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A1c For Non Diabetic

The Effects Of Physical Activity Interventions On Glycated Haemoglobin A1c In Non-diabetic Populations: A Protocol For A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis

The Effects Of Physical Activity Interventions On Glycated Haemoglobin A1c In Non-diabetic Populations: A Protocol For A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis

Introduction Epidemiological evidence suggests that physical activity has a positive effect on reducing glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels not only in diabetics, but also in healthy subjects. Moreover, a positive association of HbA1c levels with cardiovascular disease and mortality in non-diabetic populations has recently been reported. This is a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis aiming to estimate the effects of physical activity on glycaemic control measured by HbA1c levels in non-diabetic populations; and to determine which type of physical activity has a greater influence on glycaemic control. Methods and analysis The search will be conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases from inception to mid-2017. Randomised controlled trials, non-randomised experimental studies and controlled pre–post studies written in English, Portuguese, French or Spanish will be included. The Cochrane Collaboration’s tool and The Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies will be used to assess the risk of bias for studies included in the systematic review. Standardised pre–post intervention mean differences of HbA1c will be calculated as the primary outcome. Subgroup analyses will be performed based on the characteristics of physical activity intervention and population included in the studies. Ethics and dissemination This systematic review will synthesise evidence on the association of physical activity and HbA1c in non-diabetic populations. This study is important from the clinical and public health point because it will estimate the effect of physical activity on the glycemic control, and it will also examine which is the type of physical activity that should be recommended for preventing type 2 diabetes and its Continue reading >>

High Hemoglobin A1c Levels Within The Nondiabetic Range Are Associated With The Risk Of All Cancers

High Hemoglobin A1c Levels Within The Nondiabetic Range Are Associated With The Risk Of All Cancers

High hemoglobin A1c levels within the nondiabetic range are associated with the risk of all cancers Department of Diabetes Research, Diabetes Research Center, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, 1211 Toyama, ShinjukuKu, Tokyo, 1628655 Japan Department of Public Health, Tokyo Women's Medical University, 81 KawadaCho, ShinjukuKu, Tokyo, 1628666 Japan Department of Diabetes Research, Diabetes Research Center, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, 1211 Toyama, ShinjukuKu, Tokyo, 1628655 Japan Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Saitama Medical University, 38 Morohongo, Moroyama, Irumagun, Saitama, 3500495 Japan Correspondence to: Mitsuhiko Noda, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Saitama Medical University, 38 Morohongo, Moroyama, Irumagun, Saitama 350-0495, Japan. Tel.: +81 49 276 1204, Fax: +81 49 294 9752, Email: Epidemiology and Prevention Group, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 511 Tsukiji, ChuoKu, Tokyo, 1040045 Japan AXA Department of Health and Human Security, Graduate School of Medicine, the University of Tokyo, 731 Hongo, BunkyoKu, Tokyo, 1130033 Japan Department of Diabetes Research, Diabetes Research Center, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, 1211 Toyama, ShinjukuKu, Tokyo, 1628655 Japan Department of Public Health, Tokyo Women's Medical University, 81 KawadaCho, ShinjukuKu, Tokyo, 1628666 Japan Department of Diabetes Research, Diabetes Research Center, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, 1211 Toyama, ShinjukuKu, Tokyo, 1628655 Japan Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Saitama Medical University, 38 Morohongo, Moroyama, Irumagun, Saitama, 3500495 Japan Correspondence to: Mitsuhiko Noda, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Saitama Medical Universit Continue reading >>

