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How Many Australians Have Diabetes?

How Many Australians Have Diabetes?

An estimated 1.2 million (6%) Australian adults aged 18 years and over had diabetes in 2014–15, based on self-reported data, from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2014–15 National Health Survey. This includes people with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and type unknown but excludes gestational diabetes. Information based on self-reported data only is likely to underestimate the prevalence of diabetes as it cannot include people with undiagnosed diabetes. The ABS 2011–12 Australian Health Survey, which included both measured and self-report data showed that for every 4 adults with diagnosed diabetes, there was 1 who was undiagnosed. The prevalence of diabetes (based on self-reported data) has tripled between 1989–90 and 2014–15. The proportion of people with diabetes has increased from 1.5% to 4.7%. Age and sex In 2014–15, the prevalence of diabetes among adults (based on self-reported data): Was higher for men (7%) than women (5%). Increased rapidly up to age 75, with rates among 65–74 year-olds (17%) 3 times as high as for 45–54 year-olds (5%) and 1.4 times as high as for 55–64 year olds (12%) (Figure 1). Figure 1: Prevalence of diabetes, among persons aged 18 and over, by age and sex, 2014–15 Source: AIHW analysis of ABS Microdata: National Health Survey (NHS), 2014–15 (Data tables). In 2014–15, the prevalence of diabetes (based on self-reported data) among adults was similar by remoteness and varied by socioeconomic disadvantage (Figure 2). Proportions were: Similar between Major cities (6%), Inner regional (7%) and Outer regional and remote areas (7%). Around twice as high in the lowest socioeconomic group (10% and 7% for men and women, respectively) as those in the highest socioeconomic group (4% each for men and women). Figure 2: Continue reading >>

Australian Institute Of Health And Welfare 2016. Australia’s Health 2016. Australia’s Health Series No. 15. Cat. No. Aus 199. Canberra: Aihw.

Australian Institute Of Health And Welfare 2016. Australia’s Health 2016. Australia’s Health Series No. 15. Cat. No. Aus 199. Canberra: Aihw.

Australia’s health 2016 Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2016. Australia’s health 2016. Australia’s health series no. 15. Cat. no. AUS 199. Canberra: AIHW. A u st ra li a ’s h e a lt h 2 0 1 6 A u st ra li a ’s h e a lt h 2 0 1 6 3.7 Diabetes Diabetes is a chronic condition marked by high levels of glucose in the blood. It is caused either by the inability to produce insulin (a hormone made by the pancreas to control blood glucose levels), or by the body not being able to use insulin effectively, or both. The main types of diabetes are type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is a lifelong autoimmune disease that usually has onset in childhood and is believed to be caused by an interaction of genetic and environmental factors (see ‘Chapter 5.3 How healthy are Australia’s children?’). Type 2 diabetes, while involving a genetic component, is largely preventable by maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Modifiable risk factors that can lead to type 2 diabetes include insufficient physical activity, saturated fat intake, obesity, and tobacco smoking (see ‘Chapter 4 Determinants of health’). Gestational diabetes occurs when higher than normal blood glucose is diagnosed in pregnancy. Diabetes may result in a range of health complications, including heart disease, kidney disease, blindness and lower limb amputation. It is frequently associated with other chronic health conditions (comorbidities, see Glossary) such as cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease. How common is diabetes? • According to the ABS 2014–15 National Health Survey, an estimated 1.2 million (5.1%) people had diabetes, based on self-reported data (ABS 2015). The majority of these (8 Continue reading >>

Patient And Disease Characteristics Associated With The Presence Of Diabetes Mellitus In Adults With Chronic Pancreatitis In The United States

Patient And Disease Characteristics Associated With The Presence Of Diabetes Mellitus In Adults With Chronic Pancreatitis In The United States

