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4.8 A1c

Normal But Increasing Hemoglobin A1c Levels Predict Progression From Islet Autoimmunity To Overt Type 1 Diabetes: Diabetes Autoimmunity Study In The Young (daisy).

Normal But Increasing Hemoglobin A1c Levels Predict Progression From Islet Autoimmunity To Overt Type 1 Diabetes: Diabetes Autoimmunity Study In The Young (daisy).

Abstract OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the utility of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) measurements in the early detection of clinical type 1 diabetes during prospective follow-up of children with islet autoimmunity. METHODS: The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY) has followed for development of islet autoimmunity and diabetes general population newborns carrying human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotypes conferring risk for type 1 diabetes and young siblings or offspring of people with type 1 diabetes. Testing for autoantibodies was performed at least once in 2234 and twice or more in 1887 children. Among the latter, 100 children tested positive on at least two consecutive visits. To date, 92 children have developed persistent islet autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65), insulin, or insulinoma associated antigen-2 (IA-2) and had at least two subsequent clinic visits. These children had study visits with point-of-care testing for HbA1c and random glucose every 3-6 months and those with random plasma glucose above 11.1 mmol/L or HbA1c above 6.3% were evaluated by a pediatric endocrinologist for clinical diabetes. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 3.4 yr from onset of autoimmunity, 28 children developed type 1 diabetes, at mean age of 6.5 yr. Mean prediagnostic HbA1c was 5.1% [standard deviation (SD) = 0.4%]. In a Cox regression model accounting for changes in values in individuals over time, increase in HbA1c predicted increased risk of progression to type 1 diabetes, hazard ratio = 4.8 (95% confidence interval 3.0-7.7) for each SD of 0.4%, independent of random glucose and number of autoantibodies. Increase in random plasma glucose levels only marginally predicted risk of progression (hazard ratio = 1.4, 95% confidence interval 1.0 Continue reading >>

Hba1c Test Results Don't Tell The Full Story

Hba1c Test Results Don't Tell The Full Story

back to Overview When I was a teenager, the HbA1c test results cut straight through my lies and made-up paper logbook. It’s often viewed as the number to rule all numbers. But hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test results can be misleading and don’t tell the full story. As I learned in my teens, the HbA1c test shines a light on things I was trying to hide. Overall, It’s not good at getting to the details of blood sugars, but when used with other pieces of information it can draw attention to (sometimes unseen) problem areas in our diabetes management, and that’s a good thing. How do HbA1c test results work? Let’s take a quick look at the basics of the HbA1c test. A certain amount of sugar in your blood sticks to your red blood cells and can’t be unstuck. It’s there for the life of the cell, which is, on average, about 8-12 weeks. Those red blood cells in your body are constantly recycled, and by checking your HbA1c value every 8-12 weeks (or as often as recommended by your doctor – the ADA recommends at least twice a year), you get to see a fresh new grouping of them. So – A higher blood sugar for a longer time means more sugar on more cells – which means a higher HbA1c. Get it? Ideal HbA1c range HbA1c goals are very individual, which makes sense. We’re all different, right? Of course, there are reference values as a guide, and that’s a good place to start. The ADA suggests an HbA1c of 7%, but also say that “more or less stringent glycemic goals may be appropriate for each individual.” Why have different goals? Because, as you know, there’s a lot to consider with diabetes. Avoiding lows (hypoglycemia) while pushing for lower A1c’s is really important because low blood sugars are immediately dangerous. It’s simply not safe to push for a very low H Continue reading >>

This Calculator Uses The 2007 Adag Formula To Estimate A1c And Average Blood Glucose Equivalents.

This Calculator Uses The 2007 Adag Formula To Estimate A1c And Average Blood Glucose Equivalents.

