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A1c Test Results

Hemoglobin A1c; Hba1c; Glycosylated Hemoglobin; Glycohemoglobin; Glycated Hemoglobin

Hemoglobin A1c; Hba1c; Glycosylated Hemoglobin; Glycohemoglobin; Glycated Hemoglobin

A1C Does this test have other names? Hemoglobin A1c; HbA1c; glycosylated hemoglobin; glycohemoglobin; Glycated hemoglobin What is this test? A1C is a blood test that shows average blood sugar (glucose) levels over the last 3 months. The test is done to find out if a person has diabetes or prediabetes. It's also used to see how well a person with diabetes controls their blood sugar. The test can help guide diabetes treatment over time. Why do I need this test? You may need this test to check for prediabetes or diabetes. If you have diabetes or prediabetes, you may need this test to see how well you control your blood sugar. People with diabetes need to track their blood sugar (glucose) levels every day to make sure they aren’t too high or too low. The A1C test gives results for a longer period of time. It shows if your blood sugar has been too high on average over the last 3 months. Glucose sticks to hemoglobin in the blood. Hemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. When blood sugar is high, more glucose builds up and sticks to the hemoglobin. The A1C test measures how much of the hemoglobin is coated with sugar. You may have the test when a healthcare provider first works with you to treat your diabetes. You may then need to have the A1C test 2 or more times a year. This depends on the type of diabetes and how well it’s controlled. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) advises an A1C test at least 2 times a year if you are meeting your blood sugar goals. If you aren’t meeting your goals or your medicine has changed, you should have the A1C test more often. What other tests might I have along with this test? If your healthcare provider tests you for diabetes, you may also have any of these tests: Fasting plasma glucose blood test (FPG) Oral Continue reading >>

A1c Test

A1c Test

Print Overview The A1C test is a common blood test used to diagnose type 1 and type 2 diabetes and then to gauge how well you're managing your diabetes. The A1C test goes by many other names, including glycated hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, hemoglobin A1C and HbA1c. The A1C test result reflects your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. Specifically, the A1C test measures what percentage of your hemoglobin — a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen — is coated with sugar (glycated). The higher your A1C level, the poorer your blood sugar control and the higher your risk of diabetes complications. Why it's done An international committee of experts from the American Diabetes Association, the European Association for the Study of Diabetes and the International Diabetes Federation, recommend that the A1C test be the primary test used to diagnose prediabetes, type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. After a diabetes diagnosis, the A1C test is used to monitor your diabetes treatment plan. Since the A1C test measures your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months instead of your blood sugar level at a specific point in time, it is a better reflection of how well your diabetes treatment plan is working overall. Your doctor will likely use the A1C test when you're first diagnosed with diabetes. This also helps establish a baseline A1C level. The test may then need to be repeated while you're learning to control your blood sugar. Later, how often you need the A1C test depends on the type of diabetes you have, your treatment plan and how well you're managing your blood sugar. For example, the A1C test may be recommended: Once every year if you have prediabetes, which indicates a high risk of developing diabetes Twice a year if Continue reading >>

