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A1c Is 5.9

5 Ways To Lower Your A1c

5 Ways To Lower Your A1c

For some, home blood sugar testing can be an important and useful tool for managing your blood sugar on a day-to-day basis. Still, it only provides a snapshot of what’s happening in the moment, not long-term information, says Gregory Dodell, MD, assistant clinical professor of medicine, endocrinology, diabetes, and bone disease at Mount Sinai Health System in New York City. For this reason, your doctor may occasionally administer a blood test that measures your average blood sugar level over the past two to three months. Called the A1C test, or the hemoglobin A1C test, this provides a more accurate picture of how well your type 2 diabetes management plan is working. Taking the A1C Test If your diabetes is well controlled and your blood sugar levels have remained stable, the American Diabetes Association recommends that you have the A1C test two times each year. This simple blood draw can be done in your doctor's office. Some doctors can use a point-of-care A1C test, where a finger stick can be done in the office, with results available in about 10 minutes. The A1C test results provide insight into how your treatment plan is working, and how it might be modified to better control the condition. Your doctor may want to run the test as often as every three months if your A1C is not within your target range. What the A1C Results Mean The A1C test measures the glucose (blood sugar) in your blood by assessing the amount of what’s called glycated hemoglobin. “Hemoglobin is a protein within red blood cells. As glucose enters the bloodstream, it binds to hemoglobin, or glycates. The more glucose that enters the bloodstream, the higher the amount of glycated hemoglobin,” Dr. Dodell says. An A1C level below 5.7 percent is considered normal. An A1C between 5.7 and 6.4 perce Continue reading >>

Hba1c Cutoff Of 5.9% Best For Detecting Diabetes In Pregnancy

Hba1c Cutoff Of 5.9% Best For Detecting Diabetes In Pregnancy

NEW YORK A1c level of 5.9% or higher is optimal for detecting diabetes and for identifying women at increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, according to researchers from New Zealand. This is lower than the currently recommended 6.5% threshold, they note in Diabetes Care, online September 4. "HbA1c is predictive of pregnancy outcomes in women with known diabetes, so we weren't that surprised," Dr. Ruth C. E. Hughes from University of Otago in Christchurch told Reuters Health by email. "However, the rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes were higher than anticipated in women with an HbA1c 5.9%-6.4% (41-46 mmol/mol) who did not meet New Zealand criteria for gestational diabetes on an early pregnancy oral glucose tolerance test." Although several organizations recommend screening for diabetes in pregnancy at the first antenatal visit, the most appropriate test and threshold remain undefined. Dr. Hughes's team studied a prospective cohort study of more than 16,100 pregnant women, who had blood drawn at a median 47 days' gestation. The mean HbA1c among all women tested was 5.3%. Only 33 women (0.2%) had HbA1c of 6.5% or higher. Of the 974 women who had oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) before 20 weeks' gestation, 15 met criteria for diabetes (median HbA1c, 6.5%) and 170 for gestational diabetes (GDM) (median HbA1c, 5.8%). On receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis, an HbA1c of 5.9% emerged as the optimal screening threshold for detecting diabetes. It yielded 100% sensitivity, 97.4% specificity, 18.8% positive predictive value, and 100% negative predictive value. The 5.9% cutoff was also highly specific (98.4%) for early GDM, with a positive predictive value of 52.9% and a negative predictive value of 92.8%. About three-quarters of women with early HbA1c of 5.9% or highe Continue reading >>