5 Ways To Lower Your A1c

5 Ways To Lower Your A1c

For some, home blood sugar testing can be an important and useful tool for managing your blood sugar on a day-to-day basis. Still, it only provides a snapshot of what’s happening in the moment, not long-term information, says Gregory Dodell, MD, assistant clinical professor of medicine, endocrinology, diabetes, and bone disease at Mount Sinai Health System in New York City. For this reason, your doctor may occasionally administer a blood test that measures your average blood sugar level over the past two to three months. Called the A1C test, or the hemoglobin A1C test, this provides a more accurate picture of how well your type 2 diabetes management plan is working. Taking the A1C Test If your diabetes is well controlled and your blood sugar levels have remained stable, the American Diabetes Association recommends that you have the A1C test two times each year. This simple blood draw can be done in your doctor's office. Some doctors can use a point-of-care A1C test, where a finger stick can be done in the office, with results available in about 10 minutes. The A1C test results provide insight into how your treatment plan is working, and how it might be modified to better control the condition. Your doctor may want to run the test as often as every three months if your A1C is not within your target range. What the A1C Results Mean The A1C test measures the glucose (blood sugar) in your blood by assessing the amount of what’s called glycated hemoglobin. “Hemoglobin is a protein within red blood cells. As glucose enters the bloodstream, it binds to hemoglobin, or glycates. The more glucose that enters the bloodstream, the higher the amount of glycated hemoglobin,” Dr. Dodell says. An A1C level below 5.7 percent is considered normal. An A1C between 5.7 and 6.4 perce Continue reading >>

Translating “nondiabetic” A1c Levels To Clinical Practice

Translating “nondiabetic” A1c Levels To Clinical Practice

It is well recognized that there is a significant delay from the time clinical research findings are first reported and when the results become an integral part of clinical care. With the understanding that the prevalence and incidence of diabetes is increasing worldwide, and that the resulting complications are a major contributor to morbidity and mortality, the need for more rapid clinical translation of research findings for diabetes could not be greater. Specifically, a large amount of clinical research data has been reported in the recent past that is of great interest to the provider caring for individuals with diabetes. Much of the emphasis for research has been devoted to understanding the contribution of hyperglycemia and its treatment on macrovascular disease. For example, within the last decade, we have not only recognized the pivotal role that chronic hyperglycemia, as assessed with A1C levels, contributes to the development of microvascular complications, but we have recognized the importance of glycemia in contributing to cardiovascular disease (CVD) (1,2). Observations from large-scale prospective trials over the last couple of years have reported that in high-risk subjects, intensive therapy to lower A1C levels below suggested targets may not be beneficial or may increase mortality (3–5). However, as observed from these studies, we also learned that certain subsets of patients with type 2 diabetes may actually benefit from intensive glycemic control (3). The most recent analysis, reported in May 2010, has now suggested that mortality may actually be greater for those who maintain a higher A1C level despite attempts at intensive glycemic management (6). Interestingly, the excess mortality in the group randomized to intensive glycemic management was only Continue reading >>

Lowering Blood Sugar In Non Diabetic Or Pre Diabetic

Lowering Blood Sugar In Non Diabetic Or Pre Diabetic

Lowering Blood sugar in non diabetic or pre diabetic Hi, I am getting so much conflicting info from the web so I have decided to come here in hope to get some questions answered. I think my problem is that most info on the web is for diabetics and not for non diabetics. I am a 32 year old male who just a few months ago got my fasting blood sugar and a1c results. Fasting was 90 and a1c was 5.4. My doctor told me this in fine and told me to be on my way. Also during that appointment I found from my ultrasound that I have mild fat infiltration of the liver. Again he said this is normal. Unfortunately after spending days on the web I started to believe this is not normal and I got all anxious and worried about my results. A few weeks ago I borrowed a home glucose machine to test myself. I consistently get low to mid 90's for fasting (which is a little higher then the labs results), and I get mixed results after meals. I try to check 2 hours after meals and sometimes I'm around 100 (if I'm a little active after a meal) and other times I'm around 120 or maybe a bit higher. One time I tested an hour after and I was at 150. This freaked me out so I tested a few times and was consistently around 145 up until the 2 hour mark until it started dropping. I'm worried if this means I have a problem as I'm reading this shouldn't happen. The question I can't get answered is what can I do about this if it is a problem and can I lower my fasting level? I mean if I were a diabetic I can find a hundred sites and thousands of suggestions but because I don't think I am diabetic I don't think those suggestions apply to me. I have been told cutting out sugar and carbs only helps diabetics. Not me. My doc even told me that there is nothing I can do to lower blood sugar, especially because I am Continue reading >>

