is impaired glucose regulation resulting in intermediate glucose levels that Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Children And Teens: Signs And Symptoms

Diabetes In Children And Teens: Signs And Symptoms

With more than a third of diabetes cases in the United States occurring in people over the age of 65, diabetes is often referred to as an age-related condition. But around 208,000 children and adolescents are estimated to have diabetes, and this number is increasing. Type 1 diabetes is the most common form of the condition among children and adolescents. A 2009 report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) revealed that type 1 diabetes prevalence stands at 1.93 in every 1,000 children and adolescents, while type 2 diabetes affects 0.24 in every 1,000. In 2014, Medical News Today reported that, based on a study published in JAMA, rates of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes have increased significantly among American children and teenagers. The study found that incidence of type 1 diabetes in children aged up to 9 years increased by 21 percent between 2001 and 2009, while incidence of type 2 diabetes among youths aged 10-19 years rose by 30.5 percent. The researchers note: "The increases in prevalence reported herein are important because such youth with diabetes will enter adulthood with several years of disease duration, difficulty in treatment, an increased risk of early complications and increased frequency of diabetes during reproductive years, which may further increase diabetes in the next generation." Contents of this article: Here are some key points about diabetes in children. More detail and supporting information is in the main article. Type 1 and 2 diabetes are both increasing in the youth of America Often, the symptoms of type 1 diabetes in children develop over just a few weeks If type 1 diabetes is not spotted, the child can develop diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) What is diabetes in children? Type 1 diabetes in children, previously called juve Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Symptoms

Type 1 Diabetes Symptoms

Type 1 diabetes develops gradually, but the symptoms may seem to come on suddenly. If you notice that you or your child have several of the symptoms listed below, make an appointment to see the doctor. Here’s why symptoms seem to develop suddenly: something triggers the development of type 1 diabetes (researchers think it’s a viral infection—read this article on what causes type 1 diabetes, and the body loses its ability to make insulin. However, at that point, there’s still insulin in the body so glucose levels are still normal. Over time, a decreasing amount of insulin is made in the body, but that can take years. When there’s no more insulin in the body, blood glucose levels rise quickly, and these symptoms can rapidly develop: Extreme weakness and/or tiredness Extreme thirst—dehydration Increased urination Abdominal pain Nausea and/or vomiting Blurry vision Wounds that don’t heal well Irritability or quick mood changes Changes to (or loss of) menstruation There are also signs of type 1 diabetes. Signs are different from symptoms in that they can be measured objectively; symptoms are experienced and reported by the patient. Signs of type 1 diabetes include: Weight loss—despite eating more Rapid heart rate Reduced blood pressure (falling below 90/60) Low body temperature (below 97º F) There is an overall lack of public awareness of the signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes. Making yourself aware of the signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes is a great way to be proactive about your health and the health of your family members. If you notice any of these signs or symptoms, it’s possible that you have (or your child has) type 1 diabetes. A doctor can make that diagnosis by checking blood glucose levels. Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It?

Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It?

Diabetes is a disease that affects how the body uses glucose , the main type of sugar in the blood. Our bodies break down the foods we eat into glucose and other nutrients we need, which are then absorbed into the bloodstream from the gastrointestinal tract. The glucose level in the blood rises after a meal and triggers the pancreas to make the hormone insulin and release it into the bloodstream. But in people with diabetes, the body either can't make or can't respond to insulin properly. Insulin works like a key that opens the doors to cells and lets the glucose in. Without insulin, glucose can't get into the cells (the doors are "locked" and there is no key) and so it stays in the bloodstream. As a result, the level of sugar in the blood remains higher than normal. High blood sugar levels are a problem because they can cause a number of health problems. The two types of diabetes are type 1 and type 2. Both make blood sugar levels higher than normal but they do so in different ways. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas loses its ability to make insulin because the body's  immune system attacks and destroys the cells that produce insulin. No one knows exactly why this happens, but scientists think it has something to do with genes. But just getting the genes for diabetes isn't usually enough. A person probably would then have to be exposed to something else — like a virus — to get type 1 diabetes. In type 2 diabetes , the pancreas still makes insulin but the body doesn't respond to it normally. Glucose is less able to enter the cells and do its job of supplying energy (a problem called insulin resistance ). This raises the blood sugar level, so the pancreas works hard to make even more insulin. Eventually, this strain can make the pancreas unable to produce enough ins Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes: What Is It?

