diabetestalk.net

A1c Test Meter

What Is The A1c Test? How Does A1c Relate To Blood Glucose?

What Is The A1c Test? How Does A1c Relate To Blood Glucose?

Anyone with diabetes will be familiar with finger-prick testing for monitoring blood glucose to see how well they are managing their disease. This kind of regular testing is essential for most people with diabetes, but what role does an occasional hemoglobin A1C blood test play in controlling blood sugars, and how does it work? Contents of this article: What is the A1C test? The abbreviation A1C is used in the US (sometimes with a lower-case 'c' - A1c) and is short for glycated hemoglobin (sometimes called 'glycosylated' hemoglobin or glycohemoglobin). The other abbreviations in use are: HbA1c (widely used internationally) HbA1c Hb1c HgbA1C. The A1C test is a blood test used to measure the average level of glucose in the blood over the last two to three months. This test is used to check how well blood sugar levels are being controlled in a person with diabetes and can also be used in the diagnosis of diabetes.1 Hemoglobin is the protein in red blood cells which is responsible for transporting oxygen around the body. When blood glucose levels are elevated, some of the glucose binds to hemoglobin and, as red blood cells typically have a lifespan of 120 days, A1C (glycated hemoglobin) is a useful test because it offers an indication of longer term blood glucose levels.2 The particular type of hemoglobin that glucose attaches to is hemoglobin A, and the combined result is call glycated hemoglobin. As blood glucose levels rise, more glycated hemoglobin forms, and it persists for the lifespan of red blood cells, about four months.2 Therefore, the A1C level directly correlates to the average blood glucose level over the previous 8-12 weeks; A1C is a reliable test that has been refined and standardized using clinical trial data.3 There are two key things to know about the appl Continue reading >>

Study: A1c Now Test Is Crap And So Are Many Doctor Office A1c Tests

Study: A1c Now Test Is Crap And So Are Many Doctor Office A1c Tests

A study published in the January issue of the journal, Clinical Chemistry put eight brands of A1c test kits, including the A1c Now test sold in pharmacies and online, through rigorous testing. The other kits were the ones marketed to doctors for use in their offices. You can read an abstract of this study here: Six of Eight Hemoglobin A1c Point-of-Care Instruments Do Not Meet the General Accepted Analytical Performance Criteria. Erna Lenters-Westra1, and Robbert J. Slingerland. Clinical Chemistry 56: 44-52, 2010. First published November 19, 2009; 10.1373/clinchem.2009.130641 The study concluded only two of the eight kits produced clinically valid results. What is most telling, though, is that the study reports: Because of disappointing EP-10 results, 2 of the 8 manufacturers decided not to continue the evaluation. Their test kits were removed from the study after they completed only one of three CLSI protocols that were planned. CLSI stands for "Clinical and Lab Standards Institute." Since four of the six kits that remained in the study ended up with unacceptable results, but must have had good enough results after the first protocol to encourage their manufacturers to keep them in the study, one can only conclude that the kits removed from the study did abysmally. Which meters were withdrawn from the study after they did very poorly at the first level of testing? A1c Now and Quo-test. Of the six remaining kits that completed all three laboratory test protocols, Only the Afinion and the DCA Vantage met the acceptance criteria of having a total CV <3% in the clinically relevant range. The CV is the "Coeeficient of variation." It is the statistic that represents the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean. It's a measure of how widely scattered data is. The larger it Continue reading >>