Healthy A1c Goal

Healthy A1c Goal

Ads by Google Don't think as unattainable by staring up the steps; you must step up the stairs to achieve. Fit non-diabetic person’s A1C percentage is always within 4.2 to 4.6%. These numbers are only from individuals who is fit, non-obese, active, and on a healthy diet. The A1C result depends upon how well you are maintaining your blood-glucose level. If you are maintaining your blood sugar at an optimal range 70-85mg/dl (3.9-4.7mmol/l) at most of the time, then your A1C be in the normal range 4.2-4.6%. A1C goal advised by American Diabetes Association (ADA) A1C goal of 6.5% or less is a more stringent goal. This A1C target is for people who does not experience many hypoglycemia episodes. This may be for individuals who have recently diagnosed with diabetes. A1C goal of 7% is reasonable. This A1C target is for many adults with diabetes who are not pregnant. A1C goal of 7.5% is for children with diabetes (0 to 18 years old). In children, younger than 6 years may be unable to recognize hypoglycemia symptoms. A1C goal of 8% or less is considered a less stringent goal. This A1C target may be for people with severe hypoglycemia experience. This may be for individuals who have many years of diabetes and who have low life expectancy. A1C goal advised by Canadian Diabetes Association (CDA) A1C goal of 6.5% or less is for type 2 diabetics to lower nephropathy and retinopathy risk further. They must balance against hypoglycemia risk. A1C goal of 7.1-8.5% is for those who has longstanding diabetes with a history of recurrent severe hypoglycemia. And for those who has limited life expectancy. This target is for those who is hard to achieve an A1C ≤7%. That too after effective doses of multiple anti-hyperglycemic agents, including intensified basal-bolus insulin therapy. A1C go Continue reading >>

Tips For Maintaining A Healthy A1c Level | Revere Health

Tips For Maintaining A Healthy A1c Level | Revere Health

posted by The Live Better Team | January 15, 2018 An A1c test helps doctors see the amount of glucose in a persons blood (blood sugar) over a three-month period. When glucose builds up in your blood, it binds to a protein called hemoglobinthis molecule is responsible for the red color of your blood and carrying oxygen throughout your body. A1c tests measure what percentage of hemoglobin is coated by glucose. The higher your percentage, the higher your risk of diabetes and diabetes complications. Doctors use A1c tests to diagnose type 1 and type 2 diabetes and monitor patients who are already diagnosed with diabetes. If you have diabetes, you should get an A1c test regularly to evaluate how well you are managing your blood sugar. The normal A1c range for a non-diabetic person of average health is below 5.7 percent, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). If your levels are between 5.7 to 6.4 percent, you may be prediabetic. A level of 6.5 percent or higher indicates diabetes. Patients with diabetes should aim for an A1c level below 7 percent. It may seem like a lofty goal, especially if your levels are high, but its important to remember that lowering your A1c levels reduces your risk of developing diabetes complications like kidney and nerve damage, cardiovascular disease, cataracts, etc. If you are at risk for diabetes or prediabetes and have not been diagnosed, an A1c test can help you determine whether you have the condition or are likely to develop diabetes. Because prediabetes usually does not present any signs or symptoms, its important to identify your risk factors and notify your doctor. How often you get tested depends on your diagnosis and your treatment plan. Here are some general recommendations: If you are Continue reading >>