Type 2 Diabetes: What Is It?

Diabetes is a disease that affects how the body uses glucose , the main type of sugar in the blood. Our bodies break down the foods we eat into glucose and other nutrients we need, which are then absorbed into the bloodstream from the gastrointestinal tract. The glucose level in the blood rises after a meal and triggers the pancreas to make the hormone insulin and release it into the bloodstream. But in people with diabetes, the body either can't make or can't respond to insulin properly. Insulin works like a key that opens the doors to cells and lets the glucose in. Without insulin, glucose can't get into the cells (the doors are "locked" and there is no key) and so it stays in the bloodstream. As a result, the level of sugar in the blood remains higher than normal. High blood sugar levels are a problem because they can cause a number of health problems. The two types of diabetes are type 1 and type 2. Both make blood sugar levels higher than normal but they do so in different ways. Type 1 diabetes happens when the immune system attacks and destroys the cells of the pancreas that produce insulin. Kids with type 1 diabetes need insulin to help keep their blood sugar levels in a normal range. Type 2 diabetes is different. A person with type 2 diabetes still produces insulin but the body doesn't respond to it normally. Glucose is less able to enter the cells and do its job of supplying energy (a problem called insulin resistance ). This raises the blood sugar level, so the pancreas works hard to make even more insulin. Eventually, this strain can make the pancreas unable to produce enough insulin to keep blood sugar levels normal. People with insulin resistance may or may not develop type 2 diabetes it all depends on whether the pancreas can make enough insulin to keep b Continue reading >>

Anxiety Symptoms In Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes: Association With Blood Glucose Monitoring And Glycemic Control

Anxiety Symptoms In Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes: Association With Blood Glucose Monitoring And Glycemic Control

Objective To examine the prevalence of anxiety symptoms and their association with blood glucose monitoring (BGM) and glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Methods 276 adolescents and their caregivers completed measures of anxiety symptoms. Adolescents completed a measure of depressive symptoms. Demographic and family characteristics were obtained from caregiver report. Diabetes duration, regimen type, BGM frequency, and glycemic control were also collected. Results Trait anxiety symptoms that suggest further clinical assessment is needed were present in 17% of adolescents; the rate was 13% for state anxiety symptoms. Higher levels of state anxiety symptoms were associated with less frequent BGM F(14, 261) = 6.35, p < .0001, R2 = .25, and suboptimal glycemic control, F(15, 260) = 7.97, p < .0001, R2 = .32. State anxiety symptoms were correlates of BGM frequency and glycemic control independent of depressive symptoms. Conclusions State anxiety symptoms are associated with less frequent BGM and suboptimal glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Objective Examine relationships between parental depressive symptoms, affective and instrumental parenting practices, youth depressive symptoms and glycemic control in a diverse, urban sample of adolescents with diabetes. Methods Sixty-one parents and youth aged 10–17 completed self-report questionnaires. HbA1c assays were obtained to assess metabolic control. Path analysis was used to test a model where parenting variables mediated the relationship between parental and youth depressive symptoms and had effects on metabolic control. Results Parental depressive symptoms had a significant indirect effect on youth depressive symptoms through parental involvement. Youth depressive symptoms were significa Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes In Children

Type 2 Diabetes In Children

For decades, type 2 diabetes was considered an adults-only condition. In fact, type 2 diabetes was once called adult-onset diabetes. But what was once a disease mainly faced by adults is becoming more common in children. Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that affects how the body metabolizes sugar (glucose). Over 5,000 people under the age of 20 were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes between 2008 and 2009. Until 10 years ago, type 2 diabetes accounted for less than 3% of all newly diagnosed diabetes cases in adolescents; it now comprises 45% of all such cases. It’s more common in those aged 10-19 and in non-Caucasian populations, including African Americans, Native Americans, Asian/Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics. Being overweight is closely tied to the development of type 2 diabetes. Overweight children have an increased likelihood of insulin resistance. As the body struggles to regulate insulin, high blood sugar leads to a number of potentially serious health problems. In the past 30 years, obesity in children has doubled and obesity in adolescents has quadrupled, according to the CDC. Genetics may also play a role. For instance, the risk of type 2 diabetes increases if one parent or both parents has the condition. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes are not always easy to spot. In most cases, the disease develops gradually, making the symptoms hard to detect. Many people do not feel any symptoms. In other cases, children may not show any obvious signs. If you believe your child has diabetes, keep an eye out for these signs: Excessive fatigue: If your child seems extraordinarily tired or sleepy, their body may not have enough sugar to properly fuel their normal body functions. Excessive thirst: Children who have excessive thirst may have high blood sugar levels. Frequent Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

