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A1c Range For Type 1 Diabetes

Your A1c Levels – What Goal To Shoot For?

Your A1c Levels – What Goal To Shoot For?

Measuring Your A1C An A1C test gives you and your provider insight into all of your blood glucose ups and downs over the past two or three months. It’s like the 24/7 video of your blood sugar levels. Observing your A1C results and your blood glucose (also known as blood sugar) results together over time are two of the key tools you and your health care provider can use to monitor your progress and revise your therapy as needed over the years. Recent research is changing the way health professionals look at A1C levels. Instead of setting tight controls across the board, a healthy A1C level is now a moving target that depends on the patient. In the past, an A1C of 7 percent was considered a healthy goal for everyone. Yehuda Handelsman, M.D., medical director of the Metabolic Institute of America in Tarzana, California, says experts now recommend taking a patient-centered approach to managing A1C levels, which means evaluating goals based on individual diabetes management needs and personal and lifestyle preferences. Current ADA Goals The 2015 American Diabetes Association (ADA) Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes advise the following A1C levels: • 6.5 percent or less: This is a more stringent goal. Health care providers might suggest this for people who can achieve this goal without experiencing a lot of hypoglycemia episodes or other negative effects of having lower blood glucose levels. This may be people who have not had diabetes for many years (short duration); people with type 2 diabetes using lifestyle changes and/or a glucose-lowering medication that doesn’t cause hypoglycemia; younger adults with many years to live healthfully; and people with no significant heart and blood vessel disease. • 7 percent: This is a reasonable A1C goal for many adults with d Continue reading >>

Tests And Diagnosis For Type 1 Diabetes

Tests And Diagnosis For Type 1 Diabetes

Video of the Day Blood Sugar Levels Test A commonly used diagnostic test for diabetes is called the two-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). After eight hours of fasting, a blood sample is drawn and tested for blood sugar levels. Then the patient quickly drinks a high-sugar drink (within five minutes). A blood sample is drawn after two hours, and if the sugar level is abnormally high (particularly, when their fasting blood sugar level was normal), the patient is diagnosed with diabetes because there was not enough insulin in the blood to adequately transport sugar from the blood into the cells of the body. Specifically, diabetes is diagnosed if either the fasting blood sugar is ≥126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L) or the two-hour blood sugar is ≥200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L). It is important to keep in mind that blood sugar levels can fluctuate not only due to what the patient eats or drinks, but also by exercise habits, illness and the emotions of the patient just before taking the test. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) Test The HbA1c level is the second blood test used in the diagnosis of diabetes (see table below). The American Diabetes Association (ADA) defined values above 6.5 percent to be diagnostic of diabetes. However, diabetes may still be present with normal HbA1c values. Hemoglobin is the protein found in the red blood cells that carry oxygen to various parts of the body. The hemoglobin molecule has a secondary property that is used to monitor long-term sugar levels. If the blood sugar level is high, sugar attaches to the hemoglobin and remains there for the life of the red blood cell (approximately three months). The HbA1c test reflects how often the blood sugars have been high over the past three months. Approximately half of the HbA1c value reflects sugar levels for the past Continue reading >>

Test Id: Hba1c Hemoglobin A1c, Blood

Test Id: Hba1c Hemoglobin A1c, Blood

Evaluating the long-term control of blood glucose concentrations in diabetic patients Diagnosing diabetes Identifying patients at increased risk for diabetes (prediabetes) Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder associated with disturbances in carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism characterized by hyperglycemia. It is one of the most prevalent diseases, affecting approximately 24 million individuals in the United States. Long-term treatment of the disease emphasizes control of blood glucose levels to prevent the acute complications of ketosis and hyperglycemia. In addition, long-term complications such as retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, and cardiovascular disease can be minimized if blood glucose levels are effectively controlled. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is a result of the nonenzymatic attachment of a hexose molecule to the N-terminal amino acid of the hemoglobin molecule. The attachment of the hexose molecule occurs continually over the entire life span of the erythrocyte and is dependent on blood glucose concentration and the duration of exposure of the erythrocyte to blood glucose. Therefore, the HbA1c level reflects the mean glucose concentration over the previous period (approximately 8-12 weeks, depending on the individual) and provides a much better indication of long-term glycemic control than blood and urinary glucose determinations. Diabetic patients with very high blood concentrations of glucose have from 2 to 3 times more HbA1c than normal individuals. Diagnosis of diabetes includes 1 of the following: -Fasting plasma glucose > or =126 mg/dL -Symptoms of hyperglycemia and random plasma glucose >or =200 mg/dL -Two-hour glucose > or =200 mg/dL during oral glucose tolerance test unless there is unequivocal hyperglycemia, confirmatory testing should be Continue reading >>