Patient and Disease Characteristics Associated With the Presence of Diabetes Mellitus in Adults With Chronic Pancreatitis in the United States The American Journal of Gastroenterology volume 112, pages 14571465 (2017) Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common complication of chronic pancreatitis (CP). Past studies for DM risk factors in CP have been limited to single centers or highly focused on a single etiology such as alcoholic or hereditary disease. We studied risk factors for DM in a large population of patients with CP of all etiologies enrolled in the North American Pancreatitis 2 studies. Participants (1,171) with CP (n=383 with DM, n=788 without DM) were enrolled prospectively from 26 participating centers. Questionnaires were completed by patients and physicians in a cross-sectional assessment. Patient demographics and disease characteristics were compared for CP with DM vs. without DM. Logistic regression was performed to assess the variables associated with DM diagnosis in a multivariable model. Diabetics were more likely to be black (P=0.02), overweight, or obese (P<0.001), and with a family history of DM (P=0.0005). CP patients with DM were more likely to have pancreatic calcifications (63% vs. 54%, P=0.002), atrophy (44% vs. 32%, P<0.0001), and prior pancreas surgery (26.9% vs. 16.9%, P<0.0001). In multivariate logistic regression modeling, the strongest risk factors for DM were obesity (odds ratio (OR) 2.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9, 4.2) and exocrine insufficiency (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.8, 3.2). In this large multicenter cohort of patients with CP, exocrine insufficiency, calcifications, and pancreas surgery conveyed higher odds of having DM. However, the traditional type 2 DM risk factors of obesity and family history were similarly important in conveying Continue reading >>

4363.0 - National Health Survey: Users' Guide, 2014-15

4363.0 - National Health Survey: Users' Guide, 2014-15

Definition This topic refers primarily to those ever told by a doctor or nurse they have diabetes mellitus or high sugar levels in their blood or urine. All types reported were recorded for the item 'whether ever told by a doctor or nurse': Diabetes - type 1 Diabetes - type 2 Diabetes - gestational Diabetes - insipidus Diabetes - type unknown High sugar levels. More than one response was allowed. For respondents who reported they currently had any type of diabetes, their condition was assumed to be long-term (of six months or more duration), with the exception of gestational diabetes (which is assumed to be short-term) and high sugar levels (which has an additional question to determine whether it was long-term). Those reporting only diabetes insipidus were recorded as a current, long-term condition and coded under other endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases. References to diabetes refer to diabetes mellitus only. Estimates in all ABS publications exclude gestational diabetes and diabetes insipidus. Population Information was obtained for all persons in the 2014-15 NHS. Methodology Information about diabetes mellitus was first published in the National Health Survey: First Results, 2014-15 based on a sample of 19,259 people. Additional information relating to actions taken for diabetes mellitus was also published in Health Service Usage and Health related Actions, Australia, 2014-15. In the 2014-15 NHS, diabetes/high sugar level conditions are classified into one of the following condition status categories: Ever told has condition, still current and long-term Ever told has condition, not current Not known or not ever told, but condition current and long-term Respondents were asked: Whether they had ever been told by a doctor or nurse that they had diabetes and/ Continue reading >>

Health Performance Framework 2014 Report

Health Performance Framework 2014 Report

Why is it important? Diabetes is a long-term (chronic) condition in which blood glucose levels become too high because the body produces little or no insulin, or cannot use insulin properly. Over many years, high blood glucose levels can damage various parts of the body, especially the heart and blood vessels, eyes, kidneys and nerves, resulting in permanent disability, mental health problems, reduced quality of life and premature death (AIHW 2008a). High blood glucose levels can cause complications for both the mother and baby during pregnancy. Diabetes is responsible for 12% of the health gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians (Vos et al. 2007). Diabetes rates are higher among Indigenous Australians than non-Indigenous Australians in every socioeconomic status group (Cunningham 2010). There are several forms of diabetes. The most common form is Type 2, which accounted for 85% of all diabetes in Australia in 2011–12 (ABS 2012a). Type 2 diabetes is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. It is more common in people who are physically inactive, have a poor diet, and are overweight or obese (AIHW 2008a). Other factors such as heredity, low birthweight, intra-uterine factors and excessive alcohol consumption are also associated with increased risk. Type 1 diabetes, the most common form of diabetes in children, is generally thought to be rare among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples although misclassification problems with Type 2 diabetes make this difficult to ascertain (AIHW 2002). Findings The 2012–13 Health Survey included blood tests for measuring diabetes prevalence. In 2012–13, 11% of Indigenous Australians aged 18 years and over had diabetes. After adjusting for age diffe Continue reading >>