A1c Test Identifies Undiagnosed Type 2 Diabetes In Pregnant Women

A1c Test Identifies Undiagnosed Type 2 Diabetes In Pregnant Women

For many moms-to-be with type 2 diabetes, failure to get a proper diagnosis on time results in unhealthy pregnancies and unhealthy babies. The good news is that a study published by the American Diabetes Association (Diabetes Care, 2014) demonstrates that a simple blood test known as the hemoglobin A1c (sugar-bound hemoglobin, or HbA1c) can uncover hidden type 2 diabetes in expecting mothers. The study found that the A1c test can accurately detect undiagnosed type 2 diabetes in pregnant women. “The problem is that we did not know reliable ways to screen for pre-existing diabetes early in pregnancy,” says Florence Brown, M.D., Co-director of the Joslin-Beth Israel Deaconess Diabetes in Pregnancy Program. “The hemoglobin A1c done early in pregnancy may be a convenient and effective way to identify women with pre-existing type 2 diabetes or who are at greater risk of worse pregnancy outcomes.” In this study, researchers examined the use of an A1c measurement done during the first trimester as a screening tool for pre-existing diabetes. The test was performed on more than 16,000 pregnant women and compared with the results of a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), which is performed after an overnight fast, and is the gold standard diagnostic test for type 2 diabetes. The A1c test measures the average blood sugar levels over a longer period of time, showing whether your blood sugar is staying under control for up to three months. Considered the standard diagnostic method, the American Diabetes Association uses the A1c target of 6.5 percent for diagnosing type 2 diabetes in those who are not pregnant. An A1c between 5.7 and 6.4 is considered pre-diabetic. The study found that the hemoglobin A1c test was able to identify all the women with pre-existing type 2 di Continue reading >>

A1c Is Better Screening Test For Diabetes

A1c Is Better Screening Test For Diabetes

A1c is better screening test for diabetes Dear Dr. Roach My A1c test on blood sugar is always higher (prediabetes) than my fasting glucose test (normal) on the same visit to the doctor. Which result should I believe? My latest test at a doctors office showed that my A1c is 6.2 percent, and fasting glucose is 88 mg/dL. The A1c pretty much remained at 6.2 percent level, while the fasting glucose varied between 81 and 88 in the past two years. The test is drawing a blood sample after a 12-hour overnight fast. I am not taking any diabetes medication. Previously, my A1c results were 5.9 percent in August 2016 and 5.5 percent in December 2016. K.H. Answer Both the A1c test and the glucose tests are blood tests for diabetes. The blood glucose test is a snapshot of an instant in time, while the A1c is a measure of the average value over the past two or three months or so. The A1c looks at the amount of sugar molecules on the large hemoglobin protein of the blood. In general, the A1c is a better screening test for diabetes than a fasting glucose test, because fasting blood sugar is normal for a long time (potentially years) before one shows overt diabetes. In early Type 2 diabetes, the only time the blood sugar gets above normal is after eating (the blood sugar is supposed to go up a bit after eating, but in the early stages of diabetes, it goes higher than it should). The most sensitive test for Type 2 diabetes is a glucose tolerance test, where a fixed amount of sugar is given, and the blood is tested after two hours. An elevated level at two hours is prediabetes or diabetes. However, the A1c, which is affected by both fasting blood glucose levels and those after eating, is nearly as sensitive, and is much easier to do. Both the glucose tolerance test and the A1c usually will Continue reading >>

What Are The Normal A1c Levels For Children?

What Are The Normal A1c Levels For Children?

The A1c blood test is one of the laboratory tests used to diagnose diabetes and an important measure of average blood sugar levels in someone who has diabetes. This test determines the amount of glucose or sugar that has attached to the blood's hemoglobin -- the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells -- during the 3-month lifespan of these cells. Target A1c levels have been established to help healthcare providers, as well as children with diabetes and their families, understand the blood sugar goals needed to reduce the risk of the long-term complications of diabetes. While there are some situations where the A1c result may not be reliable, as a rule this test is accurate and an essential part of a child's diabetes management program. Video of the Day Normal A1c Levels Diagnostic criteria for children is similar to the guidelines used in adults, and the A1c is one of the tests used to diagnose diabetes. A1c levels are reported as a percentage, and often the estimated average glucose (eAG) -- a number calculated from the A1c reading -- is also included with the results. Using the same units as a blood glucose meter, the eAG makes understanding the A1c result a bit easier by comparing the A1c to average blood sugar levels. A normal, nondiabetic A1c level is below 5.7 percent, which reflects an eAG below 117 mg/dL. The level used to diagnose diabetes is 6.5 percent and above, which reflects an eAG of 140 mg/dL or higher. A1c levels above normal but below the diabetes range fit into a prediabetes range. Target A1c Levels Along with its role in diagnosing diabetes, the A1c test is performed between 2 and 4 times per year to estimate average blood sugar levels over the previous 3 months. This test is used to monitor the effectiveness of diabetes treatment and to determin Continue reading >>