Enter a value into one of the fields below then press convert. A1c Value: Average Blood Glucose mg/dl or mmol/L Continue reading >>

Blood Test Results: The Definitive Guide To Understanding Your Numbers

Blood Test Results: The Definitive Guide To Understanding Your Numbers

So you received your most recent blood test results from your doctor, but what do all of the numbers mean and how can you better understand the common lab tests? We’ve got you covered. With the variety of blood tests available today, you probably need insight as to which ones would provide you with the best possible information. Aside from the standard lipid panel and blood sugar tests that your doctor will order, there are additional blood tests that you should be able to easily interpret so that you can better determine if there are areas of your health that need more attention. The common blood tests listed in the chart below are among the most helpful to understand, but keep scrolling to see guides to many other lab tests, such as white blood cell readings and cholesterol/lipid panels. We know that understanding medical jargon can be frustrating, so we hope you find this helpful. Blood Test Guide Test Healthy Range Ideal Level Fasting blood glucose 70 – 99 mg/dL Between 80 and 90 mg/dL Fasting insulin Below 8 μIU/ml Below 3 μIU/ml Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) 4.8 – 5.6 percent Below 5.4 percent Homocysteine 5 to 15 μmol/L Below 8 μmol/L C-reactive protein 0.0 – 3.0 mg/L Below 2.0 mg/L Vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D) 30 – 80 ng/mL 50 – 80 ng/mL Blood Test Measurement Guide Unit Meaning ng/dL nanograms per deciliter mg/dL milligrams per deciliter mg/L milligrams per liter μIU/ml micro international units per milliliter μmol/L micro moles per liter How to Read Common Blood Tests (and What to Do If Your Results Indicate Risk) Complete Blood Count (CBC): Also sometimes labeled “Hematology,” this section provides a snapshot of your blood’s make up. Here’s the breakdown: WBC: white blood cells, the cells that go into action for your immunity. Under WBC Continue reading >>

Latest A1c 4.8!!! - Monitoring - Diabetes Forums

Latest A1c 4.8!!! - Monitoring - Diabetes Forums

Registration is fast, simple and absolutely free so please,join our community todayto contribute and support the site. This topic is now archived and is closed to further replies. Dudes and Dudet's... Just got off the phone with My BD nurse/ consolant and she pulled up my A1C from sept 19 and it was 4.8.... HOly cow Batman... This with metformin-only and diet and walking, no shots since June... Type II.... the last one before that was still coming down from the original 14.5 on mar07. then 9.7 in June... the were more in between but these are the major ones.... now if I could just get over this dern cold... Well done - wish it was possible with Type 1 - does anyone know if it is?? Without collapsing all the time! Congratulations! Good luck with your continued control! Well done - wish it was possible with Type 1 - does anyone know if it is?? Without collapsing all the time! Yes it is, but there are too many dangers to it. A 4.8 is equal to an average of around 86 on a daily basis. All the signs of a low BG can occur at 60. Therefore you don't have much of a buffer to play with when eating and making corrections. If you give 1 unit too much of insulin you could easily bottom yourself out. And remember, too many lows is just as bad as too many highs. A 5.3 (100 average) would be the recommended low for a Type 1 to try to obtain. Anything lower and you have to wonder how many lows the person is having, because remember, if you have a few highs in there that means you had a few extreme lows. experienced a few lows when I was 1st diagnosed and on insulin... to get stable.... took about 3 months... I still remeber my 1st day in the hospital... coming down a few point s every few hrs from 1,350BS. Every now and then it would drop more than they expected and woweee.... took 3 Continue reading >>

