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A1c Test Results

A1c Test

A1c Test

Print Overview The A1C test is a common blood test used to diagnose type 1 and type 2 diabetes and then to gauge how well you're managing your diabetes. The A1C test goes by many other names, including glycated hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, hemoglobin A1C and HbA1c. The A1C test result reflects your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. Specifically, the A1C test measures what percentage of your hemoglobin — a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen — is coated with sugar (glycated). The higher your A1C level, the poorer your blood sugar control and the higher your risk of diabetes complications. Why it's done An international committee of experts from the American Diabetes Association, the European Association for the Study of Diabetes and the International Diabetes Federation, recommend that the A1C test be the primary test used to diagnose prediabetes, type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. After a diabetes diagnosis, the A1C test is used to monitor your diabetes treatment plan. Since the A1C test measures your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months instead of your blood sugar level at a specific point in time, it is a better reflection of how well your diabetes treatment plan is working overall. Your doctor will likely use the A1C test when you're first diagnosed with diabetes. This also helps establish a baseline A1C level. The test may then need to be repeated while you're learning to control your blood sugar. Later, how often you need the A1C test depends on the type of diabetes you have, your treatment plan and how well you're managing your blood sugar. For example, the A1C test may be recommended: Once every year if you have prediabetes, which indicates a high risk of developing diabetes Twice a year if Continue reading >>

Feline Diabetes And A1c

Feline Diabetes And A1c

A Dried Blood Spot mail-in A1C (glycohemoglobin) test for canines and felines. Sold in 5 packs with everything you need to do the test. Including, prepaid postage on the 5 return envelopes. Purchase of the 5 pack also includes test results emailed, faxed or mailed via USPS depending on your preference. STEP 3: Once blood is dry, mail the test using the supplied pre-paid business reply envelope – typical delivery time is 3-5 business days. Tests may also be expedited via a third party shipping service (at veterinary’s expense). Samples are tested Monday through Friday from 9:00 AM – 5:00 PM (EST). Results are emailed or faxed to the contact information that was listed on the test form. For questions related to the status of a result, please email the code located on the bottom of the test to [email protected] About A1C (glycohemoglobin) Many pets have clinical and subclinical/transitional diabetes only identified by A1C. It is also called glycated hemoglobin or glycohemoglobin. Glycation is a non-enzymatic reaction between the carbonyl group and the N-terminal of lysine amino acid. This process leads to a Amadori compounds which undergo a series of oxidation, dehydration and fragmentation reactions which generates advanced glycation end products. This universal reaction occurs 24 hours a day 7 days a week in mammals and is the foundation for why A1C is an accurate and reliable test from people to mice and including cats and dogs. Since hemoglobins life span in felines is 70 days. You get a very accurate average glucose levels for this time due to the predictable and repeatable process of glycation. The same is true for canines. Except their red blood cells (hemoglobin) life span is 110 days giving an average glucose level via glycation (A1C) for this time p Continue reading >>

Hemoglobin A1c Test (hba1c)

Hemoglobin A1c Test (hba1c)

Hemoglobin A1c, often abbreviated HbA1c, is a form of hemoglobin (a blood pigment that carries oxygen) that is bound to glucose. The blood test for HbA1c level is routinely performed in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Blood HbA1c levels are reflective of how well diabetes is controlled. The normal range for level for hemoglobin A1c is less than 6%. HbA1c also is known as glycosylated, or glycated hemoglobin. HbA1c levels are reflective of blood glucose levels over the past six to eight weeks and do not reflect daily ups and downs of blood glucose. High HbA1c levels indicate poorer control of diabetes than levels in the normal range. HbA1c is typically measured to determine how well a type 1 or type 2 diabetes treatment plan (including medications, exercise, or dietary changes) is working. How Is Hemoglobin A1c Measured? The test for hemoglobin A1c depends on the chemical (electrical) charge on the molecule of HbA1c, which differs from the charges on the other components of hemoglobin. The molecule of HbA1c also differs in size from the other components. HbA1c may be separated by charge and size from the other hemoglobin A components in blood by a procedure called high pressure (or performance) liquid chromatography (HPLC). HPLC separates mixtures (for example, blood) into its various components by adding the mixtures to special liquids and passing them under pressure through columns filled with a material that separates the mixture into its different component molecules. HbA1c testing is done on a blood sample. Because HbA1c is not affected by short-term fluctuations in blood glucose concentrations, for example, due to meals, blood can be drawn for HbA1c testing without regard to when food was eaten. Fasting for the blood test is not necessary. What Are Continue reading >>

