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Why Glucose Is Soluble In Water?

Influence Of Glucose Solubility And Dissolution Rate On The Kinetics Of Lipase Catalyzed Synthesis Of Glucose Laurate In 2-methyl 2-butanol.

Influence Of Glucose Solubility And Dissolution Rate On The Kinetics Of Lipase Catalyzed Synthesis Of Glucose Laurate In 2-methyl 2-butanol.

Influence of glucose solubility and dissolution rate on the kinetics of lipase catalyzed synthesis of glucose laurate in 2-methyl 2-butanol. Flores MV, et al. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2002. Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Strathclyde, Thomas Graham Building, 295 Cathedral Street, Glasgow G1 1XL, Scotland, UK. [email protected] Biotechnol Bioeng. 2002 Jun 30;78(7):815-21. The lipase catalyzed acylation of glucose by dodecanoic acid in 2-methyl 2-butanol was studied. The initial reaction rate was strongly dependent on the dissolved glucose concentration in the medium. Several methods were shown to increase dissolved glucose concentrations and initial reaction rates, namely, the use of solid beta-glucose, amorphous solid glucose, and supersaturated glucose solution. Supersaturated glucose solutions in 2-methyl 2-butanol showed a high stability even in the presence of solid crystalline glucose. During the reaction, the dissolved glucose concentration falls as the reaction proceeds, before recovering later as more of the excess solid dissolves. However, the ester synthesis rate continues to fall even after glucose concentration reaches its minimum, so glucose dissolution rate limitation is not responsible for the synthesis rate decline. Experiments with added molecular sieves show that the main reason is the accumulation of product water. In the presence of molecular sieves, 70% of glucose was converted to ester, independent of the initial soluble glucose in the medium. Continue reading >>

What Is The Reaction Between Glucose And Water?

What Is The Reaction Between Glucose And Water?

What is the reaction between glucose and water? Glucose does not dissociate when dissolved in water. In comparison, a substance like sodium chloride, dissociates into sodium and chloride ions when mixed with water. And the chemical equation for that is Since glucose does not dissociate, it simply converts from solid to the aqueous form as per the following equation: `C_6H_12O_6 (s) + H_2O -> C_6H_12O_6 (aq)` In general, we are more interested in oxidation of glucose in our... Glucose does not dissociate when dissolved in water. In comparison, a substance like sodium chloride, dissociates into sodium and chloride ions when mixed with water. And the chemical equation for that is Since glucose does not dissociate, it simply converts from solid to the aqueous form as per the following equation: `C_6H_12O_6 (s) + H_2O -> C_6H_12O_6 (aq)` In general, we are more interested in oxidation of glucose in our body. When glucose reacts with oxygen, cellular respiration takes place and carbon dioxide, water and energy molecules are released. Here is the relevant equation: `C_6H_12O_6 + 6O_2 -> 6CO_2 + 6H_2O + ATP` Here ATP or adenosine triphosphate are the energy molecules. This is the reaction which produces energy in our body and that of animals. Continue reading >>

Solubility Of Maltose In Water In The Presence Of Glucose And Maltotriose

Solubility Of Maltose In Water In The Presence Of Glucose And Maltotriose

Solubility of Maltose in Water in the Presence of Glucose and Maltotriose Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Learn more. Get access to the full version of this article.View access options below. You previously purchased this article through ReadCube. View access options below. Logged in as READCUBE_USER. Log out of ReadCube . Maltose is used in various forms in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Maltose syrups produced by enzymatic starch conversion usually contain impurity sugars, e.g. glucose, maltotriose, and higher saccharides, which affect the solubility of maltose. Using a simple refractometric technique, solubility data for the pure and impure maltose systems were determined. Glucose and maltotriose were found to decrease the equilibrium concentration of maltose but increase the total dissolved solids concentration. Lslichkeit von Maltose in Wasser in Gegenwart von Glucose und Maltotriose. Maltose wird in verschiedenen Formen in der Lebensmittel und der pharmazeutischen Industrie verwendet. Durch enzymatischen Strkeabbau hergestellt Maltosesirupe enthalten gewhnlich verunreinigende Zucker wie z. B. Glucose, Maltotriose und hhere Saccharide, die die Lslichkeit von Maltose beeinflussen. Unter Anwendung eines einfachen refraktometrischen Verfahrens wurden die Lslichkeitswerte fr die reinen und unreinen Maltosesysteme bestimmt. Herabsetzung der Gleichgewichtskonzentration von Maltose durch Glucose und Maltotriose wurden gefunden, dagegen jedoch eine Erhhung der Gesamtkonzentration an gelsten Feststoffen. Continue reading >>