Why The A1c Test Is Important

Why The A1c Test Is Important

The A1c is a blood test, done in a lab, that shows what your average blood sugar has been for the past 3 months. Other names for this test are glycosylated hemoglobin, glycohemoglobin, hemoglobin A1c, and HbA1c. How the A1c Test Works The glucose that the body doesn't store or use for energy stays in the blood and attaches to red blood cells, which live in the bloodstream for about 4 months. The lab test measures the amount of glucose attached to the red blood cells. The amount is the A1c and is shown as a percentage. Your A1c number can give you and your health care team a good idea of how well you've controlled your blood sugar over the previous 2 to 3 months. When you get your A1c result from a Kaiser Permanente lab, you'll also see another number called the estimated Average Glucose, or eAG. Understanding the eAG Your estimated Average Glucose (eAG) number is calculated from the result of your A1c test. Like the A1c, the eAG shows what your average blood sugars have been over the previous 2 to 3 months. Instead of a percentage, the eAG is in the same units (mg/dl) as your blood glucose meter. The chart shows the relationship between the A1c percentage and the eAG. If A1c % is: Your eAG is: 6 126 6.5 140 7 154 7.5 169 8 183 8.5 197 9 212 9.5 226 10 240 10.5 255 11 269 11.5 283 12 298 What the Numbers Mean The A1c and eAG reflect your average blood sugar over a period of time. These numbers help you and your doctor see how well your treatment plan is working. The higher your A1c and eAG numbers are, the higher your chances for having long-term health problems caused by consistently high blood sugar levels. These problems include heart attacks, strokes, kidney failure, vision problems, and numbness in your legs or feet. The lower your A1c and eAG numbers, the lower you Continue reading >>

All About The Hemoglobin A1c Test

All About The Hemoglobin A1c Test

People with diabetes used to depend only on urine tests or daily finger sticks to measure their blood sugars. These tests are accurate, but only in the moment. As an overall measurement of blood sugar control, they’re very limited. This is because blood sugar can vary wildly depending on the time of day, activity levels, and even hormone changes. Some people may have high blood sugars at 3 a.m. and be totally unaware of it. Once A1C tests became available in the 1980s, they became an important tool in controlling diabetes. A1C tests measure average blood glucose over the past two to three months. So even if you have a high fasting blood sugar, your overall blood sugars may be normal, or vice versa. A normal fasting blood sugar may not eliminate the possibility of type 2 diabetes. This is why A1C tests are now being used for diagnosis and screening of prediabetes. Because it doesn’t require fasting, the test can be given as part of an overall blood screening. The A1C test is also known as the hemoglobin A1C test or HbA1C test. Other alternate names include the glycosylated hemoglobin test, glycohemoglobin test, and glycated hemoglobin test. A1C measures the amount of hemoglobin in the blood that has glucose attached to it. Hemoglobin is a protein found inside red blood cells that carries oxygen to the body. Hemoglobin cells are constantly dying and regenerating, but they have a lifespan of approximately three months. Glucose attaches, or glycates, to hemoglobin, so the record of how much glucose is attached to your hemoglobin also lasts for about three months. If there’s too much glucose attached to the hemoglobin cells, you’ll have a high A1C. If the amount of glucose is normal, your A1C will be normal. The test is effective because of the lifespan of the hemogl Continue reading >>

Hemoglobin A1c Test (hba1c)

Hemoglobin A1c Test (hba1c)

Hemoglobin A1c, often abbreviated HbA1c, is a form of hemoglobin (a blood pigment that carries oxygen) that is bound to glucose. The blood test for HbA1c level is routinely performed in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Blood HbA1c levels are reflective of how well diabetes is controlled. The normal range for level for hemoglobin A1c is less than 6%. HbA1c also is known as glycosylated, or glycated hemoglobin. HbA1c levels are reflective of blood glucose levels over the past six to eight weeks and do not reflect daily ups and downs of blood glucose. High HbA1c levels indicate poorer control of diabetes than levels in the normal range. HbA1c is typically measured to determine how well a type 1 or type 2 diabetes treatment plan (including medications, exercise, or dietary changes) is working. How Is Hemoglobin A1c Measured? The test for hemoglobin A1c depends on the chemical (electrical) charge on the molecule of HbA1c, which differs from the charges on the other components of hemoglobin. The molecule of HbA1c also differs in size from the other components. HbA1c may be separated by charge and size from the other hemoglobin A components in blood by a procedure called high pressure (or performance) liquid chromatography (HPLC). HPLC separates mixtures (for example, blood) into its various components by adding the mixtures to special liquids and passing them under pressure through columns filled with a material that separates the mixture into its different component molecules. HbA1c testing is done on a blood sample. Because HbA1c is not affected by short-term fluctuations in blood glucose concentrations, for example, due to meals, blood can be drawn for HbA1c testing without regard to when food was eaten. Fasting for the blood test is not necessary. What Are Continue reading >>

