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Addison's Disease And Diabetes

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Goals

Background My name is Glenn Kardel. I have polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type II, frequently referred to as Schmidt's syndrome. The classic manifestations of this syndrome are adrenal insufficiency plus autoimmune thyroid disease and/or insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. I have all three of the above conditions: Addison's disease, hypothyroidism, and type I diabetes. Addisons and hypothyroidism are treated with oral hormone replacement medications. Type I diabetes is the most serious and difficult to control of the three conditions. Treatment usually involves balancing insulin therapy administered through injections or a pump, diet, and exercise with the goal of maintaining normal blood sugar levels. Having Addison's disease in conjunction with type I diabetes presents a significant additional challenge to maintaining normal blood sugar levels. The adrenal gland plays an important role in controlling blood sugar. It produces a glucocorticoid hormone, cortisol, that causes the liver to release internal stores of glucose and reduce glucose uptake in peripheral cells when blood sugars drop below normal levels. The goal is to counteract the drop in blood sugar. Addison's patients usually take steroids (hydrocortisone, prednisone) to replace the cortisol that's not produced by their adrenal gland. These steroids have a side effect of increasing blood sugar and also don't perfectly mimic the natural action and production cycle of cortisol. The net effect of all of this is that type I diabetics with Addison's disease will experience more variable and extreme blood sugar levels. The patient who isn't prepared to handle these changes in their diabetes will face a very risky situation. After I was diagnosed with Addisons and started taking hydrocortisone, I started to have Continue reading >>

Worried About Addison's Disease?

Worried About Addison's Disease?

The following clinical and laboratory features suggest an adrenal crisis which is life threatening and requiring urgent treatment Dehydration, abnormally high blood pressure or shock which is out of proportion to the severity of current illness Nausea and vomiting with a history of weight loss and anorexia Severe abdominal pain mimicking acute disease or injury to an internal organ Unexplained lack of glucose in the blood sugars Investigations including abnormally low sodium levels; higher than usual potassium levels, higher than usual calcium levels or higher than usual white blood cells called eosinophils Other autoimmune endocrine deficiencies such as hypothyroidism or type I diabetes, or family history of organ specific autoimmune endocrine diseases. For those with Addisons disease treatment is normally through the medication hydrocortisone which, taken in divided doses during the day, replaces the cortisol your body is not making. Usually fludrocortisone is added to treat the associated mineralocorticoid deficiency. It is essential that patients carry a warning card or MedicAlert bracelet to warn medical staff that steroid treatment is required in a medical emergency. They also need to be aware of sick day rules and know to increase their dose if they feel unwell for any reason usually ill enough to take to their bed - or at the time of surgery. For those in an adrenal crisis (which is the second most common cause of death in patients with known Addisons disease and accounts for 15% of patients with this disease) urgent treatment with hydrocortisone injections and intravenous rehydration with fluids are essential. An emergency hydrocortisone injection kit can be prescribed by your GP which is important if you are going abroad. Developed by the Addisons Disease sel Continue reading >>

Addison Disease

Addison Disease

A medical condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough cortisol or, in some cases, aldosterone, causing such problems as weight loss, muscle weakness, fatigue, low blood pressure, and sometimes darkened patches of skin. It occurs somewhat more commonly in people with Type 1 diabetes than in the general population. Two of the most important hormones made by the adrenal glands, which are located just above each kidney, are cortisol and aldosterone. Cortisol has multiple functions throughout the body, including creating the response to stress; helping to maintain blood pressure and cardiovascular function; slowing the immune system’s inflammatory response; raising blood glucose levels in response to stress or fasting; regulating the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and maintaining proper arousal and sense of well-being. The amount of cortisol in the body is precisely regulated by the pituitary gland and a region of the brain called the hypothalamus. Aldosterone helps the kidneys retain sodium and excrete potassium, which in turn helps maintain blood pressure as well as balance water and salt in the body. Most cases of Addison disease, which affects approximately 1 in 100,000 people, are due to gradual destruction of the adrenal cortex, the outer layer of the adrenal gland, by the body’s immune system in a misguided attack. As a result, cortisol levels, and in some cases aldosterone levels, become inadequate. Signs and symptoms of Addison disease, which usually begin gradually, include chronic fatigue that gets worse over time, muscle weakness, loss of appetite, and weight loss. About half of people who have it experience nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Other symptoms include orthostatic hypotension (a drop in blood pressure when standing, Continue reading >>