Hemoglobin A1c Test (hba1c, A1c, Hb1c)

Hemoglobin A1c Test (hba1c, A1c, Hb1c)

Hemoglobin A1c definition and facts Hemoglobin A1c is a protein on the surface of red blood cells that sugar molecules stick to, usually for the life of the red blood cell (about three months). The higher the level of glucose in the blood, the higher the level of hemoglobin A1c is detectable on red blood cells. Hemoglobin A1c levels correlate with average levels of glucose in the blood over an approximately three-month time period. Normal ranges for hemoglobin A1c in people without diabetes is about 4% to 5.9%. People with diabetes with poor glucose control have hemoglobin A1c levels above 7%. Hemoglobin A1c levels are routinely used to determine blood sugar control over time in people with diabetes. Decreasing hemoglobin A1c levels by 1% may decrease the risk of microvascular complications (for example, diabetic eye, nerve, or kidney disease) by 10%. Hemoglobin A1c levels should be checked, according to the American Diabetic Association, every six months in individuals with stable blood sugar control, and every three months if the person is trying to establish stable blood sugar control. Hemoglobin A1c has many other names such as glycohemoglobin, glycated hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, and HbA1c. To explain what hemoglobin A1c is, think in simple terms. Sugar sticks to things, and when it has been stuck to something for a long time it's harder to the get sugar (glucose) off. In the body, sugar sticks too, particularly to proteins. The red blood cells that circulate in the body live for about three months before they die. When sugar (glucose) sticks to these red blood cells by binding to hemoglobin A1c, it gives us an idea of how much glucose has been around in the blood for the preceding three months. Hemoglobin A1c is a minor component of hemoglobin to which gl Continue reading >>

Diagnosis

Diagnosis

Print The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends that blood glucose screening for adults begin at age 45, or sooner if you are overweight and have additional risk factors for prediabetes or type 2 diabetes. There are several blood tests for prediabetes. Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test This test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. Specifically, the test measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells (hemoglobin). The higher your blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin you'll have with sugar attached. In general: An A1C level below 5.7 percent is considered normal An A1C level between 5.7 and 6.4 percent is considered prediabetes An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates type 2 diabetes Certain conditions can make the A1C test inaccurate — such as if you are pregnant or have an uncommon form of hemoglobin (hemoglobin variant). Fasting blood sugar test A blood sample is taken after you fast for at least eight hours or overnight. In general: A fasting blood sugar level below 100 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) — 5.6 millimoles per liter (mmol/L) — is considered normal. A fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 7.0 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes. This result is sometimes called impaired fasting glucose. A fasting blood sugar level of 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L) or higher indicates type 2 diabetes. Oral glucose tolerance test This test is usually used to diagnose diabetes only during pregnancy. A blood sample is taken after you fast for at least eight hours or overnight. Then you'll drink a sugary solution, and your blood sugar level will be measured again after two hours. In general: A blood sugar level less than 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmo Continue reading >>

A1c Level And Future Risk Of Diabetes: A Systematic Review

A1c Level And Future Risk Of Diabetes: A Systematic Review

Go to: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data sources We developed a systematic review protocol using the Cochrane Collaboration's methods (9). We formulated search strategies using an iterative process that involved medical subject headings and key search terms including hemoglobin A, glycated, predictive value of tests, prospective studies, and related terms (available from the authors on request). We searched the following databases between database establishment and August 2009: MEDLINE, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Web of Science (WOS), and The Cochrane Library. Systematic searches were performed for relevant reviews of A1C as a predictor of incident diabetes. Reference lists of all the included studies and relevant reviews were examined for additional citations. We attempted to contact authors of original studies if their data were unclear or missing. Study selection and data abstraction We searched for published, English language, prospective cohort studies that used A1C to predict the progression to diabetes among those aged ≥18 years. We included studies with any design that measured A1C—whether using a cutoff point or categories—and incident diabetes. Titles and abstracts were screened for studies that potentially met inclusion criteria, and relevant full text articles were retrieved. X.Z. and W.T. reviewed each article for inclusion and abstracted, reviewed, and verified the data using a standardized abstraction template. If A1C measurement was standardized by the National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program (NGSP) and both standardized and unstandardized A1C values were reported, standardized values were used in the analyses. A sensitivity analysis, however, was conducted using both standardized and unsta Continue reading >>