T1d And Pregnancy: A Firsthand Account

T1d And Pregnancy: A Firsthand Account

For women with type 1 diabetes (T1D), becoming pregnant and having a healthy pregnancy raise many questions. But planning a pregnancy or adjusting to pregnant life as a person with T1D doesn’t have to be stressful. We asked Gina Capone, JDRF’s community manager for TypeOneNation and first-time mother with T1D, to share her pregnancy story with us. Gina was diagnosed with T1D at the age of 25, and has been living with the disease for 12 years. She recently gave birth to a healthy son. What were your initial thoughts of being pregnant AND having T1D? I was reading a lot of blogs about people with T1D that were or had already been pregnant and honestly, they scared me. So I stopped reading ANYTHING related to diabetes and pregnancy and decided to just live it out for myself. There were times in the early stages of pregnancy when I was extremely scared because of my higher A1c level at conception, combined with my age (36). I was afraid that it would affect the baby, but after a couple of sonograms and blood tests, my mind was put at ease. I also had a serious bout of morning sickness in the first trimester which was nerve wrenching because it was causing a bunch of scary lows all day long and I wasn’t able to keep anything in my stomach until I was put on an anti-nausea medicine. I couldn’t even eat a glucose tab! Did you have to take any planning steps when getting pregnant? Were there any issues you had to be aware of as a person with T1D? The main thing my doctors kept telling me when I first started asking about becoming pregnant was to get my A1c into “baby range,” which to them meant 6.5 or lower and to me seemed impossible! I first started my journey for the perfect “baby range” A1c shortly after I was married—but I failed at it miserably. No matte Continue reading >>

Pardon Our Interruption...

Pardon Our Interruption...

As you were browsing something about your browser made us think you were a bot. There are a few reasons this might happen: You're a power user moving through this website with super-human speed. You've disabled JavaScript in your web browser. A third-party browser plugin, such as Ghostery or NoScript, is preventing JavaScript from running. Additional information is available in this support article. After completing the CAPTCHA below, you will immediately regain access to Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Whether you have type 1 diabetes, are a caregiver or loved one of a person with type 1 diabetes, or just want to learn more, the following page provides an overview of type 1 diabetes. New to type 1 diabetes? Check out "Starting Point: Type 1 Diabetes Basics," which answers some of the basic questions about type 1 diabetes: what is type 1 diabetes, what are its symptoms, how is it treated, and many more! Want to learn a bit more? See our “Helpful Links” page below, which provides links to diaTribe articles focused on type 1 diabetes. These pages provide helpful tips for living with type 1 diabetes, our patient-perspective column by Adam Brown, drug and device overviews, information about diabetes complications, and some extra pages we hope you’ll find useful! Starting Point: Type 1 Diabetes Basics What is the risk of developing type 1 diabetes if it runs in my family? What is Type 1 Diabetes? Type 1 diabetes is disease in which the body can no longer produce insulin. Insulin is normally needed to convert sugar (also called glucose) and other food sources into energy for the body’s cells. It is believed that in people with type 1 diabetes, the body’s own immune system attacks and kills the beta cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. Without insulin, the body cannot control blood sugar, and people can suffer from dangerously high blood sugar levels (called hyperglycemia). To control their blood glucose levels, people with type 1 diabetes take insulin injections. Before the discovery of insulin, type 1 diabetes was a death sentence (and it still is for patients with poor access to insulin). Can Type 1 Diabetes Be Prevented? Unfortunately, the genetic and environmental triggers for the immune attack that causes type 1 diabetes are not well understood, althoug Continue reading >>

€¢ Feeling Very Thirsty

€¢ Feeling Very Thirsty

w How do you get checked for diabetes? The A1C test is a blood test that provides information about a person’s average levels of blood glucose, also called blood sugar, over a period of three months. The A1C test is sometimes called the hemoglobin A1C or glycohemoglobin test. The A1C is the primary test for diabetes management. If your health care provider determines that your blood glucose level is very high, or if you have some of the classic symptoms of diabetes, he or she may choose to check your blood glucose levels. Be sure to let your provider know if you have any of these signs or symptoms: • Urinating often • Feeling very hungry—even though you are eating • Weight loss—even though you are eating more than normal (type 1 diabetes) • Blurry vision • Tingling, pain or numbness in the hands/feet (type 2 diabetes) • Feeling very tired much of the time • Cuts/bruises that are slow to heal What are the risk factors that increase the likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes? More than 29 million adults in the U.S. have diabetes and 25% of them do not know it. Several factors can increase your risk for diabetes, including: • Being overweight or obese • Having a parent, brother or sister with diabetes • Having a prior history of gestational diabetes or birth of at least one baby weighing more than nine pounds • Having high blood pressure measuring 140/90 or higher • Having abnormal cholesterol with an HDL (“goodâ€) cholesterol of 35 or lower or triglyceride levels of 250 or higher • Being physically inactive—exercising fewer than three times a week People with diabetes either do not make enough insulin (type 1 diabetes) or their bodies cannot use insulin pro Continue reading >>

