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A1c 10.3

Why Hemoglobin A1c Is Not A Reliable Marker

Why Hemoglobin A1c Is Not A Reliable Marker

i was recently tested for Hemoglobin A1c because i presented to an endocrinologist with extremely low blood glucose on lab test and some scary symptoms, not the ordinary hypoglycemia symptoms. My A1c was 4.7 which registered as low (L) on the lab print out–it was only slightly low. Does a low score on this suggest a possibility of short-lived RBCs? Does it have any relationship with extremely low blood glucose? my result at the lab, fasting, was 32mg/dL. Not long after that i got a home glucometer and i get the same kind of results on that as the lab got, in the 20s and 30s first thing in the morning, every day. did not know i had hypoglycemia until i had that lab test, though i had had one episode where i woke up with ataxia, i fell while walking to the bathroom first thing in the morning, i got up and immediately fell again. I soon found that i had very impaired coordination. i did not know why and i was very worried. Eventually i wanted to have breakfast but had great difficulty holding the measuring cup under the faucet, to get some water to heat, to make instant oatmeal, i lacked the coordination to get the water into the cup. I persisted and did make the instant oatmeal (pour hot water onto flakes and it’s done), and i got my lap top and was eating the oatmeal and i suddenly was aware that the symptoms were going away. Previously i had been unable to type. While eating the small amount of oatmeal, i realized i could type. That was about a month before the lab test. Since it only happened that once, i put it out of my mind. About 5 days after the lab test, i had the second episode, worse than the first, i woke falling out of bed to the floor, couldn’t use my arm to break the fall, i didn’t have the coordination. i sat on the floor, i could not get up and wa Continue reading >>

3 Month A1c

3 Month A1c

Hi b kurzwell and welcome to our forum!!! I was just Dx'd a month ago with a BSc of 402 and A1C of 12.7, and I have brought my fasting BS to under 200 for the past two weeks. That was mostly from eliminating all excess sugars. I am gradually going low carb, hoping to bring it down further. I am also taking Metformin 500 mg 2x a day. One of the reasons I landed here was because many of the members on here have successfully managed to control their blood sugars. If you read their signatures, some of them are showing that yes indeed, they did bring their A1C down to less than 7 in 3 months, and certainly many are in the 5 range within a year. So I take comfort in that and hope I can achieve such good control as well. If you have not already done so, be sure to check out Jenny Ruhl's web site Blood Sugar 101 -- in particular her section on "How to Lower Your Blood Sugar". What I really like about her site is that she reads all the relevant research and summarizes it. Good luck on your journey to good health!! Do tell us more about your condition. For instance, your diet, medication, weight and general life style will have a huge impact on your success in knocking your HbA1c down before your next test. With more information the forum members may be able to point you in the direction of approaches that may well deliver. When I was diagnosed, my HbA1c was 8.2%. Two months later, I had it down to 6.2% and since then I've never been above my present figure of 5.2%. So it can be done Gretchen has already mentioned a great web site for ideas Blood Sugar 101 and in particular look at this section - How to Lower Your Blood Sugar . Welcome to the forum. This is such a helpful place and people are very supportive. Ask any question and someone is sure to come along with answers and su Continue reading >>

What Does Test Results Of Hba1c 10.3 For Diabitics Means?

What Does Test Results Of Hba1c 10.3 For Diabitics Means?

What does test results of hbA1c 10.3 for diabitics means? Source(s): The Complete Diabetes Solution - Source(s): I Cured My Diabetes : Himore than 240 mg/dl mean plasma glucose valueMeasurement of glycated hemoglobin is the standard method forassessing long-term glycemic control. When... show more Hi more than 240 mg/dl mean plasma glucose value Measurement of glycated hemoglobin is the standard method for assessing long-term glycemic control. When plasma glucose is consistently elevated, there is an increase in nonenzymatic glycation of hemoglobin; this alteration reflects the glycemic history over the previous 23 months, since erythrocytes have an average life span of 120 days (glycemic level in the preceding month contributes about 50% to the A1C value). There are numerous laboratory methods for measuring the various forms of glycated hemoglobin, and these have significant interassay variations; assays that are calibrated against the DCCT A1C assay are essential. Depending on the assay methodology, hemoglobinopathies, anemias, reticulocytosis, transfusions, and uremia may interfere with the A1C result. Measurement of A1C at the point of care allows for more rapid feedback and may therefore assist in adjustment of therapy. In standardized assays, the A 1C approximates the following mean plasma glucose values: an A 1C of 6% = 7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dL), 7% = 8.6 mmol/L (154 mg/dL), 8% = 10.2 mmol/L (183 mg/dL), 9% = 11.8 mmol/L (212 mg/dL), 10% = 13.4 mmol/L (240 mg/dL), 11% = 14.9 mmol/L (269 mg/dL), and 12% = 16.5 mmol/L (298 Continue reading >>