A1c Calculator*

A1c Calculator*

Average blood glucose and the A1C test Your A1C test result (also known as HbA1c or glycated hemoglobin) can be a good general gauge of your diabetes control, because it provides an average blood glucose level over the past few months. Unlike daily blood glucose test results, which are reported as mg/dL, A1C is reported as a percentage. This can make it difficult to understand the relationship between the two. For example, if you check blood glucose 100 times in a month, and your average result is 190 mg/dL this would lead to an A1C of approximately 8.2%, which is above the target of 7% or lower recommended by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) for many adults who are not pregnant. For some people, a tighter goal of 6.5% may be appropriate, and for others, a less stringent goal such as 8% may be better.1 Talk to your doctor about the right goal for you. GET YOURS FREE The calculation below is provided to illustrate the relationship between A1C and average blood glucose levels. This calculation is not meant to replace an actual lab A1C result, but to help you better understand the relationship between your test results and your A1C. Use this information to become more familiar with the relationship between average blood glucose levels and A1C—never as a basis for changing your disease management. See how average daily blood sugar may correlate to A1C levels.2 Enter your average blood sugar reading and click Calculate. *Please discuss this additional information with your healthcare provider to gain a better understanding of your overall diabetes management plan. The calculation should not be used to make therapy decisions or changes. What is A1C? Performed by your doctor during your regular visits, your A1C test measures your average blood sugar levels by taking a Continue reading >>

Diabetes: Your A1c Test

Diabetes: Your A1c Test

www.CardioSmart.org The hemoglobin A1c test is a simple blood test that checks howmuch sugar, or glucose, is stuck to your red blood cells. This test also is called the glycohemoglobin test or the A1c test. Most doctors think the A1c test is the best way to monitor your diabetes over the long term. What does your A1c result mean? Your test results tell you how well you have controlled your diabetes over the last 3 months. With this information, your doctor can adjust your medicine and diabetes treatment, if necessary. This test also gives you an idea of how likely you are to develop problems such as kidney failure, vision trouble, or numbness in your leg or foot. Keeping your A1c level in your target range can lower your chance for problems. The test result is usually given as a percentage. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends that most non-pregnant adults with diabetes have an A1c level less than 7%. If your A1c level is higher than your target A1c level, the ADA recommends that your doctor look at making changes in your diabetes treatment. To lower your A1c level, your blood sugar needs to be lower. In some people with diabetes, having blood sugar that is too low may cause problems. Your doctor can help you decide the best and safest A1c level. How often should you have your A1c tested? If you have diabetes, your doctor may order a test every 3 to 6months, depending on your type of diabetes and how well you control it. Generally, A1c is checked 2 to 4 times a year. Talk with your doctor about how often you should expect to have this test. If your levels have been good for several tests, you may not need the test as often. Do you need to fast before your A1c test? You do not need to fast before this test. You can have this test at any time during the day, Continue reading >>

What Is A Hemoglobin A1c Test?

What Is A Hemoglobin A1c Test?