Hemoglobin A1c Testing: An Introduction

Hemoglobin A1c Testing: An Introduction

SHARE RATE★★★★★ Hemoglobin A1C testing (A1C) is the test used to measure your average blood glucose level over an extended period of time (2 to 3 months). It is used along with other blood glucose measurements, including random blood sugar testing, fasting blood sugar testing, and oral glucose tolerance testing, that provide a snapshot of your blood glucose at one point in time, to help determine whether your blood sugar is under control. The strength of A1C testing is that it is able to give a larger picture of how blood glucose levels change over days, weeks, and even months. How does A1C testing work? Hemoglobin is an important component of blood (it contains iron and gives blood its red color), responsible for transporting oxygen throughout the body. It is contained within red blood cells that have a lifespan of about 120 days.1 For the purposes of detecting elevated glucose levels and getting a picture of they change over time, hemoglobin A1C is useful because blood glucose tends to attach to hemoglobin. Normally, about 6% of hemoglobin has glucose attached. This combination of hemoglobin and glucose is called glycated hemoglobin or glycohemoglobin. There are different forms of glycohemoglobin, including A1A, A1B, and A1C. Of these, A1C is the most common, making up about two-thirds of glycohemoglobin.1 Advantages of A1C testing over glucose testing in diabetes No need for fasting Cost-effective and standardized test Shows blood glucose levels over time Indicator of future complications Reflects the course of diabetes and need for different levels of treatment How is an A1C test done? The A1C test is a blood test that your healthcare provider will perform. Someone at your doctor’s office or the clinic where you are having the test done will take a sampl Continue reading >>

Your A1c Levels – What Goal To Shoot For?

Your A1c Levels – What Goal To Shoot For?

Measuring Your A1C An A1C test gives you and your provider insight into all of your blood glucose ups and downs over the past two or three months. It’s like the 24/7 video of your blood sugar levels. Observing your A1C results and your blood glucose (also known as blood sugar) results together over time are two of the key tools you and your health care provider can use to monitor your progress and revise your therapy as needed over the years. Recent research is changing the way health professionals look at A1C levels. Instead of setting tight controls across the board, a healthy A1C level is now a moving target that depends on the patient. In the past, an A1C of 7 percent was considered a healthy goal for everyone. Yehuda Handelsman, M.D., medical director of the Metabolic Institute of America in Tarzana, California, says experts now recommend taking a patient-centered approach to managing A1C levels, which means evaluating goals based on individual diabetes management needs and personal and lifestyle preferences. Current ADA Goals The 2015 American Diabetes Association (ADA) Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes advise the following A1C levels: • 6.5 percent or less: This is a more stringent goal. Health care providers might suggest this for people who can achieve this goal without experiencing a lot of hypoglycemia episodes or other negative effects of having lower blood glucose levels. This may be people who have not had diabetes for many years (short duration); people with type 2 diabetes using lifestyle changes and/or a glucose-lowering medication that doesn’t cause hypoglycemia; younger adults with many years to live healthfully; and people with no significant heart and blood vessel disease. • 7 percent: This is a reasonable A1C goal for many adults with d Continue reading >>

The A1c Test And Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease

The A1c Test And Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease

Disclaimer: This article is for informational purposes only and is not intended to be a substitute for medical advice or diagnosis from a physician. In the United States, about 1 in 10 people have diabetes, a disease that affects the way the body produces or uses insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps regulate glucose (sugar) in the blood. When blood sugar levels get too high, health problems can develop, including kidney problems. In fact, about half of all people diagnosed with diabetes will develop kidney disease. Persistently high sugar levels can damage the small blood vessels in the body. In the kidneys, diabetes can also cause damage to the tiny filters called glomeruli that filter the blood. The result is that your kidneys may begin to leak protein into the urine, and can become unable to properly eliminate the water, salt and waste products from your body. Another complication of diabetes is nerve damage, often causing burning and numbness in the feet. However, it can sometimes also lead to trouble emptying the bladder. Pressure from a full bladder that doesn’t empty properly can further damage the kidneys. What is the A1C test? The A1C, or hemoglobin A1C test, is used to measure long-term blood glucose levels. It is typically given every three to six months to people with diabetes. This laboratory test shows the person’s average blood glucose control for the previous two to three months. It differs from the finger stick blood test that is used daily to monitor current blood sugar levels. For someone with diabetes, the goal is to have an A1C reading of less than 7.0 percent. For someone who is not diabetic, a normal A1C level is 4.0 percent to 5.9 percent. Research has shown that when A1C levels are close to normal, the risk for complications of diabetes Continue reading >>