Why Hemoglobin A1c Is Not A Reliable Marker

Why Hemoglobin A1c Is Not A Reliable Marker

i was recently tested for Hemoglobin A1c because i presented to an endocrinologist with extremely low blood glucose on lab test and some scary symptoms, not the ordinary hypoglycemia symptoms. My A1c was 4.7 which registered as low (L) on the lab print out–it was only slightly low. Does a low score on this suggest a possibility of short-lived RBCs? Does it have any relationship with extremely low blood glucose? my result at the lab, fasting, was 32mg/dL. Not long after that i got a home glucometer and i get the same kind of results on that as the lab got, in the 20s and 30s first thing in the morning, every day. did not know i had hypoglycemia until i had that lab test, though i had had one episode where i woke up with ataxia, i fell while walking to the bathroom first thing in the morning, i got up and immediately fell again. I soon found that i had very impaired coordination. i did not know why and i was very worried. Eventually i wanted to have breakfast but had great difficulty holding the measuring cup under the faucet, to get some water to heat, to make instant oatmeal, i lacked the coordination to get the water into the cup. I persisted and did make the instant oatmeal (pour hot water onto flakes and it’s done), and i got my lap top and was eating the oatmeal and i suddenly was aware that the symptoms were going away. Previously i had been unable to type. While eating the small amount of oatmeal, i realized i could type. That was about a month before the lab test. Since it only happened that once, i put it out of my mind. About 5 days after the lab test, i had the second episode, worse than the first, i woke falling out of bed to the floor, couldn’t use my arm to break the fall, i didn’t have the coordination. i sat on the floor, i could not get up and wa Continue reading >>

Patient Comments: Hemoglobin A1c Test - High Results

Patient Comments: Hemoglobin A1c Test - High Results

I have been doing a lot of research on CIN1. I was 26 when my doctor told me I have cervical dysplasia (CIN1), January of 20017. I didn't think anything of it. But then she told me I have HPV high risk E6/E7 mRNA. One day I was looking through my medical records online and discovered I had CIN1 3 years ago July of 2014 and my doctor never told me. Now I am stressing over it because my periods are irregular and when I do have them they are strange. Also the year of 2014 I told my doctor I was having clots the size of 2 half dollars put together and she didn't say anything either. I get pelvic pain sometimes. She did a biopsy and I was positive for CIN1 and high risk HPV and ascus. I don't know what I should do, maybe I should get a new doctor. In May 2015 I was really tired, lethargic and bloated all the time. I was so constipated and miserable. I had been gluten free for 4 years by self-diagnosis. Finally, I went to a gastroenterologist. My blood work came back positive for Helicobacter pylori. The doctor said that H. pylori causes similar symptoms as gluten allergies. I had an endoscopy and colonoscopy which showed all of the internal inflammation and prior damage from the bacteria. It seemed to be dormant so there was no need for eradication, however the prescription acid reflux pills made me sick so I stopped that. Now I take probiotics and manuka honey and feel great. Try to avoid the prescription drugs. I have to go back for a check up to see if the bacteria is gone. I just had a laparoscopy 2 days ago and other than feeling full and bloated from the gas and a soreness around the incisions, I feel pretty good. The day of the surgery when I came home, I was very sleepy and slept for almost 2 days with getting up, except here and there to use the bathroom and eat. My Continue reading >>

The Normal A1c Level

The Normal A1c Level

You want to control your diabetes as much as possible. You wouldn’t be reading this if you didn’t. So you regularly check your A1C level. This is the best measurement of our blood glucose control that we have now. It tells us what percentage of our hemoglobin – the protein in our red blood cells that carry oxygen – has glucose sticking to it. The less glucose that remains in our bloodstream rather than going to work in the cells that need it the better we feel now and the better our health will continue to be. Less glucose in the bloodstream over time leads to lower A1C values. As we are able to control our diabetes better and better, the reasonable goal is to bring our A1C levels down to normal – the A1C level that people who don’t have diabetes have. But before we can even set that goal, we have to know what the target is. The trouble with setting that target is that different experts tell us that quite different A1C levels are “normal.” They tell us that different levels are normal – but I have never heard of actual studies of normal A1C levels among people without diabetes – until now. The major laboratories that test our levels often say that the normal range is 4.0 to 6.0. They base that range on an old standard chemistry text, Tietz Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial or DCCT, one of the two largest and most important studies of people with diabetes, said that 6.0 was a normal level. But the other key study, the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study or UKPDS, which compared conventional and intensive therapy in more than 5,000 newly diagnosed people with type 2 diabetes, said that 6.2 is the normal level. Those levels, while unsubstantiated, are close. But then comes along one of my heroes, Dr. Continue reading >>

Reference Intervals For Hemoglobin A1c In Pregnant Women: Data From An Italianmulticenter Study.