Chemistry Ii: Water And Organic Molecules

Chemistry Ii: Water And Organic Molecules

Table of Contents It can be quite correctly argued that life exists on Earth because of the abundant liquid water. Other planets have water, but they either have it as a gas (Venus) or ice (Mars). This relationship is shown in Figure 1. Recent studies of Mars reveal the presence sometime in the past of running fluid, possibly water. The chemical nature of water is thus one we must examine as it permeates living systems: water is a universal solvent, and can be too much of a good thing for some cells to deal with. Figure 1. Water can exist in all three states of matter on Earth, while only in one state on our two nearest neighboring planets. The above graph is from Water is polar covalently bonded within the molecule. This unequal sharing of the electrons results in a slightly positive and a slightly negative side of the molecule. Other molecules, such as Ethane, are nonpolar, having neither a positive nor a negative side, as shown in Figure 2. Figure 2. The difference between a polar (water) and nonpolar (ethane) molecule is due to the unequal sharing of electrons within the polar molecule. Nonpolar molecules have electrons equally shared within their covalent bonds. Image from Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition, by Sinauer Associates (www.sinauer.com) and WH Freeman (www.whfreeman.com), used with permission. These link up by the hydrogen bond discussed earlier. Consequently, water has a great interconnectivity of individual molecules, which is caused by the individually weak hydrogen bonds, shown in Figure 3, that can be quite strong when taken by the billions. Figure 3. Formation of a hydrogen bond between the hydrogen side of one water molecule and the oxygen side of another water molecule. Image from Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology, Continue reading >>

Supersaturated

Supersaturated

Temperature and Solubility of Solids Increased temperature usually increases the solubility of solids in liquids. To understand why, we need to return to the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Increased temperature means a greater average velocity for the particles. This allows them to move from one position to another more easily. The greater freedom of movement allows the system to change its state more easily, and in keeping with the Second Law, it changes to the most probable state available, that is, the most dispersed state of which it is capable. Solids are very condensed systems, so the dissolving of a solid usually leads to a more dispersed system. Therefore, although there are exceptions, an increase in temperature generally leads to an increase in a solids solubility. The table below shows the change in solubility with changing temperature for glucose in water. Solubility in grams of glucose per 100 mL of water The change in solubility with change in temperature can be used to create solutions with more solute dissolved than is predicted by the solubility of the substance. For example, the solubility of glucose at 25 C is 91 g glucose per 100 mL of water, and the solubility of glucose at 50 C is 244 g glucose per 100 mL of water. Therefore, if we add 100 g of glucose to 100 mL water at 25 C, 91 g dissolve. Nine grams of solid remain on the bottom, and the solution is saturated at this temperature. If we then heat the mixture to 50 C, the remaining 9 grams of glucose will dissolve. At the new temperature, the solubility limit in 100 mL of water is 244 g glucose. With only 100 g of glucose dissolved, our system is now unsaturated. If we now slowly cool the mixture back to 25 C, 9 g of glucose should precipitate from solution. Sometimes this happens immediately, but Continue reading >>

Our Body's Unlimited Source Of Energy: Glucose

Our Body's Unlimited Source Of Energy: Glucose

Our body's unlimited source of energy: Glucose Which quality of glucose, which provides energy for our body like the fuel that runs a machine, make it easily dissolve in water? Why is it of vital importance that glucose can dissolve in almost every fluid? How are excess amounts of glucose balanced in the body? What sort of changes occur in the body if there is not enough glucose ? Glucose, which is the basic source of food for all living beings, is a very important molecule. By means of glucose, which Allah created as an instrument, we can move our arms, work our jaw muscles to eat food and we can walk. The glucose molecule, which has six carbon, twelve hydrogen and six oxygen molecules, has a hexagonal shape because of hydrogen atoms. These six oxygen molecules found in its composition gives glucose many important qualities. For example, by means of oxygen molecules, glucose can easily dissolve in water. The reason for this is that this molecule can form strong hydrogen bonds with water molecules, because of the oxygen atoms. Glucose can dissolve in almost any type of fluid due to this molecule that allows for solubility in water. Glucose is the most important nutrient source for the cells, and it is transferred to cells via blood; thus it has to be able to dissolve in fluid. Glucose has common characteristics with hexane, which has a similar molecular structure to glucose. Hexane is similar to glucose as a fuel; however, hexane does not carry any oxygen atoms and therefore when it burns, it causes many new and strong carbon-oxygen bonds. This situation prevents hexane from dissolving in water. Therefore, hexane cannot be carried to the cells by the blood. Under normal conditions, glucose is less efficient than hexane, but it is of vital importance for human beings, a Continue reading >>