Screening For Addison's Disease In Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus And Recurrent Hypoglycaemia

Screening For Addison's Disease In Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus And Recurrent Hypoglycaemia

Screening for Addison's disease in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and recurrent hypoglycaemia Taruna Likhari, Saeed Magzoub, Melanie J Griffiths, R Gama*, Departments of Clinical Chemistry, New Cross Hospital, Wolverhampton, West Midlands, UK Harit N Buch, Departments of Diabetes, New Cross Hospital, Wolverhampton, West Midlands, UK Department of Clinical Chemistry, New Cross Hospital, Wolverhampton, West Midlands, WV10 0QP, UK; [email protected] *Also Research Institute, Healthcare Sciences, Wolverhampton University, Wolverhampton, West Midlands, UK Received 2007 Feb 4; Accepted 2007 Feb 23. Copyright 2007 The Fellowship of Postgraduate Medicine This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Addison's disease may present with recurrent hypoglycaemia in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus. There are no data, however, on the prevalence of Addison's disease presenting with recurrent hypoglycaemia in patients with diabetes mellitus. Three year retrospective study of diabetic patients with unexplained recurrent hypoglycaemia investigated with a short Synacthen test to exclude adrenocortical insufficiency. 95 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus were studied. Addison's disease was identified as the cause of recurrent hypoglycaemia in one patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Addison's disease is a relatively rare but remedial cause of recurrent hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. A low threshold for investigating patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and recurrent hypoglycaemia to detect Addison's disease is therefore suggested. Addison's disease may present as recurrent hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 and it is recommended that diabetic patients with unexplained recurrent Continue reading >>

Schmidt Syndrome

Schmidt Syndrome

Schmidt syndrome refers to the combination of autoimmune adrenal insufficiency (Addison’s disease) with autoimmune hypothyroidism and/or type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and is part of a larger syndrome known as autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type II or polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type II (PAS II). The term Schmidt syndrome is sometimes used interchangeably with PAS II. PAS II is a polygenic disorder which may include autoimmune thyroid disease (hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism), T1DM, Addison’s disease, primary hypogonadism, and less commonly hypoparathyroidism or hypopituitarism. More common than other polyglandular autoimmune disorders[2]. Associated non-endocrine autoimmune conditions may be present including vitiligo, celiac disease, alopecia, pernicious anemia, myasthenia gravis, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, Sjogren’s syndrome, and rheumatoid arthritis. Schmidt Syndrome: 1:20,000 prevalence in general population with 3:1 ratio of females to males affected[7] Peak incidence: 3rd - 4th decade of life Familial clustering with multiple family members often affected Autosomal dominant inheritance with variable penetrance. Associated with certain HLA antigens HLA-DR3, HLA-DR4, non HLA gene M-ICA and CTLA-4[2][8]. Among patients with T1DM, < 1% of patients have Addison’s disease, whereas 2-5% have autoimmune thyroid disease (mainly hypothyroidism) and up to 5% have celiac disease[7]. Up to 33% may have thyroid autoantibodies and 12% have transglutaminase autoantibodies[5] Type 1 diabetes patients who developed autoimmune thyroid disease had an interval of 13.3 +/- 11.8 years between first and second endocrinopathies with variable interval seen in development of other autoimmune conditions[6]. Diagnosis of component disorders of PAS II is the sam Continue reading >>