Guide To Hba1c

Guide To Hba1c

Tweet HbA1c is a term commonly used in relation to diabetes. This guide explains what HbA1c is, how it differs from blood glucose levels and how it's used for diagnosing diabetes. What is HbA1c? The term HbA1c refers to glycated haemoglobin. It develops when haemoglobin, a protein within red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout your body, joins with glucose in the blood, becoming 'glycated'. By measuring glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), clinicians are able to get an overall picture of what our average blood sugar levels have been over a period of weeks/months. For people with diabetes this is important as the higher the HbA1c, the greater the risk of developing diabetes-related complications. HbA1c is also referred to as haemoglobin A1c or simply A1c. HbA1c refers to glycated haemoglobin (A1c), which identifies average plasma glucose concentration. How does HBA1c return an accurate average measurement of average blood glucose? When the body processes sugar, glucose in the bloodstream naturally attaches to haemoglobin. The amount of glucose that combines with this protein is directly proportional to the total amount of sugar that is in your system at that time. Tweet Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that results in hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels) due to the body: Being ineffective at using the insulin it has produced; also known as insulin resistance and/or Being unable to produce enough insulin Type 2 diabetes is characterised by the body being unable to metabolise glucose (a simple sugar). This leads to high levels of blood glucose which over time may damage the organs of the body. From this, it can be understood that for someone with diabetes something that is food for ordinary people can become a sort of metabolic poison. This is why peop Continue reading >>

Tighter Blood Glucose Targets For People With Type 1 Diabetes

Tighter Blood Glucose Targets For People With Type 1 Diabetes

Nearly 400,000 adults in the UK are affected by type 1 diabetes, and around 27,000 children and young people have either type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Currently, most adults with type 1 diabetes are not maintaining the level of glucose in the blood. This means they are at increased risk of a range of complications over time such as blindness, kidney failure, heart disease and foot problems that can lead to amputation. NICE has published a suite of guidance which together aims to prevent these risks from occurring through new recommendations on blood sugar targets and insulin replacement therapy. The guidance covers type 1 diabetes in adults, type 1 and type 2 diabetes in children and young people, and diabetic foot care. Lower HbA1c target for type 1 diabetes The treatment of diabetes relies on blood sugar control, and type 1 diabetes is typically diagnosed and managed with a HbA1c test. The test provides average blood glucose levels over the past two to three months. Most adults with type 1 diabetes currently have HbA1c scores that are above target levels. This means that they are at increased risk of long-term potentially life-threatening complications. To tackle this, updated guidelines recommend supporting adults with type 1 diabetes to aim for a target HbA1c level of 48 mmol/mol (6.5%) or lower. All adults with type 1 diabetes should be offered a structured education programme of proven benefit. These programmes can provide people with the skills needed to manage their condition, such as estimating carbohydrates in meals and injecting correct doses of insulin. Examples include the DAFNE (dose-adjustment for normal eating) programme, which is a collaborative of diabetes services from NHS Trusts and Health Boards across the UK and Southern Ireland. In addition, all adul Continue reading >>

Understanding Your Average Blood Sugar

Understanding Your Average Blood Sugar

A1c is an average of all your blood sugars. It does not tell you your blood sugar patterns. Use it only as yet another indicator of how well you’re doing. Glysolated Hemoglobin (or A1c) is a measure of your average blood glucose control over the previous three months. Glucose attaches to hemoglobin the oxygen carrying molecule in red blood cells. The glucose-hemoglobin unit is called glycosolated hemoglobin. As red blood cells live an average of three months, the glycosolated hemoglobin reflects the sugar exposure to the cells over that time. The higher the amount of glucose in the blood, the higher the percentage of hemoglobin molecules that will have glucose attached. Think of the A1c as a long-term blood glucose measure that changes very gradually as red blood cells die and are replaced by new cells. The A1c doesn’t replace self blood-glucose monitoring. Because the A1c is an average of all your blood sugars, it does not tell you your blood sugar patterns. For example, one person with frequent highs and lows can have the same A1c as another person with very stable blood sugars that don’t vary too much. So what’s the point? A1c is yet another indicator of how well you’re doing. An A1c measurement between 4-6% is considered the range that someone without diabetes will have. The American Diabetes Association goal is an A1c less than 7%. Research has shown that an A1c less than 7% lowers risk for complications. The American College of Endocrinology goal is an A1c less than 6.5%. For some people with diabetes an A1c goal of less than 6% is appropriate. Talk with your doctor about your A1c goal. Use this chart to view A1c values and comparable blood glucose values: A1c Estimated Average Glucose mg/dL 5% 97 6% 126 7% 154 8% 183 9% 212 10% 240 11% 269 12% 298 A not Continue reading >>