Why Is Glucose Soluble In Water | Yahoo+

Why Is Glucose Soluble In Water | Yahoo+

Glucose is table sugar ad is soluable because it has alot of -OH groups on it that can hydrogen bond with water molecules. Glucose is alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-beta-D-fructofuranoside, just for fun! Well, that is a great question to ask here is my conclusion:Temperature and Solubility of SolidsIncreased temperature usually increases the solubility... Well, that is a great question to ask here is my conclusion: Increased temperature usually increases the solubility of solids in liquids. To understand why, we need to return to the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Increased temperature means a greater average velocity for the particles. This allows them to move from one position to another more easily. The greater freedom of movement allows the system to change its state more easily, and in keeping with the Second Law, it changes to the most probable state available, that is, the most dispersed state of which it is capable. Solids are very condensed systems, so the dissolving of a solid usually leads to a more dispersed system. Therefore, although there are exceptions, an increase in temperature generally leads to an increase in a solids solubility. The table below shows the change in solubility with changing temperature for glucose in water. Temperature Solubility in grams of glucose per 100 mL of water The change in solubility with change in temperature can be used to create solutions with more solute dissolved than is predicted by the solubility of the substance. For example, the solubility of glucose at 25 C is 91 g glucose per 100 mL of water, and the solubility of glucose at 50 C is 244 g glucose per 100 mL of water. Therefore, if we add 100 g of glucose to 100 mL water at 25 C, 91 g dissolve. Nine grams of solid remain on the bottom, and the solution is saturated at this Continue reading >>

Is Glucose Soluble In Water?

Is Glucose Soluble In Water?

Glucose's chemical formula is C6 H12 O6 and is known as a simple sugar. Glucose is the main source of energy for animals. Plants produce glucose through photosynthesis. Get access to this video and our entire Q&A library from General Studies Health Science: Help & Review Become a member and unlock all StudyAnswers Try it free for 3 days! Explore our homework questions and answer library Ask a study question and one of our experts will send you an answer within hours. By submitting, I am agreeing to the Terms of Use and Honor Code To ask a site support question, click here When your answer is ready, it will appear on your Dashboard . New! Get a text message when your answer is ready Thanks! We'll text you when your answer is ready! Receive an email or text message when your answer is ready to view Email already in use. Already a member? Log In instead. We will send you an email and/or text message when you answer is ready. Thanks! We'll notify you when your answer is ready! Your notification info was successfully sent. Study.com's video lessons can help you master all major subjects Create your account. No obligation; cancelanytime. Start your FREE trial. No obligation; cancelanytime. Email already in use. Already a member? Log In instead. 22,000 streaming videos to use in the classroom 10,000 rich lesson plans, activities, games, project ideas, and more to supplement your lessons Cancel before and your credit card will not be charged. Your Cart is Empty. Please Choose a Product. Study.com video lessons have helped over 30 million students. "I learned more in 10 minutes than 1 month of chemistry classes" "I aced the CLEP exam and earned 3 college credits!" Study.com video lessons have helped over half a million teachers engage their students. "The videos have changed th Continue reading >>

Glucose

Glucose

This article is about the naturally occurring D-form of glucose. For the L-form, see L-Glucose. Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6, which means that it is a molecule that is made of six carbon atoms, twelve hydrogen atoms, and six oxygen atoms. Glucose circulates in the blood of animals as blood sugar. It is made during photosynthesis from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight. It is the most important source of energy for cellular respiration. Glucose is stored as a polymer, in plants as starch and in animals as glycogen. With six carbon atoms, it is classed as a hexose, a subcategory of the monosaccharides. D-Glucose is one of the sixteen aldohexose stereoisomers. The D-isomer, D-glucose, also known as dextrose, occurs widely in nature, but the L-isomer, L-glucose, does not. Glucose can be obtained by hydrolysis of carbohydrates such as milk sugar (lactose), cane sugar (sucrose), maltose, cellulose, glycogen, etc. It is commonly commercially manufactured from cornstarch by hydrolysis via pressurized steaming at controlled pH in a jet followed by further enzymatic depolymerization.[3] In 1747, Andreas Marggraf was the first to isolate glucose.[4] Glucose is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.[5] The name glucose derives through the French from the Greek γλυκός, which means "sweet," in reference to must, the sweet, first press of grapes in the making of wine.[6][7] The suffix "-ose" is a chemical classifier, denoting a carbohydrate. Function in biology[edit] Glucose is the most widely used aldohexose in living organisms. One possible explanation for this is that glucose has a lower tendency than other aldohexoses to react nonspecific Continue reading >>

Why Does Water Dissolve Sugar?