Addison's Disease | Diabetes In Pets | Fandom Powered By Wikia

Addison's Disease | Diabetes In Pets | Fandom Powered By Wikia

Adrenal gland: cortisol or cortisone is produced by the outer, or cortex (shown at right) area. Addison's disease, also known as hypoadrenocorticism, is a chronic condition in which the adrenal glands [1] produce insufficient cortisol . It is the opposite of Cushing's disease . The adrenal glands produce two types of hormones; we're most familiar with the glucocortoid ones, such as cortisone . Cortisol and other hormonal levels rise during anger or fear, stress or injury. The term "getting one's adrenalin going" in response to these situations applies to the natural response a healthy body has to them. Those with faulty adrenal glands don't produce enough cortisol to allow the body to respond properly. The other adrenal hormones, known as mineralcorticoids, are what keeps the system in balance regarding proper amounts of salt, potassium [2] , and water in the body. Imbalances of these keys to life can have grave consequences also [3] . As in diabetes, the problem is not enough--not enough of the hormones the adrenal glands produce necessary for proper bodily function. Also like diabetes, Addison's is an endocrine disease, and its sufferers are at risk of developing neuropathy . The symptoms range from poor appetite, lethargy. weight loss, and can include shaking and/or shivering, polyuria [4] , hypoglycemia [5] diarrhea and vomiting. They are not always specific--many are similar to those of other diseases [6] . Untreated Addison's disease, like untreated diabetes, can be fatal. It is also like diabetes in the respect that the disease is often well-advanced by the time symptoms occur. It is possible to see no symptoms of Addison's disease until 90% of the adrenal cortex is no longer functioning [7] . Those with untreated Addison's disease are at risk for what's known a Continue reading >>

The Diabetes Mimic: A Primer On Addisons Disease Rare Disease Review

The Diabetes Mimic: A Primer On Addisons Disease Rare Disease Review

In 1849, Dr. Addison described a series of anemia cases across adult males who developed weakness, hyperpigmentation, and experienced severe weight loss.1-2 Upon performing autopsies of the patients post-mortem, all were found to have a diseased condition of the suprarenal capsules .1 At the time the functions of the supernal glands were almost or altogether unknown, making it difficult to deduce a cause of the disease.1 Adding to the confusion was the bizarre progression of the condition, where patients struggled to fix a date to his earliest feelingbefore it became so extreme.1 The disease, which would later be named Addisons Disease (AD), was believed to have resisted all remedial efforts, and sooner or later ended terminally.1 In 1950, adrenal cortical hormones were discovered by Edward Calvin Kendall, Tadeus Reichstein, and Philip Showalter Hench, a discovery that they would later be jointly be awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.3 Research on these hormones, which include the glucocorticoid cortisol and the mineralocorticoid aldosterone, would be foundational to our modern understanding of how cortisol and aldosterone deficiency that characterizes AD contributes to the manifestation of the common symptoms.4 While a number of risk factors like tuberculosis and primary hypothyroidism can contribute to the onset of AD, the leading cause of AD in the developed world is autoimmune adrenalitis.5 In autoimmune adrenalitis, we see the destruction of adrenocortical cells mediated by T lymphocytes, resulting in adrenocortical atrophy.5-6 AD remains subclinical until 90% of the adrenal glands have been destroyed, leading to symptoms of adrenal failure.6 As a result, the adrenal glands do not produce enough cortisol and sometimes also do not produce enough aldo Continue reading >>

Coexistence Of Addison's Disease And Diabetes Mellitus: Report Of Three Cases With A Discussion Of Metabolic Interrelationships

Coexistence Of Addison's Disease And Diabetes Mellitus: Report Of Three Cases With A Discussion Of Metabolic Interrelationships

COEXISTENCE OF ADDISON'S DISEASE AND DIABETES MELLITUS: REPORT OF THREE CASES WITH A DISCUSSION OF METABOLIC INTERRELATIONSHIPS Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School Ann Arbor, Michigan Search for other works by this author on: Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School Ann Arbor, Michigan Search for other works by this author on: Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School Ann Arbor, Michigan Search for other works by this author on: The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 19, Issue 7, 1 July 1959, Pages 797804, ROBERT D. GITTLER, STEFAN S. FAJANS, JEROME W. CONN; COEXISTENCE OF ADDISON'S DISEASE AND DIABETES MELLITUS: REPORT OF THREE CASES WITH A DISCUSSION OF METABOLIC INTERRELATIONSHIPS, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 19, Issue 7, 1 July 1959, Pages 797804, Three cases of co-existing diabetes mellitus and Addison's disease are reported. In 2, diabetes developed after adrenal insufficiency had existed for years. Only 15 cases with this sequence of onset of the 2 diseases have been reported previously. The effect of each disease upon the pathophysiology and course of the other is discussed. The usual sequence of onset is diabetes mellitus complicated later by adrenal insufficiency. In such instances there occurs a melioration of the diabetic state, followed by progressive deterioration of the patient unless appropriate treatment is given for adrenal insufficiency. With such treatment the diabetes returns to its former degree of intensity, but stabilization is facilitated. When Addison's disease is complicated s Continue reading >>