Why Hemoglobin A1c Is Not A Reliable Marker

Why Hemoglobin A1c Is Not A Reliable Marker

i was recently tested for Hemoglobin A1c because i presented to an endocrinologist with extremely low blood glucose on lab test and some scary symptoms, not the ordinary hypoglycemia symptoms. My A1c was 4.7 which registered as low (L) on the lab print out–it was only slightly low. Does a low score on this suggest a possibility of short-lived RBCs? Does it have any relationship with extremely low blood glucose? my result at the lab, fasting, was 32mg/dL. Not long after that i got a home glucometer and i get the same kind of results on that as the lab got, in the 20s and 30s first thing in the morning, every day. did not know i had hypoglycemia until i had that lab test, though i had had one episode where i woke up with ataxia, i fell while walking to the bathroom first thing in the morning, i got up and immediately fell again. I soon found that i had very impaired coordination. i did not know why and i was very worried. Eventually i wanted to have breakfast but had great difficulty holding the measuring cup under the faucet, to get some water to heat, to make instant oatmeal, i lacked the coordination to get the water into the cup. I persisted and did make the instant oatmeal (pour hot water onto flakes and it’s done), and i got my lap top and was eating the oatmeal and i suddenly was aware that the symptoms were going away. Previously i had been unable to type. While eating the small amount of oatmeal, i realized i could type. That was about a month before the lab test. Since it only happened that once, i put it out of my mind. About 5 days after the lab test, i had the second episode, worse than the first, i woke falling out of bed to the floor, couldn’t use my arm to break the fall, i didn’t have the coordination. i sat on the floor, i could not get up and wa Continue reading >>

Ultimate Guide To The A1c Test: Everything You Need To Know

Ultimate Guide To The A1c Test: Everything You Need To Know

The A1C is a blood test that gives us an estimated average of what your blood sugar has been over the past 2-3 months. The A1c goes by several different names, such aswa Hemoglobin A1C, HbA1C, Hb1C, A1C, glycated hemoglobin, glycohemoglobin and estimated glucose average. What is Hemoglobin? Hemoglobin is a protein in your blood cells that carries oxygen. When sugar is in the blood, and it hangs around for a while, it starts to attach to the red blood cells. The A1C test is a measurement of how many red blood cells have sugar attached. So, if your A1C result is 7%, that means that 7% of your red blood cells have sugar attached to them. What are the Symptoms of a High A1C Test Level? Sometimes there are NO symptoms! That is probably one of the scariest things about diabetes, your sugar can be high for a while and you may not even know it. When your blood sugar goes high and stays high for longer periods of time you may notice the following: tired, low energy, particularly after meals feel very thirsty you may be peeing more than normal, waking a lot in the middle of the night to go dry, itchy skin unexplained weight loss crave sugar, hungrier than normal blurred vision, may feel like you need new glasses tingling in feet or hands cuts or sores take a long time to heal or don’t heal well at all frequent infections (urinary tract, yeast infections, etc.) When your blood sugar is high, this means the energy that you are giving your body isn’t getting into the cells. Think about a car that has a gas leak. You put gas in, but if the gas can’t get to the engine, the car will not go. When you eat, some of the food is broken down into sugar and goes into your bloodstream. If your body can’t get the sugar to the cells, then your body can’t “go.” Some of the sugar tha Continue reading >>

Real-life Glycaemic Profiles In Non-diabetic Individuals With Low Fasting Glucose And Normal Hba1c: The A1c-derived Average Glucose (adag) Study

Real-life Glycaemic Profiles In Non-diabetic Individuals With Low Fasting Glucose And Normal Hba1c: The A1c-derived Average Glucose (adag) Study

Go to: Real-life glycaemic profiles of healthy individuals are poorly studied. Our aim was to analyse to what extent individuals without diabetes exceed OGTT thresholds for impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and diabetes. In the A1C-Derived Average Glucose (ADAG) study, 80 participants without diabetes completed an intensive glucose monitoring period of 12 weeks. From these data, we calculated the average 24 h glucose exposure as time spent above different plasma glucose thresholds. We also derived indices of postprandial glucose levels, glucose variability and HbA1c. We found that 93% of participants reached glucose concentrations above the IGT threshold of 7.8 mmol/l and spent a median of 26 min/day above this level during continuous glucose monitoring. Eight individuals (10%) spent more than 2 h in the IGT range. They had higher HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), age and BMI than those who did not. Seven participants (9%) reached glucose concentrations above 11.1 mmol/l during monitoring. Conclusions/interpretation Even though the non-diabetic individuals monitored in the ADAG study were selected on the basis of a very low level of baseline FPG, 10% of these spent a considerable amount of time at glucose levels considered to be ‘prediabetic’ or indicating IGT. This highlights the fact that exposure to moderately elevated glucose levels remains under-appreciated when individuals are classified on the basis of isolated glucose measurements. The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00125-010-1741-9) contains a list of members of ADAG Study Group, which is available to authorised users. Keywords: Continuous glucose monitoring, Glucose monitoring, Glycaemia in healthy individuals, Non-diabetic glucose exposure, Normoglycaemia Continue reading >>

What's A

What's A "normal" A1c? When Is It Misleading?