Hemoglobin A1c For The Diagnosis Of Diabetes: To Replace Or To Guide Oral Glucose Tolerance Tests?

Hemoglobin A1c For The Diagnosis Of Diabetes: To Replace Or To Guide Oral Glucose Tolerance Tests?

Go to: Aims/Introduction: To evaluate if hemoglobin A1c (A1C) can replace the use of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to diagnose diabetes in Chinese patients. Materials and Methods: Subjects without pre‐existing diabetes were included in this community‐based study. Each participant received a 75‐g OGTT and A1C tests. Results: A total of 1362 subjects, 512 men and 850 women, aged 18–88 years, were enrolled. The prevalence of diabetes was 7.4 and 7.3% by OGTT and by A1C ≥ 6.5% criteria, respectively. The optimal A1C cut‐off for diabetes defined by OGTT was 6.1%. The performance of A1C ≥ 6.1% to find diabetes by OGTT was poor, with a kappa 0.50, sensitivity 80% and specificity 91%. Using current criteria of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) < 5.56 mmol/L to exclude and ≥7 mmol/L to diagnose diabetes (FPG criterion), the sensitivity, specificity and OGTT required were 77.2, 100 and 13.5%, respectively. Using A1C < 5.9% to exclude and ≥7.0% to diagnose diabetes (A1C criterion), the sensitivity, specificity and OGTT required were 89.1, 99.8 and 26.5%, respectively. However, using FPG < 5.56 mmol/L and A1C < 6.1% to exclude, and A1C ≥ 7.0% to diagnose diabetes (A1C plus FPG criterion), the sensitivity, specificity and OGTT required were 85.2, 100 and 18.9%, respectively. Conclusions: To screen for diabetes, the A1C criterion is more sensitive than the FPG criterion, with more OGTT needed. The A1C plus FPG criterion reduced the number of OGTT needed with acceptable sensitivity. A1C can guide, but cannot replace, OGTT to diagnose diabetes. (J Diabetes Invest, doi: 10.1111/j.2040‐1124.2011.00181.x, 2011) Keywords: Diagnosis, Hemoglobin A1c, Oral glucose tolerance test Different screening strategies to find diabetes by OGTT. (a) By impaired fasting glucose Continue reading >>

The American Association Of Clinical Endocrinologists (aace) 16th Annual Meeting & Clinical Congress

The American Association Of Clinical Endocrinologists (aace) 16th Annual Meeting & Clinical Congress

The AACE (American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists) took place in early April in Seattle. The main themes, we found, were the lowering of glycemic targets (like A1c) and the growing recognition of the harmful effects of glycemic variability (when blood glucose fluctuates). Better, tighter glycemic control is always a theme at this meeting. This year, the focus was on postprandial glucose management and the greater use of combination therapy to push A1c values below 6.5 percent. The American College of Endocrinology (ACE) and AACE will soon publish a joint “roadmap” for the prevention and care of diabetes. We were able to get a preview: Compared to the ADA’s guidelines, it will emphasize a lower A1c target as well as the need for patients to receive different treatments depending on their A1c level. Fasting and postprandial glucose make different contributions to overall hyperglycemia. We note that this is based on the work of Dr. Louis Monnier, who published an important paper in 2003 that showed that post-meal glucose spikes are a bigger contributor to overall hyperglycemia for patients at lower A1c, while high fasting glucose is a bigger contributor for patients at higher A1c. For example, for patients with A1c <7.3 percent, postprandial glucose accounts for 70 percent of overall hyperglycemia while fasting glucose accounts for only 30 percent . The contributions are reversed for patients with A1c >10.3 percent. For patients with A1c between 7.4 percent and 10.3 percent, postprandial and fasting glucose make equal contributions to overall hyperglycemia. Combination therapy is needed to treat both fasting and postprandial glucose. The logic, then, is that in order for patients to achieve lower A1c targets, they need a combination of treatments that targe Continue reading >>