Having A Healthy Pregnancy With Type 1 Diabetes: Advice From New Moms

Having A Healthy Pregnancy With Type 1 Diabetes: Advice From New Moms

I never questioned whether or not I wanted to be a mom. I was a little girl who catalogued every personality trait of her twelve Cabbage Patch Kids (four of which happened to have type 1 diabetes) and who planned out exactly how many kids she would have someday and what their names would be and what color eyes they would have: one brown-eyed child, one blue. When I was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes at age 10, one of my pediatric endocrinologist’s first reassurances to my parents was that I’d be able to have healthy pregnancies someday. I didn’t even know it was something I should have been worried about. And, after that reassurance, I really never worried about what a pregnancy with type 1 diabetes would entail until I got there. I was 25 years old when I saw my first A1c under 8.5%. By the time I was married at age 28, my A1c was the lowest it had ever been – 7%. I was at a crossroad where I was emotionally ready to start a family but had to honestly assess where my diabetes management was. My healthcare team wanted my A1c at or below 6.0% before trying to conceive. This target seemed positively impossible for someone with my A1c history. It was 2008. I turned to the Internet and discovered the marvel that is the Diabetes Online Community. On TuDiabetes.org in their Oh! Baby!!! group, I found women just like me. Just. Like. Me. They were close to my age, wanted to start families, and some of them were a step ahead or only a step behind where I was in the process. I found a wealth of information and support. Six months later, with an A1c of 6.1% and so many helpful words of wisdom put into practice, I began trying to conceive my daughter. In the six years I have been a part of the Diabetes Online Community, I have seen so many would-be mommies realize their dre Continue reading >>

New Ada Position Statement: Lower Target A1c For Type 1 Diabetes

New Ada Position Statement: Lower Target A1c For Type 1 Diabetes

During the American Diabetes Association (ADA) 74th Scientific Sessions, held at the Moscone Center in San Francisco, June 13-17, 2014, David Maahs, MD, a pediatric endocrinologist at the Barbara David Center for Childhood Diabetes, Children’s Hospital Colorado, and the University of Colorado Denver, moderated a panel discussion about the ADA’s position statement on its recommendation to lower its target blood glucose levels for children with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D). Panel members: Anne Peters, MD, FACP, Professor, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA Lori Laffel, MD, Chief, Pediatric, Adolescent and Young Adult Section, Joslin Diabetes Center and Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA Sue Kirkman, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, SC Jane L. Chiang, MD, Senior Vice President, Medical and Community Affairs, American Diabetes Association, Alexandria, VA Identify Type 1 Diabetes Treatment Needs “This process didn’t actually begin with wanting to change a pediatric target,” rather “the interest was to create a separate position statement for the treatment of type 1 diabetes, because type 1 and type 2 diabetes are not the same disease,” stated Dr. Peters. The ADA’s position statement evolved from the creation of the Type 1 Diabetes Sourcebook, which was written by the panel members and many other authors. Dr. Peters explained the goal of the position statement is to cover the needs of people of all ages with T1D. She pointed out that “we don’t even know how many people have T1D” because many patients receive treatment through a primary care provider. Dr. Peters broadly estimated the number to be “on the ord Continue reading >>