happens when your immune system destroys cells in your pancreas called beta cells. They’re the ones that make insulin. Some people get a condition called secondary diabetes. It’s similar to type 1, except the immune system doesn’t destroy your beta cells. They’re wiped out by something else, like a disease or an injury to your pancreas. Insulin is a hormone that helps move sugar, or glucose, into your body's tissues. Cells use it as fuel. Damage to beta cells from type 1 diabetes throws the process off. Glucose doesn’t move into your cells because insulin isn’t there to do it. Instead it builds up in your blood and your cells starve. This causes high blood sugar, which can lead to: Dehydration. When there’s extra sugar in your blood, you pee more. That’s your body’s way of getting rid of it. A large amount of water goes out with that urine, causing your body to dry out. Weight loss. The glucose that goes out when you pee takes calories with it. That’s why many people with high blood sugar lose weight. Dehydration also plays a part. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). If your body can't get enough glucose for fuel, it breaks down fat cells instead. This creates chemicals called ketones. Your liver releases the sugar it stores to help out. But your body can’t use it without insulin, so it builds up in your blood, along with the acidic ketones. This combination of extra glucose, dehydration, and acid buildup is known as "ketoacidosis" and can be life-threatening if not treated right away. Damage to your body. Over time, high glucose levels in your blood can harm the nerves and small blood vessels in your eyes, kidneys, and heart. They can also make you more likely to get hardening of the arteries, or atherosclerosis, which can lead to heart attacks and strok Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes In Children

Type 1 Diabetes In Children

Overview Type 1 diabetes in children is a condition in which your child's body no longer produces an important hormone (insulin). Your child needs insulin to survive, so you'll have to replace the missing insulin. Type 1 diabetes in children used to be known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes. The diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in children can be overwhelming at first. Suddenly you and your child — depending on his or her age — must learn how to give injections, count carbohydrates and monitor blood sugar. Type 1 diabetes in children requires consistent care. But advances in blood sugar monitoring and insulin delivery have improved the daily management of the condition. Symptoms The signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes in children usually develop quickly, over a period of weeks. These signs and symptoms include: Increased thirst and frequent urination. Excess sugar building up in your child's bloodstream pulls fluid from tissues. As a result your child might be thirsty — and drink and urinate more than usual. A young, toilet-trained child might suddenly experience bed-wetting. Extreme hunger. Without enough insulin to move sugar into your child's cells, your child's muscles and organs lack energy. This triggers intense hunger. Weight loss. Despite eating more than usual to relieve hunger, your child may lose weight — sometimes rapidly. Without the energy sugar supplies, muscle tissues and fat stores simply shrink. Unexplained weight loss is often the first sign of type 1 diabetes to be noticed in children. Fatigue. Lack of sugar in your child's cells might make him or her tired and lethargic. Irritability or behavior changes. In addition to mood problems, your child might suddenly have a decline in performance at school. Fruity-smelling breath. Bu Continue reading >>