The A1c Test & Diabetes

The A1c Test & Diabetes

What is the A1C test? The A1C test is a blood test that provides information about a person’s average levels of blood glucose, also called blood sugar, over the past 3 months. The A1C test is sometimes called the hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c, or glycohemoglobin test. The A1C test is the primary test used for diabetes management and diabetes research. How does the A1C test work? The A1C test is based on the attachment of glucose to hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. In the body, red blood cells are constantly forming and dying, but typically they live for about 3 months. Thus, the A1C test reflects the average of a person’s blood glucose levels over the past 3 months. The A1C test result is reported as a percentage. The higher the percentage, the higher a person’s blood glucose levels have been. A normal A1C level is below 5.7 percent. Can the A1C test be used to diagnose type 2 diabetes and prediabetes? Yes. In 2009, an international expert committee recommended the A1C test as one of the tests available to help diagnose type 2 diabetes and prediabetes.1 Previously, only the traditional blood glucose tests were used to diagnose diabetes and prediabetes. Because the A1C test does not require fasting and blood can be drawn for the test at any time of day, experts are hoping its convenience will allow more people to get tested—thus, decreasing the number of people with undiagnosed diabetes. However, some medical organizations continue to recommend using blood glucose tests for diagnosis. Why should a person be tested for diabetes? Testing is especially important because early in the disease diabetes has no symptoms. Although no test is perfect, the A1C and blood glucose tests are the best tools available to diagnose diabetes—a serious and li Continue reading >>

Ultimate Guide To The A1c Test: Everything You Need To Know

Ultimate Guide To The A1c Test: Everything You Need To Know

The A1C is a blood test that gives us an estimated average of what your blood sugar has been over the past 2-3 months. The A1c goes by several different names, such aswa Hemoglobin A1C, HbA1C, Hb1C, A1C, glycated hemoglobin, glycohemoglobin and estimated glucose average. What is Hemoglobin? Hemoglobin is a protein in your blood cells that carries oxygen. When sugar is in the blood, and it hangs around for a while, it starts to attach to the red blood cells. The A1C test is a measurement of how many red blood cells have sugar attached. So, if your A1C result is 7%, that means that 7% of your red blood cells have sugar attached to them. What are the Symptoms of a High A1C Test Level? Sometimes there are NO symptoms! That is probably one of the scariest things about diabetes, your sugar can be high for a while and you may not even know it. When your blood sugar goes high and stays high for longer periods of time you may notice the following: tired, low energy, particularly after meals feel very thirsty you may be peeing more than normal, waking a lot in the middle of the night to go dry, itchy skin unexplained weight loss crave sugar, hungrier than normal blurred vision, may feel like you need new glasses tingling in feet or hands cuts or sores take a long time to heal or don’t heal well at all frequent infections (urinary tract, yeast infections, etc.) When your blood sugar is high, this means the energy that you are giving your body isn’t getting into the cells. Think about a car that has a gas leak. You put gas in, but if the gas can’t get to the engine, the car will not go. When you eat, some of the food is broken down into sugar and goes into your bloodstream. If your body can’t get the sugar to the cells, then your body can’t “go.” Some of the sugar tha Continue reading >>

Hemoglobin A1c

Hemoglobin A1c

On This Site Tests: Glucose Tests; Urine Albumin; Urine Albumin/Creatinine Ratio; Fructosamine Conditions: Diabetes In the News: Screening, Diet and Exercise Key Factors in Task Force's New Diabetes Guidelines (2015), Task Force Updates Recommendations for Screening for Pre-Diabetes and Diabetes in Adults (2014), New Report Finds that Diabetes is on the Rise (2014) Elsewhere On The Web American Diabetes Association: Diabetes Basics American Diabetes Association: Risk Test American Association of Diabetes Educators Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Diabetes Public Health Resource National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse: Prevent diabetes problems - Keep your diabetes under control National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases: Diabetes A to Z National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program American Diabetes Association – DiabetesPro, estimated Average Glucose, eAG Ask a Laboratory Scientist Your questions will be answered by a laboratory scientist as part of a voluntary service provided by one of our partners, the American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science (ASCLS). Click on the Contact a Scientist button below to be re-directed to the ASCLS site to complete a request form. If your question relates to this web site and not to a specific lab test, please submit it via our Contact Us page instead. Thank you. Continue reading >>