Biostatistics Case Studies

Biostatistics Case Studies

A 62-year-old impoverished man living on a subsistence income has never received regular health care. He participates in a health screening program conducted by medical students and is found to have a random serum glucose of 201 mg/dL. On followup of this, his hemoglobin A1C is 10.3%. Based upon these findings, he is referred for vision testing. He has a diabetic background retinopathy with extensive hard exudates as a result of microangiopathy that is associated with edema and retinal exudates that are "soft" microinfarcts or "hard" yellowish waxy exudates which are deposits of plasma proteins and lipids. The hard exudates are more a feature of older persons with type II diabetes mellitus. Also with background retinopathy leakage from small vessels leads to edema and swelling. If swelling occurs in the area of central vision (macula) then decreased visual acuity is marked. If a study were to be performed to determine risk factors for ocular problems with this man's underlying disease, what kind of variable would be used to record demographic information? Demographic data are recorded as nominal variables. Categorical variables can be nominal or ordinal. A nominal variable is assigned (not measured) and could be a demographic characteristic such as sex or race. An ordinal variable is a ranking, such as mild, moderate, or severe. What kind of variable would be used to record his laboratory findings from a blood specimen? Quantitative variables are measured values. A discrete quantitative variable has a finite number of possible measurements. A continuous quantitative variable has an infinite number of possible measurements within a range, as would be typical for a serum chemistry test such as glucose. Continue reading >>

Hemoglobin A1c Test (hba1c, A1c, Hb1c)

Hemoglobin A1c Test (hba1c, A1c, Hb1c)

Hemoglobin A1c definition and facts Hemoglobin A1c is a protein on the surface of red blood cells that sugar molecules stick to, usually for the life of the red blood cell (about three months). The higher the level of glucose in the blood, the higher the level of hemoglobin A1c is detectable on red blood cells. Hemoglobin A1c levels correlate with average levels of glucose in the blood over an approximately three-month time period. Normal ranges for hemoglobin A1c in people without diabetes is about 4% to 5.9%. People with diabetes with poor glucose control have hemoglobin A1c levels above 7%. Hemoglobin A1c levels are routinely used to determine blood sugar control over time in people with diabetes. Decreasing hemoglobin A1c levels by 1% may decrease the risk of microvascular complications (for example, diabetic eye, nerve, or kidney disease) by 10%. Hemoglobin A1c levels should be checked, according to the American Diabetic Association, every six months in individuals with stable blood sugar control, and every three months if the person is trying to establish stable blood sugar control. Hemoglobin A1c has many other names such as glycohemoglobin, glycated hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, and HbA1c. To explain what hemoglobin A1c is, think in simple terms. Sugar sticks to things, and when it has been stuck to something for a long time it's harder to the get sugar (glucose) off. In the body, sugar sticks too, particularly to proteins. The red blood cells that circulate in the body live for about three months before they die. When sugar (glucose) sticks to these red blood cells by binding to hemoglobin A1c, it gives us an idea of how much glucose has been around in the blood for the preceding three months. Hemoglobin A1c is a minor component of hemoglobin to which gl Continue reading >>

A1c Variability As An Independent Risk Factor For Microalbuminuria In Young People With Type 1 Diabetes

A1c Variability As An Independent Risk Factor For Microalbuminuria In Young People With Type 1 Diabetes