Why Does Water Dissolve Sugar?

For a liquid to dissolve a solid, the molecules of the liquid and solid must attract one another. The bond between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms (OH bond) in sugar (sucrose) gives the oxygen a slight negative charge and the hydrogen a slight positive charge. Sucrose is a polar molecule. The polar water molecules attract the negative and positive areas on the polar sucrose molecules which makes sucrose dissolve in water. A nonpolar substance like mineral oil does not dissolve a polar substance like sucrose. Students will observe the dissolving of the sugar coating from an M&M when it is placed in water. Students will then help design an experiment to see if the type of liquid the M&M is placed in affects how much of the coating dissolves. Students will be able to explain, on the molecular level, how the polar characteristic of water and sugar interact so that water dissolves sugar. Students will be able to identify and control the variables in their experiment. Students will also be able to explain why a nonpolar liquid, such as mineral oil, is not good at dissolving sugar. Download the student activity sheet , and distribute one per student when specified in the activity. The activity sheet will serve as the Evaluate component of each 5-E lesson plan. Be sure you and the students wear properly fitting goggles. Isopropyl alcohol is flammable. Keep it away from flames or spark sources. Read and follow all warnings on the label. Dispose of isopropyl alcohol and mineral oil according to local regulations. Warn studens not to eat the M&Ms. Help students realize that the candy coating of an M&M is made mostly of sugar and a bit of coloring. Distribute M&Ms to students and have them look at the outside candy coating. Then have students break an M&M to look closely at the coat Continue reading >>

Solutions How They Form

Solutions How They Form "like" Dissolves "like"

Space filling water model showing lone pairs in "pink" Ball & stick model of water showing lone pairs in "pink". The glucose sugar molecule, C6H12O6, is an organic molecule. It was classified this way because glucose is made by living organisms. This makes it "organic". Glucose has six -O-H groups along the carbon skeleton. These -O-H are polar centers. The symmetry of glucose decreases the polarity of the molecule, but the "O" in each -O-H has a has a slight negative charge, d-. The hydrogen end of the -O-H has a slight positive charge, d+. Remember there are "6" of these in glucose. Glucose dissolves in water because polar water molecules attach to the glucose molecules. The many O-H (hydroxyl- ) groups in glucose are attracted to the water molecules by dipole-dipole forces. The strength of these forces can be greater than the glucose -glucose interactions. The hydrogen bonding between water molecules and glucose also makes the glucose more water soluble. When the attractive forces of the water molecules for the glucose exceeds the attractive forces between the glucose and its neighboring glucose molecules the water can rip the sugar molecule out of the crystal. The glucose is "solvated" when it surrounded solvent molecules. The solvent has "dissolved" the molecule. This process is repeated over and over again until either the sugar is completely dissolved or the supply of unattached water molecules is exhausted. There is a definite number of water molecules needed to solvate or isolate a glucose solute molecule. Once the solvent population is all tied up, no more sugar (solute) can dissolve. You can see this kind of thing happen if you add table sugar (sucrose, C12H22O11) to water. At first the solid disappears, but eventually additional solid sinks to the bottom. T Continue reading >>

Cellulose - Chemistry Encyclopedia - Structure, Water, Number, Property, Molecule

Cellulose - Chemistry Encyclopedia - Structure, Water, Number, Property, Molecule