Also Called: Glycohemoglobin, Hba1c, Hemoglobin A1c Test

Also Called: Glycohemoglobin, Hba1c, Hemoglobin A1c Test

A1C is a blood test for type 2 diabetes and prediabetes. It measures your average blood glucose, or blood sugar, level over the past 3 months. Doctors may use the A1C alone or in combination with other diabetes tests to make a diagnosis. They also use the A1C to see how well you are managing your diabetes. This test is different from the blood sugar checks that people with diabetes do every day. Your A1C test result is given in percentages. The higher the percentage, the higher your blood sugar levels have been: A normal A1C level is below 5.7 percent Prediabetes is between 5.7 to 6.4 percent. Having prediabetes is a risk factor for getting type 2 diabetes. People with prediabetes may need retests every year. Type 2 diabetes is above 6.5 percent If you have diabetes, you should have the A1C test at least twice a year. The A1C goal for many people with diabetes is below 7. It may be different for you. Ask what your goal should be. If your A1C result is too high, you may need to change your diabetes care plan. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not make or use insulin well. Insulin is a hormone that helps glucose get into your cells to give them energy. Without insulin, too much glucose stays in your blood. Over time, high blood glucose can lead to serious problems with your heart, eyes, kidneys, nerves, and gums and teeth. You have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes if you are older, have obesity, have a family history of diabetes, or do not exercise. Having prediabetes also increases your risk. Prediabetes means that your blood sugar is higher than normal but not high enough to be called diabetes. If you are Continue reading >>

A1c Diabetes Test & African Americans: Not As Accurate As You Think

A1c Diabetes Test & African Americans: Not As Accurate As You Think

The A1C test is the primary test used for diabetes diagnosis and management. However, it may not be the best test to use in African Americans—particularly those with sickle cell trait. What is the AIC? The A1C test—also called the hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c, or glycohemoglobin test—shows how much glucose is attached to hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. Typically, red blood cells live for about three months. So, the A1C test is reflective of your average blood glucose (blood sugar) level over the past three months. The A1C test is different from the blood glucose checks that you do every day—also known as self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). It is important to keep in mind that each blood glucose result from SMBG provides information for only one point in time. You and your doctor need to use both the AIC and SMBG results to get a complete picture of your blood glucose control. The higher your A1C number, the higher your blood glucose levels have been during the past three months. Elevated levels of blood glucose can harm your heart, blood vessels, kidneys, feet and eyes. A1C Test and African Americans There are racial differences that your doctor should consider when using the A1C test results. According to a study presented at the American Diabetes Association 76th Scientific Session, researchers found that glucose attaches to the red blood cell at a higher rate in African Americans than in Whites. For the same blood glucose level, the A1C was about 0.3 percent higher in African Americans than in Whites. In other words, for the same glucose level, an African American woman would have an A1C of 8 percent, but the White woman would have an A1C of only 7.7 percent. Join the conversation and share this story Moreover, the A1C test can b Continue reading >>

What Do Your A1c Test Results Really Mean?

What Do Your A1c Test Results Really Mean?

The hemoglobin A1c test, as we all know, is supposed to give a sense of your average blood glucose levels over the past three months. But here’s a question for you: have you ever tried to figure out what those average blood glucose levels actually are? Say you have an A1c of 6.5% — what, in mg/dl, does that translate to? Try searching Google — it’s hard to find an answer. To quote from a post I wrote a few years ago (see entry from 4:45), that’s partially because: “Not only is there no one standardized definition as to the correlation between A1c and mean glucose levels (JDRF says 1% = 24.4 mg/dl, ADA says 28.7), but different people have different correlations. For example, if you are a ‘high glycolator’ (more glucose sticks to your hemoglobin than the average) you can have a relatively high A1c but a low mean glucose. The speaker gave the example of a patient who had a 8.2% A1c, but a mean glucose of 159 mg/dl (he was speaking using the generally accepted idea that 7% roughly equals a mean of 154 mg/dl). Treat him more aggressively, and you’ll end up with hypos. And if you’re a ‘hypoglycolator,’ it’s the opposite.” Well, just this week, a new paper was published in the American Diabetes Association’s Diabetes Care journal that provides a more solid answer to this question than I’ve seen — even though, as I must warn you, personal variability (as described above) means there’s still no precise answer. In the study, researchers wanted to find out what your average blood sugar would have to be in three situations — fasting, after meals and before bed — in order to achieve a particular A1c. Here are their results: A1c test results of 5.5-6.49% were associated with an average fasting blood glucose level of 122 mg/dl. A1c test results Continue reading >>