What Is a Blood Test? A blood test is when a sample of blood is taken from the body to be tested in a lab. Doctors order blood tests to check things such as the levels of glucose, hemoglobin, or white blood cells. This can help them detect problems like a disease or medical condition. Sometimes, blood tests can help them see how well an organ (such as the liver or kidneys) is working. A hemoglobin A1c test measures how well controlled glucose levels have been for the last 3 months. Glucose is a type of sugar used by the body for energy. Glucose levels and hemoglobin A1c levels can be high if diabetes is not well controlled. Why Are Hemoglobin A1c Tests Done? When a child has diabetes, hemoglobin A1c levels are followed to see how well medicines are working. If a child with diabetes has a high hemoglobin A1c level, it may mean that medicines need to be adjusted. Sometimes a hemoglobin A1c test is done as part of a routine checkup to screen for problems. How Should We Prepare for a Hemoglobin A1c Test? Your child should be able to eat and drink normally unless also getting other tests that require fasting beforehand. Tell your doctor about any medicines your child takes because some drugs might affect the test results. Wearing a T-shirt or short-sleeved shirt for the test can make things easier for your child, and you also can bring along a toy or book as a distraction. How Is a Hemoglobin A1c Test Done? Most blood tests take a small amount of blood from a vein. To do that, a health professional will: clean the skin put an elastic band (tourniquet) above the area to get the veins to swell with blood insert a needle into a vein (usually in the arm inside of the elbow or on the back of the hand) pull the blood sample into a vial or syringe take off the elastic band and remo Continue reading >>

Hba1c Test Results Don't Tell The Full Story

Hba1c Test Results Don't Tell The Full Story

back to Overview When I was a teenager, the HbA1c test results cut straight through my lies and made-up paper logbook. It’s often viewed as the number to rule all numbers. But hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test results can be misleading and don’t tell the full story. As I learned in my teens, the HbA1c test shines a light on things I was trying to hide. Overall, It’s not good at getting to the details of blood sugars, but when used with other pieces of information it can draw attention to (sometimes unseen) problem areas in our diabetes management, and that’s a good thing. How do HbA1c test results work? Let’s take a quick look at the basics of the HbA1c test. A certain amount of sugar in your blood sticks to your red blood cells and can’t be unstuck. It’s there for the life of the cell, which is, on average, about 8-12 weeks. Those red blood cells in your body are constantly recycled, and by checking your HbA1c value every 8-12 weeks (or as often as recommended by your doctor – the ADA recommends at least twice a year), you get to see a fresh new grouping of them. So – A higher blood sugar for a longer time means more sugar on more cells – which means a higher HbA1c. Get it? Ideal HbA1c range HbA1c goals are very individual, which makes sense. We’re all different, right? Of course, there are reference values as a guide, and that’s a good place to start. The ADA suggests an HbA1c of 7%, but also say that “more or less stringent glycemic goals may be appropriate for each individual.” Why have different goals? Because, as you know, there’s a lot to consider with diabetes. Avoiding lows (hypoglycemia) while pushing for lower A1c’s is really important because low blood sugars are immediately dangerous. It’s simply not safe to push for a very low H Continue reading >>

Glycated Hemoglobin

Glycated Hemoglobin

Glycated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c, A1C, or Hb1c; sometimes also referred to as being Hb1c or HGBA1C) is a form of hemoglobin that is measured primarily to identify the three-month average plasma glucose concentration. The test is limited to a three-month average because the lifespan of a red blood cell is four months (120 days). However, since RBCs do not all undergo lysis at the same time, HbA1C is taken as a limited measure of 3 months. It is formed in a non-enzymatic glycation pathway by hemoglobin's exposure to plasma glucose. HbA1c is a measure of the beta-N-1-deoxy fructosyl component of hemoglobin.[1] The origin of the naming derives from Hemoglobin type A being separated on cation exchange chromatography. The first fraction to separate, probably considered to be pure Hemoglobin A, was designated HbA0, the following fractions were designated HbA1a, HbA1b, and HbA1c, respective of their order of elution. There have subsequently been many more sub fractions as separation techniques have improved.[2] Normal levels of glucose produce a normal amount of glycated hemoglobin. As the average amount of plasma glucose increases, the fraction of glycated hemoglobin increases in a predictable way. This serves as a marker for average blood glucose levels over the previous three months before the measurement as this is the lifespan of red blood cells. In diabetes mellitus, higher amounts of glycated hemoglobin, indicating poorer control of blood glucose levels, have been associated with cardiovascular disease, nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy. A trial on a group of patients with Type 1 diabetes found that monitoring by caregivers of HbA1c led to changes in diabetes treatment and improvement of metabolic control compared to monitoring only of blood or urine glu Continue reading >>