4364.0.55.002 - Health Service Usage And Health Related Actions, Australia, 2014-15

4364.0.55.002 - Health Service Usage And Health Related Actions, Australia, 2014-15

4364.0.55.002 - Health Service Usage and Health Related Actions, Australia, 2014-15 Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 27/03/2017 Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition in which insulin, a hormone that is essential for converting glucose into energy, is no longer produced or not produced in sufficient amounts by the body1. In 2014-15, 5.1% of the Australian population (1.2 million people) had some type of diabetes, an increase from 4.5% in 2011-12. More than half (55.4%) of people with diabetes had a parent or sibling who had also been told they have diabetes. Of all people with diabetes, 84.8% had consulted a GP in the last 12 months for their condition, 24.3% had consulted a specialist and 16.6% had consulted a diabetes educator. Proportionally, more people with diabetes had consulted a GP in the last 12 months for their condition than people with any of the other long-term health conditions published in this release (which ranged between 51.8% and 72.9%). Around 1 in 10 (9.1%) people with diabetes who were employed or studying/at school took time off work or study/school in the last 12 months due to their diabetes. A recommended test to determine whether a person's diabetes is being managed is the HbA1C test2. This measures the amount of glucose in the blood that binds to the haemoglobin present in red blood cells. In 2014-15, three-quarters (73.6%) of all people with diabetes had had an HbA1C test in the last 12 months. Regular testing of blood glucose levels is also an important part of managing diabetes. Of all people with diabetes, 41.4% reported testing their blood glucose levels every day, while a further 17.6% tested their blood glucose at least once a week. If poorly managed, diabetes can result in a range of complications, such as retinopat Continue reading >>

[1802.06476] Simultaneous Modeling Of Multiple Complications For Risk Profiling In Diabetes Care

[1802.06476] Simultaneous Modeling Of Multiple Complications For Risk Profiling In Diabetes Care

Authors: Bin Liu , Ying Li , Soumya Ghosh , Zhaonan Sun , Kenney Ng , Jianying Hu Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disease that often results inmultiple complications. Risk prediction and profiling of T2DM complications iscritical for healthcare professionals to design personalized treatment plansfor patients in diabetes care for improved outcomes. In this paper, we studythe risk of developing complications after the initial T2DM diagnosis fromlongitudinal patient records. We propose a novel multi-task learning approachto simultaneously model multiple complications where each task corresponds tothe risk modeling of one complication. Specifically, the proposed methodstrategically captures the relationships (1) between the risks of multiple T2DMcomplications, (2) between the different risk factors, and (3) between the riskfactor selection patterns. The method uses coefficient shrinkage to identify aninformative subset of risk factors from high-dimensional data, and uses ahierarchical Bayesian framework to allow domain knowledge to be incorporated aspriors. The proposed method is favorable for healthcare applications because inadditional to improved prediction performance, relationships among thedifferent risks and risk factors are also identified. Extensive experimentalresults on a large electronic medical claims database show that the proposedmethod outperforms state-of-the-art models by a significant margin.Furthermore, we show that the risk associations learned and the risk factorsidentified lead to meaningful clinical insights. Continue reading >>

An Error Occurred Setting Your User Cookie

An Error Occurred Setting Your User Cookie

An Error Occurred Setting Your User Cookie This site uses cookies to improve performance. If your browser does not accept cookies, you cannot view this site. There are many reasons why a cookie could not be set correctly. Below are the most common reasons: You have cookies disabled in your browser. You need to reset your browser to accept cookies or to ask you if you want to accept cookies. Your browser asks you whether you want to accept cookies and you declined. To accept cookies from this site, use the Back button and accept the cookie. Your browser does not support cookies. Try a different browser if you suspect this. The date on your computer is in the past. If your computer's clock shows a date before 1 Jan 1970, the browser will automatically forget the cookie. To fix this, set the correct time and date on your computer. You have installed an application that monitors or blocks cookies from being set. You must disable the application while logging in or check with your system administrator. This site uses cookies to improve performance by remembering that you are logged in when you go from page to page. To provide access without cookies would require the site to create a new session for every page you visit, which slows the system down to an unacceptable level. This site stores nothing other than an automatically generated session ID in the cookie; no other information is captured. In general, only the information that you provide, or the choices you make while visiting a web site, can be stored in a cookie. For example, the site cannot determine your email name unless you choose to type it. Allowing a website to create a cookie does not give that or any other site access to the rest of your computer, and only the site that created the cookie can read it. Continue reading >>