Your Good Health: Blood-sugar Tests Show It’s Time For Changes To Diet

Your Good Health: Blood-sugar Tests Show It’s Time For Changes To Diet

Dear Dr. Roach: My A1c test on blood sugar is always higher (prediabetes) than my fasting glucose test (normal) on the same visit to the doctor. Which result should I believe? My latest test at a doctor’s office showed that my A1c is 6.2 per cent, and fasting glucose is 88 mg/dL. The A1c pretty much remained at 6.2 per cent level, while the fasting glucose varied between 81 and 88 in the past two years. The test is drawing a blood sample after a 12-hour overnight fast. I am not taking any diabetes medication. Previously, my A1c results were 5.9 per cent in August 2016 and 5.5 per cent in December 2016. K.H. Both the A1c test and the glucose tests are blood tests for diabetes. The blood glucose test is a snapshot of an instant in time, while the A1c is a measure of the average value over the past two or three months or so. The A1c looks at the amount of sugar molecules on the large hemoglobin protein of the blood. In general, the A1c is a better screening test for diabetes than a fasting glucose test, because fasting blood sugar is normal for a long time (potentially years) before one shows overt diabetes. In early Type 2 diabetes, the only time the blood sugar gets above normal is after eating (the blood sugar is supposed to go up a bit after eating, but in the early stages of diabetes, it goes higher than it should). The most sensitive test for Type 2 diabetes is a glucose tolerance test, where a fixed amount of sugar is given, and the blood is tested after two hours. An elevated level at two hours is prediabetes or diabetes. However, the A1c, which is affected by both fasting blood glucose levels and those after eating, is nearly as sensitive, and is much easier to do. Both the glucose tolerance test and the A1c usually will diagnose prediabetes and diabetes before Continue reading >>

The Hemoglobin A1c Blood Test For Type 2 Diabetes

The Hemoglobin A1c Blood Test For Type 2 Diabetes

The hemoglobin A1C is a great blood test for a diabetic. You can know how well your blood sugar control has been over a few months. But this test will not replace daily glucose monitors. It has other limitations too. Still, the HbA1C blood test is my favorite of all type 2 diabetic tests. For one thing, it does not require fasting. For another, it can be done in the doctor's office with a single fingerstick just like a glucose monitor test. You get results in six minutes. Best of all, it lets you know how your blood sugar has been doing over the past two or three months. The test sounds perfect, but it is not. For diabetes management you need to know what your blood sugar levels are every day. Daily blood testing is still necessary, because a type 2 diabetic on insulin needs to know his glucose levels several times a day, not just every three months. A great HBA1C reading does not mean there have been no hyperglycemic (high blood sugar) or hypoglycemic (low blood sugar) episodes over the last few months. So the hemoglobin A1C cannot replace daily checks with your glucose monitor and good log book records. Your doctor always asks what your last daily reading was, and he likes to see your log book too. Daily readings along with the A1C give a complete picture of what is going on with your diabetes treatment. Taken together with daily readings, the hemoglobin A1C tells you if your blood sugar is staying in the range that will keep away the complications. There is more and more evidence that an A1C between 6.5 and 7 will do just that. And here's an encouraging fact. If your A1C was 9 and you lowered it to 8, there is a 20% reduction in your risk of complications. That means you do not have to be in the best range yet to see benefits from better blood sugar control. Hemoglob Continue reading >>