A1C Variability as an Independent Risk Factor for Microalbuminuria in Young People With Type 1 Diabetes 1Department of Paediatrics, University of Cambridge, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge, U.K. 2Department of Paediatrics, University of Chieti, Chieti, Italy Find articles by M. Loredana Marcovecchio 1Department of Paediatrics, University of Cambridge, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge, U.K. 4Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, U.K. 1Department of Paediatrics, University of Cambridge, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge, U.K. 2Department of Paediatrics, University of Chieti, Chieti, Italy 3WellChild Laboratory, King's College London, Evelina Children's Hospital, London, U.K. 4Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, U.K. Corresponding author: David B. Dunger, [email protected] . Received 2010 Oct 26; Accepted 2011 Jan 23. Copyright 2011 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. See for details. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. To assess the potential association between A1C variability (A1C-SD) and microalbuminuria in young people with type 1 diabetes. Serially collected samples for A1C measurement were available for 1,232 subjects with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes recruited to the Oxford Regional Prospective Study and the Nephropathy Family Study. The median (range) number of A1C assessments was 4 (216). Mean intrapersonal A1C was 9.5% and A1C-SD was 0.91. Mean A1C and A1C-SD values were higher in subjects with microalbuminuria (n = 227) than in those with normoalbuminuria (10.3 vs. 9.4%; 1.12 vs. 0.86, P < 0.001). In a Cox regression model, A1C-SD was indepe Continue reading >>

In Search Of: The Highest Diabetes A1c In History

In Search Of: The Highest Diabetes A1c In History

My most recent A1C was nothing to be proud of, but I consoled myself with the thought that it was hardly the worst in history. That got me wondering: What was the all-time worst A1C? Who holds this dubious record, and how high is it possible to go? I decided to pound the pavement and try to find out. So where to start when looking for a diabetes record? Well, with the Guinness Book of World Records, of course. But oddly, the Guinness people don’t seem to have any listings related to A1Cs. They do, however, report that Michael Patrick Buonocore survived a blood sugar of 2,656 mg/dL upon admittance to the ER in East Stroudsburg, PA, on March 23, 2008. Michael was a T1 kiddo at the time, and that record-high sugar level was part of his diagnosis experience. So does Michael also hold the record for top A1C? No. Because while he’s living (thankfully) proof that stratospheric blood sugar levels are possible, a sky-scraping A1C requires both altitude and time. Remember that A1Cs provide a three-month average of our blood sugars. Individual high BG readings, even crazy-high ones, don’t alter the test as much as you’d think if they last only a short time. Because type 1 in kids Michael's age hit so quickly, I figured his A1C would have been rather middle of the road. It takes a slow burn to make an A1C boil. But just to be sure, I reached out to his parents, who tell me his A1C was 11.9 at diagnosis. Higher than I expected, but not too high given the four-digit BG reading. (If his 2,656 had been his average blood sugar for three months, his A1C would have been roughly 95! Yes, that’s 95.0, not 9.5). The highest A1C turns out to be a tricky piece of data to ferret out. If you try Google, you find a gazillion people talking about their own personal highest A1Cs, and comp Continue reading >>

Www.realitycheck.org.au

Www.realitycheck.org.au

This is a secure and safe place for people to bitch, moan, argue, or rejoice (yes, really) about having Type 1 Diabetes. If something has inspired you or enraged you, here's your opportunity to let everyone know. Been endo-less for over a year now, went to random GP for new script as running out of Lantus - Dr made me have the tests as been more than 6 months since last lot (no idea of last results - never went back). My HbA1c is 10.3 - now my endo was a useless pr1ck who did nothing for me but threaten me with horrible death if I didn't do as i was told, so i have no idea what this result means. Had a read over some old posts & understand that 6 or 7 is more ideal, but not why. Also have an infection affecting my levels - hasn't been below 15 for over a week. Bad? A sin is not a sin if no one sees it..... Were you by any chance seeing an endocrinologist whose surname begins with W? If so, I had a similar experience years ago, he stripped me down to my underwear, didn't give me a gown, poked and prodded me and grumpily told me my levels weren't good enough and we had to get them down. Not in the least helpful, and I also never went back and ended up endoless for a while. I wasn't as assertive at the time as I am now, and I have since wished I could go back and give him a serious piece of my mind. It was well over 5 years ago and I am still angry at the way he treated me. I don't blame you for wanting nothing to do with that kind of thing. You might want to try finding a useful endo, not all of them are like the one you've dealt with. I have heard good things about Dr Schmidli. Do a google and you'll find him. Some Canberra people may be able to give some other options. The reason it is better to have a low HbA1c is it reduces your chances of ending up with complication Continue reading >>

Haemoglobin A1c (hba1c) In Non-diabetic And Diabetic Vascular Patients. Is Hba1c An Independent Risk Factor And Predictor Of Adverse Outcome?