Reference Intervals For Hemoglobin A1c In Pregnant Women: Data From An Italianmulticenter Study.

1. Clin Chem. 2006 Jun;52(6):1138-43. Epub 2006 Apr 6. Reference intervals for hemoglobin A1c in pregnant women: data from an Italianmulticenter study. Mosca A(1), Paleari R, Dalfr MG, Di Cianni G, Cuccuru I, Pellegrini G, Malloggi L, Bonomo M, Granata S, Ceriotti F, Castiglioni MT, Songini M, Tocco G, Masin M, Plebani M, Lapolla A. (1)Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biomediche, Universit degli Studi di Milano, Segrate (Milano), Italy. [email protected] BACKGROUND: The reference intervals for hemoglobin A1c (Hb A1c) in pregnant womenwithout diabetes are not well defined, and few examples of reference intervalsestablished by networks of different laboratories are available.METHODS: Five Italian Diabetic Care Units were involved in the study. Data werecollected from 445 pregnant women without diabetes, selected on the basis ofglucose challenge test results, and from 384 nonpregnant control women. The HbA1c measurements were performed with HPLC systems aligned to the Diabetes Controland Complications Trial. Plasma glucose measurements were also performed locally.Both Hb A1c and glucose measurements were harmonized by running appropriateexternal quality assessment schemes. The reference intervals were calculated interms of nonparametric 2.5th to 97.5th percentiles with 0.90 confidenceintervals.RESULTS: The Hb A1c measurements were reproducible (CV = 2.0%) and accurate [mean(SE) difference from the target values, -0.10 (0.06)%]. Glucose measurements werealso reproducible (mean CV = 3.2%) and accurate [difference from the targetvalues, -0.01 (0.04) mmol/L]. To calculate common reference intervals, we merged the data collected in the different centers. The Hb A1c reference intervals were 4.0%-5.5% for pregnant nondiabetic women and 4.8%-6.2% for nonpregnant controls. Continue reading >>

Translating A1c To A Blood Sugar Level

Translating A1c To A Blood Sugar Level

In the USA, doctors recommend that you have your Hemoglobin A1c measured at least twice per year. This simple blood test will tell you an approximation of your blood sugar control for the past 3 months based on the amount of Advanced Glycogenated End-Products (AGEs) that have accumulated in your blood. The higher your blood sugar levels are, the more AGEs are present. AGEs are also responsible for the development of complications such as retinopathy and neuropathy, because that accumulation will build and irritate crucial nerve-endings. Now, let’s get back to your A1C: To help people with diabetes understanding their A1C in real day-to-day terms, the medical world has developed the “eAG” measurement. Estimated Average Glucose. Your eAG will give your A1C reading in a blood sugar level of milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) just like you’re used to seeing on your glucose meter. The American Diabetes Association has this easy calculator, allowing you to enter and translate your latest A1C to your eAG. 12% = 298 mg/dL (240 – 347) 11% = 269 mg/dL (217 – 314) 10% = 240 mg/dL (193 – 282) 9% = 212 mg/dL (170 –249) 8% = 183 mg/dL (147 – 217) 7% = 154 mg/dL (123 – 185) 6% = 126 mg/dL (100 – 152) What can you do with that information? It is recommended that people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes achieve an A1C of 7.0 percent or lower for optimal health, and the prevention of complications. This translates to an average blood sugar before and between meals around 70 to 130 mg/dL. And after meals, under 180 mg/dL. For pregnancy with diabetes, an A1C lower than 6.5 percent is imperative for the healthy development of your baby, and your own health and safety. Post-meal blood sugars for pregnant women is suggested at lower than 120 mg/dL. A non-diabetic’s A1C is Continue reading >>