Type Diabetes Addison S Disease And Hypothyroidism | Diabetic Connect

Type Diabetes Addison S Disease And Hypothyroidism | Diabetic Connect

Hi. I know what you mean. In fact, i just looked at the section on this site about managing stress and those times when I feel like I'm exhausted from the constant monitoring everything and from all the crazy things that happen even when i know I'm doing as best I can. There's some good stuff here. I just stumbled across this site an hour ago and joined. Sometimes its lonely and i feel like I'm doing this all by myself. And I'm lucky..I have very supportive family and friends but they cant't fix this for me or even understand what it feels like. Even after all this time i need to remember to relax, breath and just assess this moment. Ask myself,Am i ok right now? Breathe. What should i do right now to help myself? Breathe. Just stay in the moment. My advice is eat lots of salty foods like they tell you. A long time ago, a doctor told me to never to pass a water fountain without drinking. Now i carry water with me all the time. Pickles are my favorite salt food or salty nuts. i seem to need salt more at night. I was diagnosed with Addison's 40 years ago last month, Hypothyroidism 26 years ago and diabetes I, 6 years ago. For the near constant dehydration i take Hydrofludrocortisone but only as needed. That works for me but some Addie's take it daily in combo with their other steroid. Take good care. God bless and keep you. Beth oh wow someone else, so nice to know there are others out there. I was diagnosed with addisons and hypo thyroidism at age 15 and T1D at 36 years after a major addisionian crisis. I have been struggling ever since having all three to try and find a balance and living stress free as a single parent is never going to happen. I am starting a new raw food /mostly vegan diet soon as I dont seem to suffer as many side effects and i dont get the tirednes Continue reading >>

Adrenal Insufficiency & Addison's Disease

Adrenal Insufficiency & Addison's Disease

Adrenal Insufficiency & Addison's Disease Adrenal Insufficiency & Addison's Disease Adrenal insufficiency is an endocrine, or hormonal, disorder that occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough of certain hormones. The adrenal glands are located just above the kidneys. Adrenal insufficiency can be primary or secondary. Addisons disease, the common term for primary adrenal insufficiency, occurs when the adrenal glands are damaged and cannot produce enough of the adrenal hormone cortisol. The adrenal hormone aldosterone may also be lacking. Addisons disease affects 110 to 144 of every 1 million people in developed countries.1 Secondary adrenal insufficiency occurs when the pituitary glanda pea-sized gland at the base of the brainfails to produce enough adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), a hormone that stimulates the adrenal glands to produce the hormone cortisol. If ACTH output is too low, cortisol production drops. Eventually, the adrenal glands can shrink due to lack of ACTH stimulation. Secondary adrenal insufficiency is much more common than Addisons disease. Adrenal hormones, such as cortisol and aldosterone, play key roles in the functioning of the human body, such as regulating blood pressure; metabolism, the way the body uses digested food for energy; and the bodys response to stress. In addition, the body uses the adrenal hormone dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to make androgens and estrogens, the male and female sex hormones. Cortisol belongs to the class of hormones called glucocorticoids, which affect almost every organ and tissue in the body. Cortisols most important job is to help the body respond to stress. Among its many tasks, cortisol helps maintain blood pressure and heart and blood vessel function slow the immune systems inflammatory responsehow the b Continue reading >>

The Prevalence Of Diabetes Mellitus In Patients With Addison's Disease: Measurements Of Serum Insulin Levels