How To Lower Your A1c Levels: A Healthful Guide

How To Lower Your A1c Levels: A Healthful Guide

An A1C blood test measures average blood sugar levels over the past 2 to 3 months. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommend the use of A1C tests to help diagnose cases of prediabetes, type 1, and type 2 diabetes. A1C tests are also used to monitor diabetes treatment plans. What is an A1C test? An A1C test measures how well the body is maintaining blood glucose levels. To do this, an A1C test averages the percentage of sugar-bound hemoglobin in a blood sample. When glucose enters the blood, it binds to a red blood cell protein called hemoglobin. The higher blood glucose levels are, the more hemoglobin is bound. Red blood cells live for around 4 months, so A1C results reflect long-term blood glucose levels. A1C tests are done using blood obtained by a finger prick or blood draw. Physicians will usually repeat A1C tests before diagnosing diabetes. Initial A1C tests help physicians work out an individual's baseline A1C level for later comparison. How often A1C tests are required after diagnosis varies depending on the type of diabetes and management factors. Lowering A1C levels Many studies have shown that lowering A1C levels can help reduce the risk or intensity of diabetes complications. With type 1 diabetes, more controlled blood glucose levels are associated with reduced rates of disease progression. With type 2 diabetes, more controlled A1C levels have also been shown to reduce symptoms affecting the small arteries and nerves in the body. This influences eyesight and pain while decreasing complications. Long-term studies have also shown that early and intensive blood glucose control can reduce cardiovascular complications in people with type 1 or 2 diabetes. Even small changes in A1C levels can have big effects. The ADA recommend that maintaining fair control Continue reading >>

Hemoglobin A1c Testing: An Introduction

Hemoglobin A1c Testing: An Introduction

SHARE RATE★★★★★ Hemoglobin A1C testing (A1C) is the test used to measure your average blood glucose level over an extended period of time (2 to 3 months). It is used along with other blood glucose measurements, including random blood sugar testing, fasting blood sugar testing, and oral glucose tolerance testing, that provide a snapshot of your blood glucose at one point in time, to help determine whether your blood sugar is under control. The strength of A1C testing is that it is able to give a larger picture of how blood glucose levels change over days, weeks, and even months. How does A1C testing work? Hemoglobin is an important component of blood (it contains iron and gives blood its red color), responsible for transporting oxygen throughout the body. It is contained within red blood cells that have a lifespan of about 120 days.1 For the purposes of detecting elevated glucose levels and getting a picture of they change over time, hemoglobin A1C is useful because blood glucose tends to attach to hemoglobin. Normally, about 6% of hemoglobin has glucose attached. This combination of hemoglobin and glucose is called glycated hemoglobin or glycohemoglobin. There are different forms of glycohemoglobin, including A1A, A1B, and A1C. Of these, A1C is the most common, making up about two-thirds of glycohemoglobin.1 Advantages of A1C testing over glucose testing in diabetes No need for fasting Cost-effective and standardized test Shows blood glucose levels over time Indicator of future complications Reflects the course of diabetes and need for different levels of treatment How is an A1C test done? The A1C test is a blood test that your healthcare provider will perform. Someone at your doctor’s office or the clinic where you are having the test done will take a sampl Continue reading >>