Evaluation Of An Over-the-counter Glycated Hemoglobin (a1c) Test Kit

Evaluation Of An Over-the-counter Glycated Hemoglobin (a1c) Test Kit

Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) monitoring is an integral component of diabetes management. This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the A1CNow® SELFCHECK device when used by lay users and health care professionals (HCPs) to measure A1C. Subjects performed two A1CNow SELFCHECK finger-stick self-tests followed by a finger-stick test of the subject’s blood by a HCP. The primary endpoint assessed accuracy of the subject and HCP A1CNow SELFCHECK readings. Secondary endpoints included precision, comprehension of instructional material (written material ± DVD), and product satisfaction. For accuracy comparison, a venous blood sample was drawn from each subject and tested by laboratory (TOSOH) analysis. Subject comprehension of product instructional material was evaluated via first-time failure (FTF) rate as recorded by the HCP, and subject satisfaction was assessed through written survey. A total of 110 subjects with (n = 93) and without (n = 17) diabetes participated. Of 177 subject A1C values, 165 (93.2%) were within the acceptable range of ±13.5% of the laboratory reference value and considered accurate. Regression analysis showed good correlation of subject values to laboratory and HCP results (R2 = 0.93 for both). The average within-subject coefficient of variation was 4.57% (n = 74). The FTF rates with and without instructional DVD were 11.3% (n = 56) and 39.6% (n = 54), respectively. Subjects with diabetes/prediabetes overwhelmingly indicated that they were “very” to “extremely” likely (93.5%) to discuss their home A1C results with their HCP. Lay users found the A1CNow SELFCHECK easy to use, and both lay users and HCPs were able to measure A1C accurately. Keywords: A1CNow, diabetes, glycated hemoglobin A1c, in vitro diagnostic for home use, over-t Continue reading >>

A1cnow®+ System

A1cnow®+ System

Lab Quality Results at the Point-of-Care The A1CNow+ system provides healthcare professionals with a fast and easy way of obtaining accurate A1C results with just a fingerstick. This innovative technology enables clinicians to communicate face-to-face with patients about their diabetes control in minutes, not days. In addition, the A1CNow+ system is fully reimbursable. More Efficient than the Lab Portable - use in multiple exam rooms Easy to use - minimal training required Certifications​ FDA-cleared CE References: 1. PTS Diagnostics A1CNow+ System Professional Procedure Guide PN 91078 Rev. B. March 2014. 2. Relative to TOSOH certified reference method. PTS Diagnostics A1CNow+ System Preliminary Performance Data, May 30, 2014. Data on file. 3. Exhibits a linear dynamic range and precision that meets current NGSP standards. PTS Diagnostics A1CNow+ System Preliminary Performance Data, May 30, 2014. Data on file. 4. Excellent Precision of 2.15% CV and 4.3% CV at the Normal (5.7% HbA1c) and High (8.9% HbA1c) ends of the spectrum. PTS Diagnostics A1CNow+ System Preliminary Performance Data, May 30, 2014. Data on file. Complimentary Whitepaper Download Point-of-Care Alternatives to A1C Testing ​Ease-of-use point-of-care medical devices provide an advantage in measuring HbA1c in situations where clinical laboratory analyzers are unavailable to provide physicians with real-time information to better manage diabetes. The purpose of this whitepaper is to help healthcare professionals understand the viability of portable, point-of-care A1C monitors. What you will learn from this whitepaper: How point-of-care devices are viable alternatives to sending blood to laboratory testing Point-of-care A1C device accuracy evaluations relative to three clinical laboratory HbA1c analyzers Continue reading >>

Testing Your Blood Glucose

Testing Your Blood Glucose

Testing your blood glucose, also known as Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG), is a method of checking how much glucose (sugar) is in the blood using a glucose meter -- anywhere, anytime. Here, you'll learn some basics about: Blood sugar targets for adults How your doctor tests your blood The importance of self-testing When to test and what to look for How to share results with your doctor Blood glucose targets for non-pregnant adults* Before meal After meal 80-120 mg/dL Less than 180 mg/dL How your doctor tests your blood -- the A1C test† Your doctor uses what is called an A1C (Glycosylated Hemoglobin) test to see what your average blood glucose level has been over the last two to three months. Used for both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes, it gives you and your doctor an indication on how well you are responding to your treatment regimen, and if any adjustments are necessary. The goal is to keep your level below seven percent (7%).* The A1C test is sometimes referred to as the hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c or glycohemoglobin test. The connection between A1C and average blood sugar levels.† Your A1C test result will not show the daily effects of food choices and your activity. A blood glucose meter is the best way to observe and track the immediate effects of food choices and activity on your blood glucose levels. This allows you to take immediate action to bring your glucose levels within range if needed. Your doctor will also rely upon your blood glucose meter results to assess and adjust your treatment regimen. When to test and what to look for – a practical guide Use this simple chart to remind you when to test and what to observe to help you manage your blood glucose level on a daily basis. When to test What to look for First thing in the morning, before you eat How Continue reading >>