Haemoglobin A1c (hba1c) In Non-diabetic And Diabetic Vascular Patients. Is Hba1c An Independent Risk Factor And Predictor Of Adverse Outcome?

Abstract Background Plasma Haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) reflects ambient mean glycaemia over a 2–3 months period. Reports indicate that patients, with and without diabetes, with an elevated HbA1c have an increased risk of adverse outcome following surgical intervention. Our aim was to determine whether elevated plasma HbA1c level was associated with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing vascular surgical procedures. Methods Plasma HbA1c was measured prospectively in 165 consecutive patients undergoing emergency and elective vascular surgical procedures over a 6-month period. Patients were categorized into four groups depending on whether their plasma HbA1c was ≤6%, 6.1–7%, 7.1–8% or >8% and clinical data was entered into a prospectively maintained database. Patients were also classified by diabetic status with suboptimal HbA1c in a patient without diabetes being >6 to ≤7% and suboptimal HbA1c in a patient with diabetes being >7%. Patients with plasma HbA1c >7% were reclassified as having undiagnosed diabetes mellitus. Composite primary endpoints were all cause 30-day morbidity and mortality and all cause 6-month mortality. Composite secondary endpoints were procedure specific complications, adverse cardiac events, stroke, infection and mean length of hospital stay. Results Of the 165 patients studied, 43 (26.1%) had diabetes and the remaining 122 (73.9%) did not. The mean age was 72 years and 59% were male. Suboptimal HbA1c levels were found in 58% patients without diabetes and in 51% patients with diabetes. In patients without diabetes those with suboptimal HbA1c levels (6–7%) had a significantly higher incidence of overall 30-day morbidity compared to patients with HbA1c levels ≤6% (56.5 vs 15.7%, p<0.001). Similarly, for pati Continue reading >>

Ask The Diabetes Team

Ask The Diabetes Team

Question: From Santa Clarita, California, USA: My 13-year-old niece was diagnosed with type 1 three years ago. She has always had a problem with constipation, even before being diagnosed. Lately, I have read a lot of information that claims clearing up constipation can help lower glucose levels. Her glucose levels are frequently high, over 200 mg/dl [11.1 mmol/L]. And, her latest A1c was 10.3. The doctor did say we should try and keep the constipation under control but said constipation has nothing to do with her glucose levels. Is there a link between being constipated and high glucose levels? Will keeping her constipation under control help lower her levels? Answer: These blood glucose levels and A1c levels are extremely high and very dangerous. There is a risk of diabetic ketoacidosis and coma as well as long term risks increased for blindness, cataracts, kidney failure, high blood pressure, early heart attack, nerve damage, etc. If the constipation is caused by the nerves to the intestines not being coordinated, this can occur, but is somewhat rare in children and teenagers. So, I would look for other cause of the constipation. Almost all causes in young people are related to amount of fiber intake. Increasing the bran, vegetable and fruit fiber helps about 90% of the time. If not better and this is being done faithfully, then bowel cleanout procedures and tracking with x-rays would let one know this. Supplementing with psyllium, sennokot, Miralax or POEG, mineral oils, or flaxseed all should work. If the bowel continues to retain stool, then consultation with a gastroenterologist is usually required before going to more severe cleanouts such as oil retention enemas and Fleet enemas. The key to all of this is increasing the fluid intake, increasing the fiber intake Continue reading >>