The A1c Test & Diabetes

The A1c Test & Diabetes

What is the A1C test? The A1C test is a blood test that provides information about a person’s average levels of blood glucose, also called blood sugar, over the past 3 months. The A1C test is sometimes called the hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c, or glycohemoglobin test. The A1C test is the primary test used for diabetes management and diabetes research. How does the A1C test work? The A1C test is based on the attachment of glucose to hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. In the body, red blood cells are constantly forming and dying, but typically they live for about 3 months. Thus, the A1C test reflects the average of a person’s blood glucose levels over the past 3 months. The A1C test result is reported as a percentage. The higher the percentage, the higher a person’s blood glucose levels have been. A normal A1C level is below 5.7 percent. Can the A1C test be used to diagnose type 2 diabetes and prediabetes? Yes. In 2009, an international expert committee recommended the A1C test as one of the tests available to help diagnose type 2 diabetes and prediabetes.1 Previously, only the traditional blood glucose tests were used to diagnose diabetes and prediabetes. Because the A1C test does not require fasting and blood can be drawn for the test at any time of day, experts are hoping its convenience will allow more people to get tested—thus, decreasing the number of people with undiagnosed diabetes. However, some medical organizations continue to recommend using blood glucose tests for diagnosis. Why should a person be tested for diabetes? Testing is especially important because early in the disease diabetes has no symptoms. Although no test is perfect, the A1C and blood glucose tests are the best tools available to diagnose diabetes—a serious and li Continue reading >>

A1c Diabetes Test & African Americans: Not As Accurate As You Think

A1c Diabetes Test & African Americans: Not As Accurate As You Think

The A1C test is the primary test used for diabetes diagnosis and management. However, it may not be the best test to use in African Americans—particularly those with sickle cell trait. What is the AIC? The A1C test—also called the hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c, or glycohemoglobin test—shows how much glucose is attached to hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. Typically, red blood cells live for about three months. So, the A1C test is reflective of your average blood glucose (blood sugar) level over the past three months. The A1C test is different from the blood glucose checks that you do every day—also known as self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). It is important to keep in mind that each blood glucose result from SMBG provides information for only one point in time. You and your doctor need to use both the AIC and SMBG results to get a complete picture of your blood glucose control. The higher your A1C number, the higher your blood glucose levels have been during the past three months. Elevated levels of blood glucose can harm your heart, blood vessels, kidneys, feet and eyes. A1C Test and African Americans There are racial differences that your doctor should consider when using the A1C test results. According to a study presented at the American Diabetes Association 76th Scientific Session, researchers found that glucose attaches to the red blood cell at a higher rate in African Americans than in Whites. For the same blood glucose level, the A1C was about 0.3 percent higher in African Americans than in Whites. In other words, for the same glucose level, an African American woman would have an A1C of 8 percent, but the White woman would have an A1C of only 7.7 percent. Join the conversation and share this story Moreover, the A1C test can b Continue reading >>

Also Called: Glycohemoglobin, Hba1c, Hemoglobin A1c Test

Also Called: Glycohemoglobin, Hba1c, Hemoglobin A1c Test

A1C is a blood test for type 2 diabetes and prediabetes. It measures your average blood glucose, or blood sugar, level over the past 3 months. Doctors may use the A1C alone or in combination with other diabetes tests to make a diagnosis. They also use the A1C to see how well you are managing your diabetes. This test is different from the blood sugar checks that people with diabetes do every day. Your A1C test result is given in percentages. The higher the percentage, the higher your blood sugar levels have been: A normal A1C level is below 5.7 percent Prediabetes is between 5.7 to 6.4 percent. Having prediabetes is a risk factor for getting type 2 diabetes. People with prediabetes may need retests every year. Type 2 diabetes is above 6.5 percent If you have diabetes, you should have the A1C test at least twice a year. The A1C goal for many people with diabetes is below 7. It may be different for you. Ask what your goal should be. If your A1C result is too high, you may need to change your diabetes care plan. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not make or use insulin well. Insulin is a hormone that helps glucose get into your cells to give them energy. Without insulin, too much glucose stays in your blood. Over time, high blood glucose can lead to serious problems with your heart, eyes, kidneys, nerves, and gums and teeth. You have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes if you are older, have obesity, have a family history of diabetes, or do not exercise. Having prediabetes also increases your risk. Prediabetes means that your blood sugar is higher than normal but not high enough to be called diabetes. If you are Continue reading >>

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