Asknadia: What’s The Science Behind The A1c Test

Asknadia: What’s The Science Behind The A1c Test

Dear Nadia, What’s the science behind the A1C test ? My husband is a type 2 diabetic and recently received his A1C results which was 9 percent. What is considered a good A1C range? RAS Dear RAS, The A1C sometimes referred to as the Hemoglobin A1C, glycosylated hemoglobin, glycated Hemoglobin and HbA1C measures your husband’s average glucose from 60 to 90 days. When your husband tests his blood sugars with a blood glucose meter, this only tells him what his glucose level is at that moment in time. It does not accurately reflect the highs and lows he experiences nor does it reflect the direction his glucose could be trending. Blood cells form and die within a 90 day period. The A1C test records the memory in the red blood cells, giving us an average reading that correlates with a percentage. People that don’t have diabetes have an average A1C of 4 to 6%. A 9 percent A1C means your husband’s blood sugars are averaging around 212 milligrams per deciliter and millimoles per liter Sometimes you can get a false A1C high if you have anemia, an iron deficiency or a blood transfusion. The percentage can also vary depending on where you get your A1C tested. It’s best to use the same lab. The American Diabetes Association recommends taking your A1C test twice a year. Their target A1C is 7 percent. The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) feel that this number is not aggressive enough because it means the average blood sugar is running around 154 milligrams per deciliter and millimoles per liter. They recommend an A1C of 6.5 percent or less which gives you an average blood sugar above 126 milligrams per deciliter and millimoles per liter. Your husband’s A1C reading will play a significant role in preventing diabetes complications. Maintaining a lower Continue reading >>

A1c Calculator*

A1c Calculator*

Average blood glucose and the A1C test Your A1C test result (also known as HbA1c or glycated hemoglobin) can be a good general gauge of your diabetes control, because it provides an average blood glucose level over the past few months. Unlike daily blood glucose test results, which are reported as mg/dL, A1C is reported as a percentage. This can make it difficult to understand the relationship between the two. For example, if you check blood glucose 100 times in a month, and your average result is 190 mg/dL this would lead to an A1C of approximately 8.2%, which is above the target of 7% or lower recommended by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) for many adults who are not pregnant. For some people, a tighter goal of 6.5% may be appropriate, and for others, a less stringent goal such as 8% may be better.1 Talk to your doctor about the right goal for you. GET YOURS FREE The calculation below is provided to illustrate the relationship between A1C and average blood glucose levels. This calculation is not meant to replace an actual lab A1C result, but to help you better understand the relationship between your test results and your A1C. Use this information to become more familiar with the relationship between average blood glucose levels and A1C—never as a basis for changing your disease management. See how average daily blood sugar may correlate to A1C levels.2 Enter your average blood sugar reading and click Calculate. *Please discuss this additional information with your healthcare provider to gain a better understanding of your overall diabetes management plan. The calculation should not be used to make therapy decisions or changes. What is A1C? Performed by your doctor during your regular visits, your A1C test measures your average blood sugar levels by taking a Continue reading >>

Why Doesn't My Average Blood Glucose Match My A1c?!

Why Doesn't My Average Blood Glucose Match My A1c?!