The A1c Test And Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease

The A1c Test And Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease

Disclaimer: This article is for informational purposes only and is not intended to be a substitute for medical advice or diagnosis from a physician. In the United States, about 1 in 10 people have diabetes, a disease that affects the way the body produces or uses insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps regulate glucose (sugar) in the blood. When blood sugar levels get too high, health problems can develop, including kidney problems. In fact, about half of all people diagnosed with diabetes will develop kidney disease. Persistently high sugar levels can damage the small blood vessels in the body. In the kidneys, diabetes can also cause damage to the tiny filters called glomeruli that filter the blood. The result is that your kidneys may begin to leak protein into the urine, and can become unable to properly eliminate the water, salt and waste products from your body. Another complication of diabetes is nerve damage, often causing burning and numbness in the feet. However, it can sometimes also lead to trouble emptying the bladder. Pressure from a full bladder that doesn’t empty properly can further damage the kidneys. What is the A1C test? The A1C, or hemoglobin A1C test, is used to measure long-term blood glucose levels. It is typically given every three to six months to people with diabetes. This laboratory test shows the person’s average blood glucose control for the previous two to three months. It differs from the finger stick blood test that is used daily to monitor current blood sugar levels. For someone with diabetes, the goal is to have an A1C reading of less than 7.0 percent. For someone who is not diabetic, a normal A1C level is 4.0 percent to 5.9 percent. Research has shown that when A1C levels are close to normal, the risk for complications of diabetes Continue reading >>

Hemoglobin A1c Testing Devices Market To Expand At 10.3% Cagr Between 2013 And 2019:

Hemoglobin A1c Testing Devices Market To Expand At 10.3% Cagr Between 2013 And 2019:

Hemoglobin A1c Testing Devices Market to Expand at 10.3% CAGR between 2013 and 2019: Transparency Market Research has published a new report titled "Hemoglobin A1c Testing Devices Market (End-use - Laboratory and Point-of-Care Testing Devices; Technologies - Ion-Exchange HPLC, Immunoassay, Boronate Affinity Chromatography, Direct Enzymatic Assay and Others) - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast, 2013 - 2019" ET | Source: Transparency Market Research Albany - NY, Oct. 21, 2015 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Transparency Market Research (TMR) has recently published a market study, titled "Hemoglobin A1c Testing Devices Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast, 2013 - 2019". The report states that the overall value of the global hemoglobin A1c testing devices market in 2012 was US$0.94 billion.The report projects the global market for hemoglobin A1c testing devices to develop at an impressive CAGR of 10.3% over the period from 2013 to 2019 and reach a value of US$1.86 billion by the end of the forecast period. Browse the fullHemoglobin A1c Testing Devices Market (End-use - Laboratory and Point-of-Care Testing Devices; Technologies - Ion-Exchange HPLC, Immunoassay, Boronate Affinity Chromatography, Direct Enzymatic Assay and Others) - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast, 2013 - 2019report at According to this report, increasing diabetic and geriatric population across the world is the key reason behind the rapid development of the global hemoglobin A1c testing devices market. The testing is well supported by the proven results it offers, which is contributing significantly to the market growth. On the other hand, the high cost associated with the hemoglobin A1c testing devices is challeng Continue reading >>

Understanding Your Hba1c

Understanding Your Hba1c

You’ve heard about a diabetes test called a hemoglobin A1C. It’s sometimes shortened to HgbA1c or HbA1c or just A1C. Hopefully, you know what yours is. But do you know what it means and what to do with the information? Hemoglobin is what makes red blood cells red. It consists of several proteins wrapped around an iron-based molecule called heme. Heme attaches to oxygen and carries it to the cells. That’s why iron is important in our diets. We need iron to make heme to carry oxygen, so our cells can breathe. Glucose (sugar) molecules are also floating along in our blood. Glucose attaches itself to all kinds of proteins, including the hemoglobin in red blood cells (RBCs). When glucose levels are high, many more of them will attach. Hemoglobin coated with glucose is called “glycated” or “glycosylated” hemoglobin. Glycation (“sugar-coating”) may not harm an RBC, but it does tell us if the cell has encountered much glucose during its lifetime. The more glucose has been in the blood, the more RBCs will be glycated. This is what an HbA1c test measures. A1C isn’t measuring what your blood glucose level is at the moment. It measures how high glucose has been over the last two months or so. RBCs only live about 100–120 days in the bloodstream. Once they become glycated, they stay glycated for life, so the number of glycated RBCs (HbA1c) gives a good picture of how much glucose has been in the blood recently. The A1C test has several advantages over other tests such as a fasting blood sugar (FBS). You don’t have to fast for an A1C. It can be taken at any time of day. It doesn’t matter what you ate the day before or on the day of the test, because it’s not measuring your current sugar. Normally, between 4.2% and 5.6% of RBCs will be glycated. The America Continue reading >>

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