Type B Insulin Resistance Syndrome In A Hospitalized Patient With Diabetes Mellitus (dm), Responsive To Immune Therapy

Type B Insulin Resistance Syndrome In A Hospitalized Patient With Diabetes Mellitus (dm), Responsive To Immune Therapy

Type B Insulin Resistance Syndrome in a Hospitalized Patient with Diabetes Mellitus (DM), Responsive to Immune Therapy We describe the case of a 55-y We describe the case of a 55-year old African-American woman with vitiligo, hypothyroidism, interstitial lung disease (ILD), and type 2 DM, who developed severe insulin resistance (IR) due to anti-insulin receptor antibodies (Abs). The patient was admitted to the ICU for respiratory failure after cataract surgery. Prior to admission, her DM was under fair control (HbA1c 8.1%) on [sim]100 U/day of insulin. While in the hospital, when steroid treatment for ILD was discontinued, her insulin requirements increased dramatically. She remained hyperglycemic (serum glucose 300-500 mg/dl), despite intravenous insulin doses as high as 30,000 U/day (either regular or aspart). She was obese (BMI 41.7 kg/m2), and there was vitiligo, but not acanthosis nigricans on physical examination. When her BG was 406 mg/dl, the plasma C-peptide was 2.8 ng/ml and the serum insulin level was 49 [micro]U/mL, the latter measured with an assay specific for human insulin while the patient was on IV aspart. Anti-insulin, anti-GAD, and islet cell autoantibodies were negative but the anti-insulin receptor Abs were detected at a titer of 1:2 . The patient[apos]s insulin resistance was responsive to both glucocorticoids and plasmapheresis. When prednisone 60 mg/day was administered, her daily insulin requirements decreased to near her pre-admission doses. When steroids were subsequently tapered, glycemic control deteriorated once again. Plasmapharesis was then initiated, inducing a striking acute decline in insulin needs. Currently, on a maintenance dose of 10 mg prednisone/day, her glucose control is acceptable on 40 U NPH insulin BID. Type B IR syndrome is Continue reading >>

4364.0.55.001 - National Health Survey: First Results, 2014-15

4364.0.55.001 - National Health Survey: First Results, 2014-15

DIABETES MELLITUS Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition where insulin, a hormone that controls blood glucose levels, is no longer produced or not produced in sufficient amounts by the body. It significantly affects the health of many Australians and can result in a range of complications, including serious damage to the nerves and blood vessels. If left undiagnosed or poorly managed, diabetes can lead to coronary heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, limb amputations or blindness. Definitions In this publication, data on diabetes refers to persons who reported having been told by a doctor or nurse that they had diabetes, irrespective of whether the person considered their diabetes to be current or long-term. This definition was first used for estimates of diabetes in Australian Health Survey: Updated Results, 2011-12 (cat. no. 4364.0.55.003). Estimates of diabetes for all years in this publication are presented using this definition. In earlier publications, persons who had reported having diabetes but that it was not current were not included. Data excludes gestational diabetes. In 2014-15, 5.1% of the Australian population (1.2 million people) had some type of diabetes, an increase from 4.5% in 2011-12. One million people (4.4%) had Type 2 diabetes in 2014-15, up from 840,000 people (3.8%) in 2011-12. A further 158,900 people (0.7%) had Type 1 diabetes in 2014-15, up from 113,400 people in 2011-12 (0.5%). More males (5.7%) had diabetes than females (4.6%) in 2014-15, and, as with many health conditions, the rate of diabetes increased with age. Of people aged 75 years and over, almost one in five (18.4%) had diabetes in 2014-15. One of the main risk factors for developing Type 2 diabetes is being overweight or obese[1], as excess body weight can interfere with the Continue reading >>

Influence Of Insulin Therapy For Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus On Cancer Incidence.