Want to learn more about A1C? Download our Guide to A1C here! So, for most people, BGmeter average doesntaccuratelyreflect average blood glucose over a full 24 hours.A1C, on the other hand, does. If you want your BG meter average to better reflect your A1C values, check more often! And make sure you check at various times throughout the day, including 1-3 hours after eating. 2. The Average BG to A1C conversionequation is not perfect Most (if not all) average BG to A1C conversiontables and calculators use the below equation to estimate A1C: Average BG (mg/dL) = 28.7 X A1C (%) 46.7 This equation is based on data froma 2008 study of over 500 subjects (268 T1Ds, 159 T2Ds, and 80 non-diabetics)at 10 internationalcenters aroundthe world. The A1C values were all measured in a central laboratory, sodifferences in laboratory method or technique were not a factor. People were studied for 12 weeks, with two days of CGM and three days of 7-point glucose profiles each week. The BG meters used were carefully standardized and calibrated. The graph below shows the data used to derive the relationship between average glucose and A1C. As you can see, there is A LOTofscatter. A number ofdata points are offthe trend line by 1%. And for some A1C values,the spread is enormous Check out the range ofA1Cs for people with an average glucose of ~110 mg/dL it goesfrom below 4% to almost 9%! So, importantly, the study concluded that the equation could be used to convertA1C toaverage blood glucose values for most patients. Notallpatients, just most. Results of a study of 507 subjects. Published in Diabetes Care 31:1473-1478, 2008 . OK But whydo so many people have A1C values that dont follow the equation? As it turns out, the biological processesthat dictate A1C arenot exactly the same for everyone Continue reading >>

A1c Home Test Kits For Diabetes

A1c Home Test Kits For Diabetes

Hemoglobin A1C tests are used to screen for and diagnose prediabetes and diabetes. A1C home test kits are a good option if you want to testyour A1C at home in between visits to your doctor, whether you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes. An A1C test gives a picture of how well your diabetes treatment is working by showing your average blood sugar level for the past two or three months. This can be very helpful in your diabetes management plan. All A1C home test kits allow you to provide a small blood sample, about the same as your glucose meter ,in the convenience of your home. Depending on the type of kit you purchase, you either get immediate results at home or you send the sample to a lab for analysis. Home A1C tests are not approved for diagnosing diabetes. You need to see a doctor for a diagnosis. There are factors that will affect the accuracy of A1C tests, so discuss this with your doctor to ensure you know whether they're appropriate for you. A1C results are affected by hemoglobin variants (such as sickle cell), anemia, transfusion, blood loss, pregnancy, and rheumatoid factor. Portable consumer options for immediate results at home are now available at major retailers, with both name brand and house brand versions. A1CNow SELF CHECK was the original FDA-approved brand from Bayer Healthcare. PTS Diagnostics purchased the A1CNow business in 2014 and markets it under the original name, plus they license it for store brand devices. Walmart sells it as ReliOn Fast A1C Test and Walgreens and CVS as At Home A1C Test Kit. This technology received FDA approval and allows you to learn your A1C number in five minutes. It's similar in appearance to your daily glucose meter, but you don't use it on a continual basis. You purchase this A1C meter in a two-test kit. Once you have Continue reading >>

What Do My A1c Test Results Mean?

What Do My A1c Test Results Mean?

By: Mandy Jones, Contributor, living with diabetes If youve had a healthcare appointment lately, you may have heard your healthcare provider mention your A1C level. So, whats that mean, exactly? A1C gives an estimate of your average blood sugar for the past three months. While your meter gives you an in-the-moment picture, this test gives a long-term overview. Specifically, it works by measuring how much sugar is attached to your red blood cells.2 A1C can be measured using a drop of blood from your fingertip, or a blood draw. This test is one of the standard recommended ways to diagnose diabetes, and is usually tested every 3-6 months. Most insurance companies cover at least two tests per year if you get your test done through your healthcare provider; you can also buy an at-home test kit from your local drugstore.3 When looking at your lab results, look for Hemoglobin A1C or HbA1c (sometimes it is also called glycated hemoglobin).4 According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA) Standards of Care, an A1C greater than 6.4% indicates diabetes.1 An A1C between 5.7% and 6.4% indicates an increased risk of developing diabetes, or prediabetes as your healthcare provider may say.1 Having a high A1C could mean that youve had high blood sugars for the past three months. Having high blood sugars over an extended period of time deteriorates blood vessels and nerves. This damage to blood vessels and nervescan put you at risk for heart attacks and strokes, damage to organs like the kidneys, reduced energy, and slower healing from infections.2 The ADA says that for people with diabetes (who arent pregnant) who are managing blood sugars with oral medications or insulin, a reasonable goal is to have an A1C of less than 7%.1Some healthcare providers may suggest a higher or lower Continue reading >>