By Adithi Gandhi and Jeemin Kwon Why we use A1c, what values are recommended, and what impacts A1c – everything from anemia to vitamins Want more information just like this? Hemoglobin A1c (“HbA1c” or just “A1c”) is the standard for measuring blood sugar management in people with diabetes. A1c reflects average blood sugars over 2 to 3 months, and through studies like DCCT and UKPDS, higher A1c levels have been shown to be associated with the risk of certain diabetes complications (eye, kidney, and nerve disease). For every 1% decrease in A1c, there is significant pretection against those complications. However, as an average over a period of months, A1c cannot capture critical information such as time spent in a target range (70-180 mg/dl) and hypoglycemia (less than 70 mg/dl). This article describes why A1c is used in the first place, as well as factors that can lead to misleadingly high or low values. In a follow-up piece, we will discuss time-in-range, hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, blood sugar variability, and how to measure and interpret them. Click to jump down to a section: What tools are available if an A1c test is not accurate or sufficient? What is A1c and why is it used? A1c estimates a person’s average blood sugar levels over a 2 to 3-month span. It is the best measure we have of how well blood glucose is controlled and an indicator of diabetes management. Though A1c doesn’t provide day-to-day information, keeping A1c low has been proven to lower the risk of “microvascular” complications like kidney disease (nephropathy), vision loss (retinopathy), and nerve damage (neuropathy). The relationship between A1c and “macrovascular” complications like heart disease is harder to show in clinical trials, but having high blood sugar is a major ris Continue reading >>

Nondiabetic Hypoglycemia

Nondiabetic Hypoglycemia

What is non-diabetic hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia is the condition when your blood glucose (sugar) levels are too low. It happens to people with diabetes when they have a mismatch of medicine, food, and/or exercise. Non-diabetic hypoglycemia, a rare condition, is low blood glucose in people who do not have diabetes. There are two kinds of non-diabetic hypoglycemia: Reactive hypoglycemia, which happens within a few hours of eating a meal Fasting hypoglycemia, which may be related to a disease Glucose is the main source of energy for your body and brain. It comes from what we eat and drink. Insulin, a hormone, helps keep blood glucose at normal levels so your body can work properly. Insulin’s job is to help glucose enter your cells where it’s used for energy. If your glucose level is too low, you might not feel well. What causes non-diabetic hypoglycemia? The two kinds of non-diabetic hypoglycemia have different causes. Researchers are still studying the causes of reactive hypoglycemia. They know, however, that it comes from having too much insulin in the blood, leading to low blood glucose levels. Types of nondiabetic hypoglycemia Reactive hypoglycemia Having pre-diabetes or being at risk for diabetes, which can lead to trouble making the right amount of insulin Stomach surgery, which can make food pass too quickly into your small intestine Rare enzyme deficiencies that make it hard for your body to break down food Fasting hypoglycemia Medicines, such as salicylates (such as aspirin), sulfa drugs (an antibiotic), pentamidine (to treat a serious kind of pneumonia), quinine (to treat malaria) Alcohol, especially with binge drinking Serious illnesses, such as those affecting the liver, heart, or kidneys Low levels of certain hormones, such as cortisol, growth hormone, glu Continue reading >>