Influence Of Insulin Therapy For Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus On Cancer Incidence.

e13036 Background: This study aimed to investigate the influence of insulin therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) on cancer development. Methods: We evaluated 4780 patients with T2D, treated at our institution, from 1994-2006, after excluding patients with 1) preexisting cancer or cancer within 1 year after T2D registration, 2) renal transplantation, and 3) follow-up period of < 5 years. The following information was collected from the patients’ electronic medical records: age; sex; registered date of T2D and cancer; last visit; use of metformin, insulin, and medications for microvascular complications; and start date of using insulin in the first year after cohort entrance. Insulin users were stratified according to insulin start date and complication as follows: < 3 months with (462 patients) or without complications (526 patients), ≥3 months with complications (852 patients) or without complications (1249 patients). The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated using the expected age-standardized incidence rate in Korea. The adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) of insulin was estimated for evaluation of all-year cancer risk and time interval of 3 years from cohort entrance. Results: SIR was > 1 in all cancer types except laryngeal and esophageal cancers. The median follow-up was 12 years (interquartile range: 9–15 years), and 679 events occurred. Insulin users had a significantly higher risk of all-time cancer. The patients with insulin use for ≥3 months without complications had a continuously increasing cancer risk 2–3, 4–6, 7–9, 10–12, and 13–15 years from cohort start (AHR [95% confidence interval {CI}]: 2.2 [0.91–5.3], P= 0.081; 2.39 [1.07–5.32], P= 0.0335; 1.98 [1.35–2.9], P= 0.0005; 2.41 [1.52–3.81], P= 0.0002; and 1.6 [0.6–2.83 Continue reading >>

Lipid Peroxidation Is Associated With Poor Control Of Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus - Sciencedirect

Lipid Peroxidation Is Associated With Poor Control Of Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus - Sciencedirect

Lipid peroxidation is associated with poor control of type-2 diabetes mellitus Author links open overlay panel Sameer HassanFatania Hyperglycemia increases oxidative stress through the overproduction of reactive oxygen species, which results in an imbalance between free radicals and the antioxidant defense system of the cells. A positive correlation was reported between lipid peroxide levels and diabetic complication. The aim of the present study was to investigate the state of oxidative stress in controlled and uncontrolled diabetic patients. One hundred thirty nine participants were included in this study, grouped as: Group-I: Healthy Control group of non-diabetic normal subjects, Group-II: Controlled type-2 DM group of subjects with type-2 DM and HbA1c8% and Group-III: Uncontrolled type-2 DM group of subjects with type-2 DM and HbA1c>8%. Fasting blood glucose, 2h postprandial glucose, MDA and HbA1c were quantified. The association between diabetic control and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) was evaluated. The mean HbA1c increased significantly in uncontrolled type-2 DM subjects compared to controlled type-2 DM group. Lipid peroxidation as expressed in MDA was significantly increased in uncontrolled type-2 DM group compared to controlled type-2 DM, both groups show significant elevation in this parameter compared to healthy subjects. There is a significant positive correlation between MDA and HbA1c in the studied subjects. The core problem during diabetes is poor glycemic control, which leads to protein glycation, lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress and nally varieties of complications. Periodic evaluation of lipid peroxidation products in diabetes mellitus is recommended as it could contribute to the early identication and management of oxidative stress. Continue reading >>

[ia-2 And Anti-gad Antibodies In Patients With Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes And Their First Degree Relatives].

[ia-2 And Anti-gad Antibodies In Patients With Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes And Their First Degree Relatives].

[IA-2 and anti-GAD antibodies in patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes and their first degree relatives]. Klinika Endokrynologii Akademia Medyczna w Biaymstoku. [email protected] Antibodies recognising different pancreatic autoantigens (Abs) are detected many years before the clinical onset of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). The humoral immune alterations, observed in the susceptible subjects, for example in first degree relatives of IDDM patients, could serve as predictive markers of IDDM development. It has recently been suggested that the predictive value of these humoral markers is associated with the number of the studied antibodies directed against different pancreatic antigens (ICA, GADA, IA-2,A IAA). The aim of the study was the estimation of the prevalence and titre of the antibodies directed against protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (IA-2) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) in patients with newly diagnosed diabetes type 1 and their first degree relatives. The investigations were carried out in 52 diabetics (aged 5-25 years) and 136 first degree relatives. IA-2A and GADA were performed by radiobinding assay (RIA) using 2 microliters of serum and recombinant S35-labelled GAD65 and IA-2 antigens. The threshold of Abs detection was > or = 97.5 centile (of healthy schoolchildren). At least one of the antibody marker was detected in 92.7% of newly diagnosed IDDM patients, slightly more frequently observed were GADA (78.8%) than IA-2A (71.2%). The presence of 2 types of antibodies was found in 8.7% of parents and 9.4% of the siblings. The results of our study confirm high sensitivity and specificity of the combined measurement of IA-2A and GADA in recognising of autoimmune alterations in diabetes type 1 development. Taking into conside Continue reading >>