The Normal A1c Level

The Normal A1c Level

Wow Richard, 70 lbs? I have lost 24 lbs from low carb diet due to SIBO. It also helped my AC1 go down three points from 6.2 and my cholesterol is lower, which surprised me. I can’t afford to lose anymore weight because I was small to begin with. I had noticed much bigger people in the UK over the last 5 years compared to 15-20. Was quite shocking. I thought we had the patent on obesity! I am not diabetic that I know of but I had weird symptoms… Thirst that continued all day and night. My husband called me a camel. Dry eyes, rashes, strange dark discolouration on arm, under the arm to the side, some circulation issues and blurred vision. Eye specialist could not figure out why. Sores in the mouth also. I had observed about three weeks into super low carbs (30 Gms carb/day) that athlete’s foot symptom, sores in mouth and rashes were clearing up. So, lowering carbs for SIBO actually turned out for the best. By the way, I love your final paragraph. Research is what led me to SIBO diagnosis, and I then told the GI what to look for! He was barking up the wrong tree for months. Said I needed to eat more carbs so I don’t lose weight. Well, carbs fed the bacterial overgrowth!!! Dang fool. On Saturday, June 23, 2012, Diabetes Developments wrote: There is a new comment on the post “The Normal A1C Level”. Author: Richard Comment: I think part of the problem is that doctors are trained over many years to treat with pills, not with food. We continue to do what we are trained to do no matter what. I do believe they want to help us but don’t have the nutritional knowledge because that is not their expertise. When you have a hammer, etc. Nutritionist are no better unless they are those involved in research. They just peddle the messages they are told to. Then again, why wo Continue reading >>

At What A1c Level Do Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes Begin?

At What A1c Level Do Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes Begin?

The results from a new study show that risk increased in women with an early HbA1c of at least 5.9% regardless of a gestational diabetes diagnosis later in pregnancy. Risk of obstetric complications increases linearly with rising maternal glycemia. Testing HbA1c is an effective option to detect hyperglycemia, but its association with adverse pregnancy outcomes remains unclear. Emerging data sustains that an early HbA1c≥5.9% could act as a pregnancy risk marker. The purpose of the study was to determine, in a multi-ethnic cohort, whether an early ≥5.9% HbA1c could be useful to identify women without diabetes mellitus at increased pregnancy risk. Primary outcome was macrosomia. Secondary outcomes were pre-eclampsia, preterm birth and Caesarean section rate. 1,228 pregnancies were included for outcome analysis. Women with HbA1c≥5.9% (n= 48) showed a higher rate of macrosomia (16.7% vs. 5.9%,p= 0.008) and a tendency towards a higher rate of preeclampsia (9.32% vs. 3.9% ,p= 0.092). There were no significant differences in other pregnancy outcomes. After adjusting for potential confounders, an HbA1c≥5.9% was independently associated with a three-fold increased risk of macrosomia (p= 0.028) and preeclampsia (p= 0.036). They evaluated data on 1,228 pregnant women from April 2013 to September 2015 to determine whether an early HbA1c of at least 5.9% can identify women at increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Participants were screened for gestational diabetes at 24 to 28 weeks’ gestation, and HbA1c measurement was added to first antenatal blood tests. The primary outcome of the study was macrosomia, and secondary outcomes included rates of preeclampsia, preterm birth and caesarean section. Compared with participants with an HbA1c less than 5.9% (n = 48), parti Continue reading >>