A1c Test

A1c Test

Print Overview The A1C test is a common blood test used to diagnose type 1 and type 2 diabetes and then to gauge how well you're managing your diabetes. The A1C test goes by many other names, including glycated hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, hemoglobin A1C and HbA1c. The A1C test result reflects your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. Specifically, the A1C test measures what percentage of your hemoglobin — a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen — is coated with sugar (glycated). The higher your A1C level, the poorer your blood sugar control and the higher your risk of diabetes complications. Why it's done An international committee of experts from the American Diabetes Association, the European Association for the Study of Diabetes and the International Diabetes Federation, recommend that the A1C test be the primary test used to diagnose prediabetes, type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. After a diabetes diagnosis, the A1C test is used to monitor your diabetes treatment plan. Since the A1C test measures your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months instead of your blood sugar level at a specific point in time, it is a better reflection of how well your diabetes treatment plan is working overall. Your doctor will likely use the A1C test when you're first diagnosed with diabetes. This also helps establish a baseline A1C level. The test may then need to be repeated while you're learning to control your blood sugar. Later, how often you need the A1C test depends on the type of diabetes you have, your treatment plan and how well you're managing your blood sugar. For example, the A1C test may be recommended: Once every year if you have prediabetes, which indicates a high risk of developing diabetes Twice a year if Continue reading >>

Translating “nondiabetic” A1c Levels To Clinical Practice

Translating “nondiabetic” A1c Levels To Clinical Practice

It is well recognized that there is a significant delay from the time clinical research findings are first reported and when the results become an integral part of clinical care. With the understanding that the prevalence and incidence of diabetes is increasing worldwide, and that the resulting complications are a major contributor to morbidity and mortality, the need for more rapid clinical translation of research findings for diabetes could not be greater. Specifically, a large amount of clinical research data has been reported in the recent past that is of great interest to the provider caring for individuals with diabetes. Much of the emphasis for research has been devoted to understanding the contribution of hyperglycemia and its treatment on macrovascular disease. For example, within the last decade, we have not only recognized the pivotal role that chronic hyperglycemia, as assessed with A1C levels, contributes to the development of microvascular complications, but we have recognized the importance of glycemia in contributing to cardiovascular disease (CVD) (1,2). Observations from large-scale prospective trials over the last couple of years have reported that in high-risk subjects, intensive therapy to lower A1C levels below suggested targets may not be beneficial or may increase mortality (3–5). However, as observed from these studies, we also learned that certain subsets of patients with type 2 diabetes may actually benefit from intensive glycemic control (3). The most recent analysis, reported in May 2010, has now suggested that mortality may actually be greater for those who maintain a higher A1C level despite attempts at intensive glycemic management (6). Interestingly, the excess mortality in the group randomized to intensive glycemic management was only Continue reading >>

Haemoglobin A1c (hba1c) In Non-diabetic And Diabetic Vascular Patients. Is Hba1c An Independent Risk Factor And Predictor Of Adverse Outcome?

Haemoglobin A1c (hba1c) In Non-diabetic And Diabetic Vascular Patients. Is Hba1c An Independent Risk Factor And Predictor Of Adverse Outcome?

Abstract Background Plasma Haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) reflects ambient mean glycaemia over a 2–3 months period. Reports indicate that patients, with and without diabetes, with an elevated HbA1c have an increased risk of adverse outcome following surgical intervention. Our aim was to determine whether elevated plasma HbA1c level was associated with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing vascular surgical procedures. Methods Plasma HbA1c was measured prospectively in 165 consecutive patients undergoing emergency and elective vascular surgical procedures over a 6-month period. Patients were categorized into four groups depending on whether their plasma HbA1c was ≤6%, 6.1–7%, 7.1–8% or >8% and clinical data was entered into a prospectively maintained database. Patients were also classified by diabetic status with suboptimal HbA1c in a patient without diabetes being >6 to ≤7% and suboptimal HbA1c in a patient with diabetes being >7%. Patients with plasma HbA1c >7% were reclassified as having undiagnosed diabetes mellitus. Composite primary endpoints were all cause 30-day morbidity and mortality and all cause 6-month mortality. Composite secondary endpoints were procedure specific complications, adverse cardiac events, stroke, infection and mean length of hospital stay. Results Of the 165 patients studied, 43 (26.1%) had diabetes and the remaining 122 (73.9%) did not. The mean age was 72 years and 59% were male. Suboptimal HbA1c levels were found in 58% patients without diabetes and in 51% patients with diabetes. In patients without diabetes those with suboptimal HbA1c levels (6–7%) had a significantly higher incidence of overall 30-day morbidity compared to patients with HbA1c levels ≤6% (56.5 vs 15.7%, p<0.001). Similarly, for pati Continue reading >>

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