Diabetes - Issues For Children And Teenagers

Diabetes - Issues For Children And Teenagers

On this page: Diabetes mellitus (diabetes) is a chronic and potentially life-threatening condition characterised by the body losing its ability to produce insulin or beginning to produce or use insulin less efficiently. People living with type 1 diabetes must inject insulin regularly, as must some people with type 2 diabetes. Many people with type 2 diabetes can manage their condition with careful diet, exercise and regular testing. Until recently almost all children and teenagers with diabetes had type 1, but now younger people are getting type 2 diabetes due to increasing rates of obesity and being overweight. Children or teenagers who have recently been diagnosed with diabetes may struggle with their emotional reactions to their condition and the reactions of others, and have concerns about going back to school. Teenagers with diabetes may also worry about things like negotiating sex, drinking alcohol, smoking and illicit drugs. A child and their family will need a period of adjustment after diabetes is diagnosed. They must establish a routine for blood glucose monitoring and injecting, learn how to count carbohydrates, see diabetes health professionals regularly and cope with fluctuating blood glucose levels. New challenges may arise as a child moves through different life stages. Reactions to a diagnosis of diabetes A child or teenager newly diagnosed with diabetes will have a range of reactions and emotions. Common reactions experienced by children and their parents include shock, denial, anger, sadness, fear and guilt. These feelings usually subside with time and appropriate support. Common responses to a diagnosis of diabetes include: anxiety about the condition fear of needles and multiple injections a feeling of being overwhelmed by injecting and other tasks t Continue reading >>

Symptoms Of Teen Diabetes

Symptoms Of Teen Diabetes

The number of people affected by diabetes mellitus, a disease that causes abnormal blood sugar levels, has been increasing worldwide in all age groups, including teenagers, since the mid-1990s. The two main types of diabetes mellitus -- type 1 and type 2 -- can occur in teenagers, yet often they cause very different symptoms. Both types of diabetes are related to insulin, a hormone that helps move sugar from the blood to the body's cells. Symptoms of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are caused by inadequate insulin activity in the body, either due to lack of insulin production or resistance of the body to using insulin. These symptoms range from subtle appetite changes to life-threatening complications. Video of the Day Type 1 Symptoms In type 1 diabetes, the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas have been largely destroyed. In the absence of insulin, blood sugar becomes too high because it cannot be ushered into the cells to use for energy. This produces the classic diabetes symptoms -- increased thirst, increased appetite and frequent urination. In addition, despite eating more, teens with type 1 diabetes often lose weight in the weeks before being diagnosed, largely due to dehydration but also as a result of loss of muscle and body fat. Symptoms of type 1 diabetes in teens usually occur over several weeks before being checked by a physician. While symptoms of high blood sugars may be more severe at diagnosis, they can occur any time the blood sugars are abnormally high. In type 1 diabetes, the body’s lack of insulin prevents the use of sugar for energy. As the body instead turns to fat for energy, ketones are produced. This causes the body to become very dehydrated and acidic, leading to a condition called diabetic ketoacidosis, or DKA. Symptoms of DKA include wei Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Children And Teens

Diabetes In Children And Teens

Until recently, the common type of diabetes in children and teens was type 1. It was called juvenile diabetes. With Type 1 diabetes, the pancreas does not make insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps glucose,or sugar, get into your cells to give them energy. Without insulin, too much sugar stays in the blood. Now younger people are also getting type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes used to be called adult-onset diabetes. But now it is becoming more common in children and teens, due to more obesity. With Type 2 diabetes, the body does not make or use insulin well. Children have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes if they are overweight or have obesity, have a family history of diabetes, or are not active. Children who are African American, Hispanic, Native American/Alaska Native, Asian American, or Pacific Islander also have a higher risk. To lower the risk of type 2 diabetes in children Have them maintain a healthy weight Be sure they are physically active Have them eat smaller portions of healthy foods Limit time with the TV, computer, and video Children and teens with type 1 diabetes may need to take insulin. Type 2 diabetes may be controlled with diet and exercise. If not, patients will need to take oral diabetes medicines or insulin. A blood test called the A1C can check on how you are managing your diabetes. Continue reading >>

How Does Type 2 Diabetes Affect Children?

How Does Type 2 Diabetes Affect Children?