7 Things You Didn't Know About Prediabetes

7 Things You Didn't Know About Prediabetes

7 Things You Didn't Know About Prediabetes At my annual physical this fall, I asked for trouble. I had never had an A1C test, the blood test that measures blood sugar levels over the prior 3 months. It's one of the tests that diagnose diabetes and prediabetesthe first inkling that your body isn't metabolizing blood sugar (glucose) properly. Diabetes and prediabetes are so prevalent in the US49 to 52% of us have one or the other, and most don't even know itthat some experts say everyone over age 45 should have this test. I've been on the other side of 45 for a number of years now. So I asked for the A1Ceven though my personal stats have all been healthy (weight, diet, cholesterol , fasting blood glucoseall good) and there's no family history of diabetes. This was one test I thought I would ace. When the results came back a week later, everything was fineexcept my A1C. It was 5.9%in the "prediabetic" range (45.6% is normal; 5.76.4% is prediabetic; 6.5% and over is diabetic). My reaction? Shock. Disbelief. Was my healthy lifestyle not so healthy? What was I doing (or not doing) that was raising my blood sugar? Was there some risk I didn't know about? And what changes did I need to make to stop the slide into type 2 diabetes with all its scary associated risksheart disease, stroke, blindness, nerve pain, foot ulcers? MORE: Health Risks Of Sucralose: Is Splenda Really Safe? I decided to dig into the science. One fact I learned that gave me hope: "Pre" doesn't always lead to "D." Research has shown that half the people who have impaired glucose tolerance and about two-thirds of those who have impaired fasting glucose (both are signs of prediabetes that are determined by testing) will not have diabetes 10 years later. Having more intestinal bacteria associated with metabolic Continue reading >>

6 Ways To Lower Your A1c Level

6 Ways To Lower Your A1c Level

Diabetes is a serious, chronic disease that can lead to many complications. When managed properly, diabetes does not have to control your life or ruin your health. Getting tested, especially if you are at risk for developing type 2 diabetes, is a proactive measure you can take for yourself and your future. In the early stages of diabetes, there are no symptoms. An early diagnosis helps you get treatment before complications occur. The A1C test is a blood test that checks for type 2 diabetes. It is also used to see how well you are managing your diabetes if you have already been diagnosed. The test provides information about a person’s average levels of blood sugar over a two- to three-month period. The number is reported in the form of a percentage. The higher the percentage, the higher your average blood glucose levels are, and the higher your risk for either diabetes or related complications. A1C is one of the primary tests used for diabetes diagnosis and management. It can test for type 1 and type 2 diabetes, but it can’t test for gestational diabetes. It can also be used to predict the likelihood that someone will get diabetes. The A1C test measures how much glucose, or sugar, is attached to hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells. The more glucose attached, the higher the A1C. This test is groundbreaking, as it 1) doesn’t require fasting, 2) gives a picture of blood sugar levels over a period of days and weeks instead of at just one point in time like fasting sugars, and 3) can be done at any time of day. This makes it easier to administer and easier to make accurate diagnoses. According to the National Institutes of Health, a normal A1C is below 5.7 percent. If your score is between 5.7 and 6.4 percent, the diagnosis is prediabetes. Having prediabetes put Continue reading >>

Why Hemoglobin A1c Is Not A Reliable Marker

Why Hemoglobin A1c Is Not A Reliable Marker

i was recently tested for Hemoglobin A1c because i presented to an endocrinologist with extremely low blood glucose on lab test and some scary symptoms, not the ordinary hypoglycemia symptoms. My A1c was 4.7 which registered as low (L) on the lab print out–it was only slightly low. Does a low score on this suggest a possibility of short-lived RBCs? Does it have any relationship with extremely low blood glucose? my result at the lab, fasting, was 32mg/dL. Not long after that i got a home glucometer and i get the same kind of results on that as the lab got, in the 20s and 30s first thing in the morning, every day. did not know i had hypoglycemia until i had that lab test, though i had had one episode where i woke up with ataxia, i fell while walking to the bathroom first thing in the morning, i got up and immediately fell again. I soon found that i had very impaired coordination. i did not know why and i was very worried. Eventually i wanted to have breakfast but had great difficulty holding the measuring cup under the faucet, to get some water to heat, to make instant oatmeal, i lacked the coordination to get the water into the cup. I persisted and did make the instant oatmeal (pour hot water onto flakes and it’s done), and i got my lap top and was eating the oatmeal and i suddenly was aware that the symptoms were going away. Previously i had been unable to type. While eating the small amount of oatmeal, i realized i could type. That was about a month before the lab test. Since it only happened that once, i put it out of my mind. About 5 days after the lab test, i had the second episode, worse than the first, i woke falling out of bed to the floor, couldn’t use my arm to break the fall, i didn’t have the coordination. i sat on the floor, i could not get up and wa Continue reading >>

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