Children With Diabetes - Ask The Diabetes Team

Children With Diabetes - Ask The Diabetes Team

My recent yearly physical had one blood test, an A1c, and the result was 6.7. My doctor said I was creeping up to the 6.9 number which he said would mean I would need to take medication. This is the first I had heard this warning. I am 56, just had knee partial replacement surgery, and my weight went up to 240 pounds. I am 6 feet tall, a non-smoker, take two medications for blood pressure, which is well controlled with Norvasc/Accupril. I do not drink, but since my physical I have dropped to 222 pounds. I am really watching what I eat and have been, for some time now, but it is the holidays and treats add pounds, and I had knee surgery. Now, I am walking twice a day, and feel pretty slim at 222 pounds. I recently purchased an Accu-Chek blood glucose meter, strips, etc. and started checking my blood sugar three days ago. I downloaded a chart which has the conversion from plasma blood glucose to the equivalent A1c number. I have been charting my tests, by time and before and after eating and after walking. So far, my numbers look good to me. Are they better sounding to you? My 6:30 a.m. test, before my bowl of Fiber One, was 121 mg/dl [6.7 mmol/L], which is a 5.6 A1c equivalent. I had my cereal, went for a walk tested and got a 95 mg/dl [5.3 mmol/L]/4.8 A1c. I then drove down 30 minutes to get some better walking boots for winter, had lunch of chicken breast, baked beans, and cole slaw, drove home, waited two hours to test my blood sugar, which was 122 mg/dl [6.8 mmol/L], a 5.6 A1c. I had supper, went for a walk after an hour came home tested got a 95 mg/dl [5.3 mmol/L]/4.8 A1c. I have purchased a low carbohydrate diet book for reference for staying away from spiking foods, staying aware of food like white potato that can cause blood sugar to elevate. I feel pretty good. Continue reading >>

Do You Have Prediabetes?

Do You Have Prediabetes?

The CDC estimates that one out of every three adults in the U.S. (86 million people) have what is called prediabetes. And of this number, nine out of 10 people do not know they have it. So there’s a good chance that you, or someone you know, has prediabetes. Prediabetes means that your blood sugar level is higher than normal but not yet high enough to be type 2 diabetes. Prediabetes increases your risk of heart disease and stroke. Without lifestyle changes, 15-30 percent of people with prediabetes are very likely to progress to type 2 diabetes within five years. The good news for persons with prediabetes is that if you make some lifestyle changes, you can cut your risk of getting type 2 diabetes in half. This includes a 5-7 percent weight loss if needed, healthy eating, and being more active. Last year about 28-33 percent of the adults tested at the Bridger Valley and Evanston Health Fair Blood Draws had higher than normal fasting blood sugar results, which means that most likely, one in three adults in Uinta County has prediabetes, right in keeping with the national numbers. Uinta County Public Health is promoting prediabetes awareness and suggesting that at-risk adults get a Hemoglobin A1C blood test done with their next routine lab tests (there will be a lower-cost blood draw opportunity again this fall) to see if they fall in the prediabetes stage. This test indicates the average level of blood sugar over the past two to three months. A normal range for hemoglobin A1C is 4.8-5.6 percent and the prediabetes range is 5.7-6.4 percent. Type 2 diabetes is indicated when the A1C is 6.5 percent or higher. Persons at higher risk for prediabetes include the following: age 45 and over family history of diabetes (parent or sibling) overweight inactivity, metabolic syndrome h Continue reading >>

Hemoglobin A1c (hba1c) Test For Diabetes

Hemoglobin A1c (hba1c) Test For Diabetes

The hemoglobin A1c test tells you your average level of blood sugar over the past 2 to 3 months. It's also called HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin test, and glycohemoglobin. People who have diabetes need this test regularly to see if their levels are staying within range. It can tell if you need to adjust your diabetes medicines. The A1c test is also used to diagnose diabetes. Hemoglobin is a protein found in red blood cells. It gives blood its red color, and it’s job is to carry oxygen throughout your body. The sugar in your blood is called glucose. When glucose builds up in your blood, it binds to the hemoglobin in your red blood cells. The A1c test measures how much glucose is bound. Red blood cells live for about 3 months, so the test shows the average level of glucose in your blood for the past 3 months. If your glucose levels have been high over recent weeks, your hemoglobin A1c test will be higher. For people without diabetes, the normal range for the hemoglobin A1c level is between 4% and 5.6%. Hemoglobin A1c levels between 5.7% and 6.4% mean you have a higher change of getting of diabetes. Levels of 6.5% or higher mean you have diabetes. The target A1c level for people with diabetes is usually less than 7%. The higher the hemoglobin A1c, the higher your risk of having complications related to diabetes. A combination of diet, exercise, and medication can bring your levels down. People with diabetes should have an A1c test every 3 months to make sure their blood sugar is in their target range. If your diabetes is under good control, you may be able to wait longer between the blood tests. But experts recommend checking at least two times a year. People with diseases affecting hemoglobin, such as anemia, may get misleading results with this test. Other things that can Continue reading >>