Years ago, it was rare to hear about a child with type 2 diabetes. Doctors used to think kids only got type 1. It was even called juvenile diabetes for a long time. Not anymore. Now, according to the CDC, more than 208,000 people younger than 20 have this disease. That number includes both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Here's what you need to know if your child is diagnosed. You've probably heard diabetes and high blood sugar mentioned together. Here's what happens. Your digestive system breaks down carbohydrates into a type of sugar called glucose. Your pancreas creates a hormone, known as insulin, that moves glucose from your blood into your cells, where it’s used for fuel. In type 2 diabetes, the cells in your child's body don’t respond to the insulin, and glucose builds up in her bloodstream. This is called insulin resistance. Eventually, the sugar levels in her body get too high for it to handle. That could lead to other conditions in the future, like heart disease, blindness, and kidney failure. Type 2 diabetes is most likely to affect kids who are: Girls Overweight Have a family history of diabetes American Indian, African-American, Asian, or Hispanic/Latino Have a problem called insulin resistance The single biggest cause of type 2 diabetes in children is extra weight. In the U.S., nearly 1 out of every 3 children is overweight. Once a child gets too heavy, she’s twice as likely to get diabetes. One or more of these things may contribute to extra weight or obesity: Unhealthy eating Family members (alive or dead) who've been overweight Rarely, a hormone problem or other medical condition As with adults, type 2 diabetes is more likely to affect children who carry extra weight around the middle. At first, there may be no symptoms. Over time, you may notice: Hun Continue reading >>

Early Symptoms Of Diabetes

Early Symptoms Of Diabetes

What are the symptoms of diabetes? Although the signs of diabetes can begin to show early, sometimes it takes a person a while to recognize the symptoms. This often makes it seem like signs and symptoms of diabetes appear suddenly. That’s why it’s important to pay attention to your body, rather than simply brushing them off. To that end, here are some type 1 and type 2 diabetes symptoms that you may want to watch out for: If you’re experiencing frequent urination your body might be telling you that your kidneys are trying to expel excess sugar in your blood. The resulting dehydration may then cause extreme thirst. Along the same lines, the lack of available fluids may also give you dry mouth and itchy skin. If you experience increased hunger or unexpected weight loss it could be because your body isn’t able to get adequate energy from the food you eat. High blood sugar levels can affect blood flow and cause nerve damage, which makes healing difficult. So having slow-healing cuts/sores is also a potential sign of diabetes. Yeast infections may occur in men and women who have diabetes as a result of yeast feeding on glucose. Other signs of diabetes Pay attention if you find yourself feeling drowsy or lethargic; pain or numbness in your extremities; vision changes; fruity or sweet-smelling breath which is one of the symptoms of high ketones; and experiencing nausea or vomiting—as these are additional signs that something is not right. If there’s any question, see your doctor immediately to ensure that your blood sugar levels are safe and rule out diabetes. So what are the low blood sugar symptoms you should look out for? It’s important to realize that the signs of… Polyuria occurs when your body urinates more frequently—and often in larger amounts—than Continue reading >>

Symptoms

Symptoms

The symptoms of type 1 diabetes can develop very quickly (over a few days or weeks), particularly in children. In older adults, the symptoms can often take longer to develop (a few months). However, they should disappear when you start taking insulin and the condition is under control. The main symptoms of diabetes are: feeling very thirsty urinating more frequently than usual, particularly at night feeling very tired weight loss and loss of muscle bulk itchiness around the genital area, or regular bouts of thrush (a yeast infection) blurred vision caused by the lens of your eye changing shape slow healing of cuts and grazes Vomiting or heavy, deep breathing can also occur at a later stage. This is a dangerous sign and requires immediate admission to hospital for treatment. See your GP if you think you may have diabetes. When to seek urgent medical attention You should seek urgent medical attention if you have diabetes and develop: a loss of appetite nausea or vomiting a high temperature stomach pain fruity smelling breath – which may smell like pear drops or nail varnish (others will usually be able to smell it, but you won't) Hypoglycaemia (low blood glucose) If you have diabetes, your blood glucose levels can become very low. This is known as hypoglycaemia (or a "hypo"), and it's triggered when injected insulin in your body moves too much glucose out of your bloodstream. In most cases, hypoglycaemia occurs as a result of taking too much insulin, although it can also develop if you skip a meal, exercise very vigorously or drink alcohol on an empty stomach. Symptoms of a "hypo" include: feeling shaky and irritable sweating tingling lips feeling weak feeling confused hunger nausea (feeling sick) A hypo can be brought under control simply by eating or drinking somethin Continue reading >>

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