The A1c Blood Sugar Test May Be Less Accurate In African-americans

The A1c Blood Sugar Test May Be Less Accurate In African-americans

A widely used blood test to measure blood-sugar trends can give imprecise results, depending on a person's race and other factors. This test means diabetes can sometimes be misdiagnosed or managed poorly. Doctors have been cautioned before that results from the A1C test don't have pinpoint accuracy. A study published Tuesday underscores that shortcoming as it applies to people who carry the sickle cell trait. Glucose levels in the blood rise and fall all the time, so it can be tricky to look at a single exam to diagnose diabetes or manage the disease in people who have it. But one test gets around this problem. The A1C test measures sugar that binds to hemoglobin molecules in red blood cells. It provides an average of blood sugar over the past three months, "so this has turned out to be an incredibly powerful test, both for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes," says Dr. Anthony Bleyer, a kidney specialist at the Wake Forest School of Medicine who was not involved in the study. The problem is that the test results can vary, depending on circumstance. For example, people with anemia may get inaccurate readings. So do people who carry unusual types of hemoglobin, the best known being sickle cell trait. Eight to 10 percent of African-Americans carry the sickle cell trait. But only people who inherit two copies of the sickle cell trait, one from each parent, develop the disease. And a few years ago, scientists realized that A1C readings for African-Americans typically don't match those from whites. They are generally higher. "The test was really standardized based on white individuals, and there were just a small number of African-American individuals in that study," Bleyer says. And while the difference isn't large, it can matter a lot, especially for people who are clo Continue reading >>

How Does The A1c Test Work?

How Does The A1c Test Work?

An A1C (glucose) test is a blood test that measures your average blood sugar levels over the past three months. The A1C test is sometimes called the hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c or glycohemoglobin test. The results of the A1C test can tell you how well you are controlling your diabetes. The test can also be used to diagnose diabetes and prediabetes. Find a CareNow® clinic near you Sugar attaches to hemoglobin in red blood cells, which carry oxygen to different parts of the body. Red blood cells typically live about three months. An abnormal A1C result means that you have had high blood sugar over a period of weeks to three months. How are A1C test results reported? Results are reported as a percentage. Here’s what A1C levels usually mean: Normal blood sugar levels (no diabetes): Less than 5.7 percent Prediabetes: 5.7 percent to 6.4 percent Diabetes: 6.5 percent or higher Your healthcare provider may report your results as eAG, or estimated average glucose. This number is reported in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl), which is the same number you would see on a blood glucose monitor. If you have anemia, kidney disease or certain blood disorders, your A1C test might give invalid results. Certain medicines can also make the results false. Before taking the test, talk to your healthcare provider about your health conditions and medications. What should you expect with an A1C test? The A1C test is a simple blood test. Blood can be drawn from a vein or the test can be done with a finger stick. You don’t need to do anything to prepare for the test. Fasting is not required. Most healthcare providers recommend people with diabetes get their A1C tested twice a year. If you are at increased risk for diabetes, ask a healthcare provider if you need an A1C test. Contact the nearest Care Continue reading >>

How To Lower Your A1c Levels: A Healthful Guide

How To Lower Your A1c Levels: A Healthful Guide

An A1C blood test measures average blood sugar levels over the past 2 to 3 months. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommend the use of A1C tests to help diagnose cases of prediabetes, type 1, and type 2 diabetes. A1C tests are also used to monitor diabetes treatment plans. What is an A1C test? An A1C test measures how well the body is maintaining blood glucose levels. To do this, an A1C test averages the percentage of sugar-bound hemoglobin in a blood sample. When glucose enters the blood, it binds to a red blood cell protein called hemoglobin. The higher blood glucose levels are, the more hemoglobin is bound. Red blood cells live for around 4 months, so A1C results reflect long-term blood glucose levels. A1C tests are done using blood obtained by a finger prick or blood draw. Physicians will usually repeat A1C tests before diagnosing diabetes. Initial A1C tests help physicians work out an individual's baseline A1C level for later comparison. How often A1C tests are required after diagnosis varies depending on the type of diabetes and management factors. Lowering A1C levels Many studies have shown that lowering A1C levels can help reduce the risk or intensity of diabetes complications. With type 1 diabetes, more controlled blood glucose levels are associated with reduced rates of disease progression. With type 2 diabetes, more controlled A1C levels have also been shown to reduce symptoms affecting the small arteries and nerves in the body. This influences eyesight and pain while decreasing complications. Long-term studies have also shown that early and intensive blood glucose control can reduce cardiovascular complications in people with type 1 or 2 diabetes. Even small changes in A1C levels can have big effects. The ADA recommend that maintaining fair control Continue reading >>

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