Home A1c Testing Vs. The Lab

Home A1c Testing Vs. The Lab

So it was time again for my A1C and other blood tests last week. Over-time, in fact. You know how I hate going in to the lab when I have to be fasting for lipid tests and can't even have a latte on the way over in the morning. Ugh! And who ever said diabetics don't mind needles?! Anyway, I'd been saving the review unit A1c Now SelfCheck pack I got from Bayer a few weeks ago for just this occasion. What better way to test the accuracy of home a A1C testing kit? I don't mind admitting I had very little faith in the thing. My endo had some of these in her office last year, and we tried them several times. The results were always differed wildly from the A1C I got at the hospital lab. She thought her packs might be too old, although the date on the box seemed OK. So after dragging my behind to the hospital that day, and then enjoying a lovely post-needle cafe breakfast with my husband, I went home and snipped the seal on my A1C Now pack. Inside were all the trimmings for two tests, along with a lot of documentation and a mini-CD that's supposed to explain how to use it — which I didn't watch of course. I figured I'd be representative of the "average patient" who is too lazy to watch the CD. (Not to mention that I have ZERO patience myself and ripped right into the thing without thinking ;) ) Lucky for me, the little fold-out Reference Guide with photos did the trick. It told me what to open first, how to prick my finger for the blood (not more than a usual BG test!), and what to open only "AFTER blood collection!" And I must have done it right, because wouldn't you know, I got 6.3 on the Bayer test, and a 6.4 reported back from the hospital lab. Pretty impressive! (Yes, for those science guys but also for me -- under 6.5, Baby!) So I got to experience the "5-minute home A Continue reading >>

Hba1c Test Kits: Home A1c Testing Kits

Hba1c Test Kits: Home A1c Testing Kits

Tweet Home HbA1c testing kits allow you the chance to get a good idea of your HbA1c level. This can be useful in between getting scheduled HbA1c tests from your doctor. Note that home HbA1c tests should not be used as a substitute for the tests from your doctor and should be not be used in place of an official diagnosis. How home HbA1c test kits work Home HbA1c tests can often be carried out within a relatively short space of time. Most home HbA1c tests require a sample of blood from the finger which is then applied to a solution. The solution usually requires a small bit of processing, which can vary depending on the kit. The solution may require one or more of the following: shaking, heating or letting to stand. The solution is then applied to a reagent. The result may be given in different ways depending on the kit. Some kits provide a numeric result, others may provide a yes or no answer as to whether the HbA1c value is above or below a certain number. Make sure you read the instructions through carefully before beginning. Tweet Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that results in hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels) due to the body: Being ineffective at using the insulin it has produced; also known as insulin resistance and/or Being unable to produce enough insulin Type 2 diabetes is characterised by the body being unable to metabolise glucose (a simple sugar). This leads to high levels of blood glucose which over time may damage the organs of the body. From this, it can be understood that for someone with diabetes something that is food for ordinary people can become a sort of metabolic poison. This is why people with diabetes are advised to avoid sources of dietary sugar. The good news is for very many people with type 2 diabetes this is all they Continue reading >>