The Prevalence Of Diabetes Mellitus In Patients With Addison's Disease: Measurements Of Serum Insulin Levels

Volume 16, Issue 3 , March 1967, Pages 213-221 The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients with Addison's disease: Measurements of serum insulin levels Author links open overlay panel ManuelTzagournis1 George J.Hamwi2 Get rights and content A review of the cninical records of 41 patients with Addison's disease was made with the purpose of determing the prevalence of diabetes mellitus. The diagnosis of diabetes mellitus was made in 17 per cent of the patients by the oral glucose tolerance test. The prevalence of diabetes associated with Addison's disease was higher than expected in view of the dichotomy of effects on carbohydrate metabolism in the 2 diseases alone. Serum insulin values obtained in 2 diabetic patients with Addison's disease resembled those noted in other adult-onset diabetics. Two of the diabetic patients showed elevated and delayed peaks in the insulin response to a glucose load. The insulin responses in the remaining nondiabetic patients were normal. The apparent increase in prevalence of diabetes mellitus in association with chronic adrenal insufficiency could be due to (1) excessive corticoid replacement therapy; (2) inadequate or discontinuous corticoid replacement causing increased ACTH secretion; (3) a viral infection afflicting both the adrenal cortex and the pancreatic islet cells; (4) auto-immune reactions involving both the adrenal and pancreatic glands; or (5) the prolonged survival of patients with Addison's disease. In view of these findings it is important to consider the coexistence of diabetes mellitus, thyroid abnormalities, and possible other endocrine disorders in patients with Addison's disease. Continue reading >>

Other Diseases That Are More Common In People With Type 1 Diabetes

Other Diseases That Are More Common In People With Type 1 Diabetes

Other Diseases That Are More Common in People With Type 1 Diabetes KidsHealth / For Parents / Other Diseases That Are More Common in People With Type 1 Diabetes Kids and teens with type 1 diabetes have a greater risk for other health problems, many of which also are autoimmune disorders. The diabeteshealth care team will watch kids for signs of these problems. But parents also should know what to look for so that they can alert doctors and get treatment, if necessary. In autoimmune disorders, the immune system attacks the body's healthy tissues as though they were foreign invaders. A severe attack can affect how that body part works. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. The pancreas can't make insulin because the immune system attacks it and destroys the cells that produce insulin. Kids and teens with type 1 diabetes are at risk for other autoimmune problems, but these aren't actually caused by the diabetes. Doctors still aren't exactly sure why autoimmune diseases happen. But genetics probably play an important role because relatives of people with type 1 diabetes are more likely to have autoimmune diseases. Most kids with type 1 diabetes never need treatment for any other autoimmune disorder. But those who do might develop: These disorders can develop before a child is diagnosed with type 1 diabetes or months or years after the diabetes diagnosis. Kids and teens with type 1 diabetes are more likely to get disorders affecting the thyroid. The thyroid, which is part of the endocrine system , makes hormones that help control metabolism and growth. These hormones play a role in bone development, puberty, and many other body functions. Thyroid disease is fairly common in people with type 1 diabetes, affecting 15% to 20% of them. In thyroid disease, the thyroid gland Continue reading >>

Recurrent Hypoglycaemia In Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus May Unravel The Association With Addisons Disease: A Case Report

Recurrent Hypoglycaemia In Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus May Unravel The Association With Addisons Disease: A Case Report

Recurrent hypoglycaemia in type-1 diabetes mellitus may unravel the association with Addisons disease: a case report Passanisi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.2014 Primary adrenocortical insufficiency or Addisons disease is caused by a progressive destruction of the adrenal cortex, resulting into a reduction of glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and androgens. Autoimmune Addisons disease is the most common etiological form, accounting for about 80% of all cases. We describe the case of a 16-year-old Caucasian boy affected by type-1 diabetes mellitus and autoimmune thyroiditis, who experienced recurrent hypoglycaemia as presenting symptom of Addisons disease. Hypoglycaemia is not a common presenting feature of Addisons disease, both in patients with type-1 diabetes mellitus and in non-diabetic patients. However, hypoglycaemia may occur in association with primary and secondary glucocorticoid deficiency as a result of an enhanced insulin sensitivity. Hypoglycaemia is the most common acute complication of insulin therapy in patients with type-1 diabetes mellitus. Addisons disease has been described in approximately 0.5% of patients with type-1 diabetes mellitus, being more frequent in females and occurring in middle-aged patients. An association among type-1 diabetes mellitus, autoimmune thyroiditis, and Addisons disease is found in the Schmidts syndrome, a rare disorder that may occur in the paediatric age. Our case suggests that the presence of Addisons disease should be taken into consideration in patients with type-1 diabetes mellitus and frequent episodes of hypoglycaemia. We wish to highlight that there are no specific indications to screen for the association between Addisons disease and type-1 diabetes mellitus, although an early diagnosis of Addisons diseas Continue reading >>