Diabetes – A Functional Medicine Approach

Diabetes – A Functional Medicine Approach

WE BELIEVE THAT THE BEST WAY TO APPROACH ANY DISEASE IS THROUGH A HOLISTIC OR FUNCTIONAL MEDICINE APPROACH. AT REVOLUTION HEALTH & WELLNESS CLINIC IN TULSA, OKLAHOMA, THIS IS HOW WE ADDRESS MEDICAL PROBLEMS. DIABETES IS NO EXCEPTION. **For more information about Tulsa Holistic Doctors visit our website today. ______________________________________________________________________ Diabetes Mellitus is an abnormal physiologic response to blood sugar and insulin. It is important to understand NORMAL physiology before we can understand how diabetes is abnormal. Our blood sugar is controlled to a very narrow range. The normal range of blood glucose is 70-100 mg/dL. This range is very important! Blood sugar <70 We start to have symptoms of true hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia can be mild, moderate, or severe. Mild Hypoglycemia: nausea, jittery/trembling, cold/clammy/wet skin, rapid heart beat (tachycardia) Moderate Hypoglycemia: irritability/anxiety, Severe Hypoglycemia: The brain is a ‘Glucose Hog’! It consumes roughly 1/2 of the circulating blood sugar. It requires glucose (almost exclusively) and this is why most of the symptoms associated with true hypoglycemia are neurologic in nature. Since we don’t know (at least our bodies don’t know) when we are going to be able to eat again, we have to have a mechanism that increases blood sugar to keep it above 70. Glucagon is released from the Alpha cells in the pancrease. It is the hormone responsible for making new glucose (gluconeogenesis) in the liver and mobilizing fatty acids for energy utilization. Cortisol is released from the adrenal glands which works to break down muscle and stimulate gluconeogenesis in the liver. Blood sugar dysregulation is a major contributor to adrenal fatigue and hypercortisolism. Blood Sugar >10 Continue reading >>

Understanding Your A1c

Understanding Your A1c

The A1C is a blood test that helps determine if your diabetes management plan is working well. (Both Type 1 and Type 2 take this test.) It’s done every 2-3 months to find out what your average blood sugar has been. (You may also hear this test called glycosylated hemoglobin, glycohemoglobin, hemoglobin A1c, and HbA1c.) A1c is the most common name for it though. How the test works Essentially, the test can tell how much sugar is in the blood stream by looking for proteins (hemoglobins). When glucose (sugar) enters the blood, it binds to the protein in the red blood cells. This binding creates “glycated hemoglobin”. The more sugar in the blood, the more glycated hemoglobin. It’s important to test your blood sugar levels (BGLs) throughout the day; however, an A1C test gives you a bigger picture with a long-term average of those blood sugar levels. What do these numbers mean? The A1c is an average of what your blood sugar levels have been over the 3-month period. In general, the higher your A1C number, the higher your likelihood of diabetes complications. (You don’t want a high A1C; it means there is too much sugar in your blood and your body isn’t absorbing it.) A1C number 4.6 – 6.0 Normal (does not have diabetes) 5.7 – 6.4 Pre-diabetes (warning that someone may develop Type 2 or have the beginning onset of Type 1) 6.7+ Diabetes (someone diagnosed with diabetes) <7.0 – 7.5 Target range (for adults diagnosed with diabetes – children diagnosed with diabetes) This target range varies between individuals, some people naturally run a little higher, some lower. It is important to note that especially in children a higher A1C (of 7.5) is recommended. The A1C number will help you and your doctor determine though if your diabetes management plan is working well. Continue reading >>

My Son’s A1c Was 6.1, But The Doctor Said He Had Highs And Lows And That Wasn’t Good. Isn’t A1c The Important Thing?

My Son’s A1c Was 6.1, But The Doctor Said He Had Highs And Lows And That Wasn’t Good. Isn’t A1c The Important Thing?

Q: My son is type 1 and 23 years old. His A1c was 6.1, but the doctor said he had highs and lows and that wasn't good. I thought your A1c was important? You are right in thinking that your son’s A1c is important, but it is not the whole story. A good way to think of an A1c reading is a three-month average of blood sugar levels. If your average blood sugar level is 120-130mg/dl (which is what an A1c of 6.1 usually represents), that's a good thing. However, if your blood sugar fluctuates from 40mg/dL (which is dangerously low) to 500mg/dL (which is dangerously high) and those extreme highs and lows average out to a blood sugar level of 125mg/dl, that's not a good thing. Basically, big swings in blood sugar levels means that they are not well controlled. The good thing is that your son is checking his blood sugar levels, and that can be helpful in developing a plan to get your son's blood sugar under control. One other thing your son may want to consider is to have his doctor or another member of his diabetes care team evaluate his blood sugar monitoring technique to make sure the fluctuations are not due to a problem with the testing procedure. Or if your son uses a continuous blood glucose monitor (CGM), he may want to check with his trainer (or whoever helps him manage his CGM) to make sure there is no problem with it. Originally answered by Kirk Spero, RPh Answered By dLife Expert: Franziska Spritzler, RD, CDE Certified diabetes educator and registered dietitian living in Southern California. The content of this website, such as text, graphics, images, and other material on the site (collectively, “Content”) are for informational purposes only. The Content is not intended to be a substitute for, and dLife does not provide, professional medical advice, diagnosis o Continue reading >>

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