Understanding Your Hba1c

Understanding Your Hba1c

You’ve heard about a diabetes test called a hemoglobin A1C. It’s sometimes shortened to HgbA1c or HbA1c or just A1C. Hopefully, you know what yours is. But do you know what it means and what to do with the information? Hemoglobin is what makes red blood cells red. It consists of several proteins wrapped around an iron-based molecule called heme. Heme attaches to oxygen and carries it to the cells. That’s why iron is important in our diets. We need iron to make heme to carry oxygen, so our cells can breathe. Glucose (sugar) molecules are also floating along in our blood. Glucose attaches itself to all kinds of proteins, including the hemoglobin in red blood cells (RBCs). When glucose levels are high, many more of them will attach. Hemoglobin coated with glucose is called “glycated” or “glycosylated” hemoglobin. Glycation (“sugar-coating”) may not harm an RBC, but it does tell us if the cell has encountered much glucose during its lifetime. The more glucose has been in the blood, the more RBCs will be glycated. This is what an HbA1c test measures. A1C isn’t measuring what your blood glucose level is at the moment. It measures how high glucose has been over the last two months or so. RBCs only live about 100–120 days in the bloodstream. Once they become glycated, they stay glycated for life, so the number of glycated RBCs (HbA1c) gives a good picture of how much glucose has been in the blood recently. The A1C test has several advantages over other tests such as a fasting blood sugar (FBS). You don’t have to fast for an A1C. It can be taken at any time of day. It doesn’t matter what you ate the day before or on the day of the test, because it’s not measuring your current sugar. Normally, between 4.2% and 5.6% of RBCs will be glycated. The America Continue reading >>

The Normal A1c Level

The Normal A1c Level

Wow Richard, 70 lbs? I have lost 24 lbs from low carb diet due to SIBO. It also helped my AC1 go down three points from 6.2 and my cholesterol is lower, which surprised me. I can’t afford to lose anymore weight because I was small to begin with. I had noticed much bigger people in the UK over the last 5 years compared to 15-20. Was quite shocking. I thought we had the patent on obesity! I am not diabetic that I know of but I had weird symptoms… Thirst that continued all day and night. My husband called me a camel. Dry eyes, rashes, strange dark discolouration on arm, under the arm to the side, some circulation issues and blurred vision. Eye specialist could not figure out why. Sores in the mouth also. I had observed about three weeks into super low carbs (30 Gms carb/day) that athlete’s foot symptom, sores in mouth and rashes were clearing up. So, lowering carbs for SIBO actually turned out for the best. By the way, I love your final paragraph. Research is what led me to SIBO diagnosis, and I then told the GI what to look for! He was barking up the wrong tree for months. Said I needed to eat more carbs so I don’t lose weight. Well, carbs fed the bacterial overgrowth!!! Dang fool. On Saturday, June 23, 2012, Diabetes Developments wrote: There is a new comment on the post “The Normal A1C Level”. Author: Richard Comment: I think part of the problem is that doctors are trained over many years to treat with pills, not with food. We continue to do what we are trained to do no matter what. I do believe they want to help us but don’t have the nutritional knowledge because that is not their expertise. When you have a hammer, etc. Nutritionist are no better unless they are those involved in research. They just peddle the messages they are told to. Then again, why wo Continue reading >>

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