Addison's Disease With Type 1 Diabetes: Schmidt Syndrome

Addison's Disease With Type 1 Diabetes: Schmidt Syndrome

Editors Note:This content has been verified byMarina Basina, MD, a Clinical Associate Professor at Stanford University. Shes a clinical endocrinologist and researcher with a focus on diabetes management and diabetes technology. Dr. Basina is an active member of multiple medical advisory boards and community diabetes organizations, and she is on the Beyond Type 1 Science Advisory Council. The combination of Addisons disease and Type 1 diabetes is known as Schmidt syndrome, which is sometimes used interchangeably with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type II (APS II), is common. Although less than one percent of the population with Type 1 diabetes has Addisons disease, the risk of being diagnosed with Addisons disease is significantly higher in those with Type 1 diabetes as compared to the general population. Commonly, it affects people around 30-50 years old, and equally affects men and women. Addisons disease, sometimes called primary adrenal insufficiency, occurs when your adrenal glands do not produce enough of the hormone(s) cortisol and often aldosterone. In primary adrenal insufficiency, this happens because the adrenal glands are damaged from an autoimmune attack. These hormones are very important, and their jobs include controlling blood sugar levels (!), regulating metabolism, growing tissue, regulating mood, responding to stress, and helping to maintain blood pressure. In order to diagnose Addisons disease, your doctor will want to know about your medical history and symptoms listed above. They may also order lab tests for you. A blood test will measure your hormone and mineral levels, and a CT scan or MRI will look at the size of your adrenal glands, although this is not necessary for a diagnosis. Usually, Addisons disease is treated through prescription hor Continue reading >>

Diabetes & Addison's Disease

Diabetes & Addison's Disease

Diabetes Forum The Global Diabetes Community Find support, ask questions and share your experiences. Join the community No1DeadlyPoison Type 1 Well-Known Member Hey everyone, I have just been diagnosed with Addisons Disease, my consultant said that people with Type 1 Diabetes are prone to getting this along with Hypothyroidism. I am just wondering if anyone on here has Addisons Disease and how do you cope on a day-to-day basis? Sorry to hear about your diagnosis @No1DeadlyPoison I hope everything gets under control soon. No1DeadlyPoison Type 1 Well-Known Member I have send @Lesleywo a message (I hope she doesn't mind) I am sure the doctors will sort me out, Just takes a bit of time Addison's involves the adrenal glands whereas T1DM obviously involves the Islet cell in the pancreas. From what I remember Addison's is way less common. Hypothyroid involves yet another endocrine system, the thyroid and pituitary (which makes TSH, thyroid stim hormone). The pituitary does secrete hormones that stimulate the adrenals too (like ACTH). IMO you should consult with your endo about this before starting any drugs. They're the experts! No1DeadlyPoison Type 1 Well-Known Member Addison's involves the adrenal glands whereas T1DM obviously involves the Islet cell in the pancreas. From what I remember Addison's is way less common. Hypothyroid involves yet another endocrine system, the thyroid and pituitary (which makes TSH, thyroid stim hormone). The pituitary does secrete hormones that stimulate the adrenals too (like ACTH). IMO you should consult with your endo about this before starting any drugs. They're the experts! I have seen my consultant a few times and he is a Endocrinologist and Diabetes specialist, which is brilliant. He started me on some medication already and I have been o Continue reading >>

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