Prevalence Of Diabetes Mellitus In 6050 Hypopituitary Patients With Adult-onset Gh Deficiency Before Gh Replacement: A Kims Analysis

Prevalence Of Diabetes Mellitus In 6050 Hypopituitary Patients With Adult-onset Gh Deficiency Before Gh Replacement: A Kims Analysis

Objective GH deficiency (GHD) in adults is characterized by a tendency toward obesity and an adverse body composition with visceral fat deposit and may thus predispose to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to assess the observed prevalence proportion (PP) and observed PP over expected PP ratio (standardized prevalence proportion ratio, SPR) of diabetes according to International Diabetes Federation criteria in a large cohort of GH-untreated adult-onset GHD patients. Design and methods Associations between baseline variables and diabetes prevalence in 6050 GHD patients from KIMS (Pfizer International Metabolic Database) were studied and robust Poisson-regression analyses were performed. Comparisons between baseline status and HbA1c categories in the nondiabetic patients were done with covariance analysis. P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results PP was 9.3% compared with the expected 8.2%. SPR was 1.13 (95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), 1.041.23), which was significantly increased in females (1.23; 95% CI, 1.091.38%) but not in males (SPR 1.04; 95% CI, 0.921.17%). PP increased significantly by age, familial diabetes, country selection, BMI, waist circumference, number of pituitary deficiencies, and GHD etiology. SPR decreased significantly by age and increased significantly by BMI, waist circumference, and IGF1 SDS. Multiple regression model showed that the most important impact on SPR was from age and BMI. HbA1c values of 6.06.5% were found in 9.5% of nondiabetic patients and were associated with higher BMI and waist circumference. Conclusions GHD is associated with an increased prevalence of diabetes, largely to be explained by the adverse body composition. These data urge toward early initiation of lifest Continue reading >>

Diagnosis Of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus In Adulthood – A Case Report

Diagnosis Of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus In Adulthood – A Case Report

A Caucasian woman, 55 years of age, was referred to a general practitioner (GP) after an optometry assessment revealed possible signs of diabetes. Her blood glucose, measured at a community pharmacy, was found to be 28.5 mmol/L. The patient was generally healthy and not on any regular medications. She had a hereditary solitary kidney but renal function had always been normal. On specific questioning, she reported a short history of polyuria and polydipsia. There was also history of intermittent epigastric and right upper quadrant abdominal pain over several years and, more recently, these pains were associated with meal times and so she had decreased her food intake. There was no unintended weight loss. An abdominal ultrasound, performed 2 months prior to investigate these symptoms, had revealed no biliary pathology. Routine blood tests collected at that time revealed a fasting glucose level of 6.3 mmol/L. An oral glucose tolerance test had not been performed. There was no family history of diabetes. At presentation, examination findings were normal. Blood pressure was 120/80 mmHg and heart rate was 80 beats per minute. Abdominal examination was unremarkable. She weighed 57 kg and was 158 cm tall (body mass index of 22.8 kg/m2). Clinically, there were no signs of dehydration. Neurological examination revealed decreased vibration sensation only in her first metatarsophalangeal joints bilaterally. Urinary ketones were negative, but glucose was moderately positive on urine dipstick analysis. Random blood glucose was 26.3 mmol/L, but blood ketones were not available. A diagnosis of diabetes mellitus was considered and the patient was sent for urgent investigations including fasting blood glucose, electrolytes, liver, kidney and thyroid function tests, and a coeliac disease Continue reading >>

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