Check Your A1c At Home

Check Your A1c At Home

Wouldn’t it be wonderful if it were as easy to check your A1C level at home as it is to check your blood glucose! It is the A1C, of course, that best measures the control we have over our diabetes. Testing A1C 19 Times It actually can be that easy. You may know that recently several home A1C test kits and meters have become available. You may, however, wonder how accurate they are. That was my concern. Therefore, I offered up 19 drops of blood for A1C testing during a recent three-month period. These 19 A1C tests compared an A1C meter, an A1C test kit, and one of the country’s largest laboratories. My meters Web page at “A1C Meters and Kits” describes and links three meters and three test kits. However, only one of the meters, Metrika Inc.’s A1cNow, is currently marketed for home use. Two of the test kits—the Accu-Base Hemoglobin A1C Sample Collection Kit marketed by Diabetes Technologies Inc. (DTI) and the SimpleChoice A1C, which at that time marketed by SpectRx—are the same. SpectRx licensed the DTI kit. The two other test kits—BioSafe Collection Kit marketed by BioSafe Laboratories Inc. and the A1C At Home collection kit marketed by FlexSite Diagnostics Inc.—use a filter paper process. I did not evaluate these two kits, because their laboratories didn't pass the rigorous requirements of the National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program (NGSP). ”Neither FlexSite nor BioSafe are currently NGSP certified,” writes Randie Little, network coordinator of the National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program. “I would only recommend a lab that is either using a certified method or is a certified lab. However, most certified labs are clinical trial laboratories. ” The National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program, located at the University of Mi Continue reading >>

How To Calculate Your A1c

How To Calculate Your A1c

The Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c or simply A1c for short) test is a blood test used to measure the average blood glucose concentration in your body in the past 1-3 months. For diabetics, this is the standard way of determining how well the diabetes is controlled. An A1c of less than 7% is considered good. Getting the test every 3 months (usually during a doctor visit) is usually enough. But sometimes you may want to just estimate your A1c level based on the data from your regular self-tests. The formula below could help in this case. Accuracy, of course, could vary depending on how often and when you check your blood sugar. I found it pretty accurate last time I used it. My calculation was off only by 0.1%. This is the same formula GlucoseTracker uses in the app's dashboard. Glucose in mg/dL: A1c = (46.7 + average_blood_glucose) / 28.7 Glucose in mmol/L: A1c = (2.59 + average_blood_glucose) / 1.59 So, for example, if your average blood glucose level in the past 3 months is 130 mg/dL (7.2 mmol/L) , your estimated A1c is 6.15%. There are also cheaper devices you can buy that will allow you to do the actual A1c tests yourself, like this one. If you need to do these tests more often, say every month, then it could save you money in the long run as lab tests could get expensive. It may not be as accurate as the lab tests, but my guess is it's probably good enough. Continue reading >>

At Home A1c Testing Systems & Kits: Review

At Home A1c Testing Systems & Kits: Review

The A1C, a Glycated hemoglobin, is a form of hemoglobin that is measured primarily to identify the three-month average blood glucose concentration. The A1C test is limited to a three-month average because the lifespan of a red blood cell is only four months. In other words, it’s the indication of your blood sugar level for a three-month period. Typically, your doctor will test your A1C levels every 90 to 180 days depending on how well your blood sugar levels have been managed. In basic terms, the A1C test checks to see how much glucose is attaching to your red blood cells. You can work to keep your A1C within your target range using a recommended diabetes management regimen along with a well-managed diet, exercise routine and other healthy lifestyle . Normal a1C Prediabetes a1C Diabetic a1c Under 5.7 5.7 to 6.4 6.5 and above A1C Test Features and Pricing While most hospital conducted A1C tests cost around $86 per test (depending on your co-pay), you can now buy the A1C self-check home kit for around $40. Each kit includes one test with two strips, but you can buy a double test kit as well. The kits are not reusable so once you use your two lancets, you must buy another kit. Use Most people use this test every 30 days instead of waiting 90 days to be seen by the doctor. This helps patients have a more accurate reading on where their levels fall throughout the month. Insurance Coverage Most insurances will cover 1 or 2 tests per year and some hospitals will have a sample take-home A1C test that you can ask for. However, not all hospitals do so you may still need to buy over the counter kits depending on how many results a year you want to have or how many your doctor requires. Pros and Cons of Home Testing The A1C at home kit needs four large drops of blood which is eas Continue reading >>

More in diabetes