Cellulose is the most abundant organic molecule in nature. It is a polysaccharide assembled from glucose monomer units, and it (together with other materials such as hemicellulose and lignin) is the main constituent of plant cell walls. Along with several undigestible polysaccharides, cellulose constitutes the main part of dietary fiber. Specifically cellulose is one of the components of insoluble fiber. The glucose units in cellulose are combined in a way that results in the formation of very linear, flat molecules that can, in turn, form sheets that possess extensive networks of hydrogen bonds . The hydrogen bonds are both within individual sheets and between successive sheets. As a result of these bonds, sheets of cellulose are particularly stronga property critical to the function of plant cell walls. Cellulose shows a variable degree of polymerization, with anywhere from 1,000 to 14,000 glucose residues comprising a single cellulose polymer. Because of its high molecular weight and crystalline structure, cellulose is insoluble in water and has a poor ability to absorb water. Human beings lack the enzyme cellulase and are therefore unable to break cellulose down to individual glucose molecules. Although many fungi are able to break down cellulose to glucose, only a few types of bacteria have this ability. In the rumina of cows, sheep, and goats, two different types of bacteria produce the enzyme that breaks down cellulose. Cellulose and its derivatives are used in a number of food products to modify those foods in different ways (e.g., as a thickener, stabilizer, or texturizer). The fibrous form is a basic material that is used to make both textiles and paper. Cellulose is also used to make nitrocellulose (an ingredient in explosives and lacquers) and as a binder i Continue reading >>

Glucose - Motm 2007 - Chime Version

Glucose - Motm 2007 - Chime Version

Also available: HTML-only , VRML , and JMol versions. It depends in your definition... For non-scientific use, the term 'sugar' refers to the molecule sucrose (also called "table sugar"), and these are the white crystals we add to tea and coffee to make it sweeter. However, to a scientist, the term 'sugar' refers to any monosaccharide or disaccharide. Monosaccharides (also called "simple sugars"), such as glucose, contain only one sugar unit per molecule, while disaccharides have 2 sugar units and polysaccarides have many sugars units per molecule (see below). In a list of ingredients, any word that ends with "-ose" is likely to denote a sugar. Glucose is a simple carbohydrate, which means it contains carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Sugars like glucose (C6H12O6) with six carbon atoms are referred to as hexoses, and it has one sugar unit so it is a monosaccharide. Its name comes from the Greek glykos, which means 'sweet'. In 1888 one of the world's most important chemists, Emil Fischer , discovered the three sugars, glucose, fructose and mannose. By 1890 he was the first chemist to synthesize all three of these sugars starting from glycerol. He was awarded the 1902 Nobel prize in Chemistry . Fischer also confirmed the van't Hoff theory, namely the theory of the asymmetric carbon atom. A-level students will be familiar with the concept of a chiral {asymmetric} carbon atom, often indicated with an asterisk. Chiral carbons have four different groups bonded to them. It is quite remarkable that he also correctly predicted the 3D arrangements of glucose with its several chiral carbons. The above equation is a gross simplification of Glycolysis, a complex metabolic pathway involving oxidation of glucose. It shows that the food we eat is ultimately broken down and converted to glu Continue reading >>

Solubility And Complex-ion Equilibria

Solubility And Complex-ion Equilibria

The sugar we use to sweeten coffee or tea is a molecular solid, in which theindividual molecules are held together by relatively weak intermolecular forces. Whensugar dissolves in water, the weak bonds between the individual sucrose molecules arebroken, and these C12H22O11 molecules are released intosolution. It takes energy to break the bonds between the C12H22O11molecules in sucrose. It also takes energy to break the hydrogen bonds in water that mustbe disrupted to insert one of these sucrose molecules into solution. Sugar dissolves inwater because energy is given off when the slightly polar sucrose molecules formintermolecular bonds with the polar water molecules. The weak bonds that form between thesolute and the solvent compensate for the energy needed to disrupt the structure of boththe pure solute and the solvent. In the case of sugar and water, this process works sowell that up to 1800 grams of sucrose can dissolve in a liter of water. Ionic solids (or salts) contain positive and negative ions, which are heldtogether by the strong force of attraction between particles with opposite charges. Whenone of these solids dissolves in water, the ions that form the solid are released intosolution, where they become associated with the polar solvent molecules. Eventually, the Na+ and Cl- ion concentrations become largeenough that the rate at which precipitation occurs exactly balances the rate at which NaCldissolves. Once that happens, there is no change in the concentration of these ions withtime and the reaction is at equilibrium. When this system reaches equilibrium it is calleda saturated solution, because it contains the maximum concentration of ions thatcan exist in equilibrium with the solid salt. The amount of salt that must be added to agiven volume of solvent t Continue reading >>

Why Does Glucose Dissolve In Water?

Why Does Glucose Dissolve In Water?

Glucose dissolves in water because the strong magnetic charge of water is able to break the molecular bonds that connect the sugar molecules. Crystalline sugar consists of a matrix of molecules held together by relatively weak bonds, and when submerged in water, the stronger charge of the water molecules pulls the sugar apart. A water molecule consists of two positively charged hydrogen atoms and one negatively charged oxygen atom. This gives the entire molecule a magnetic charge, which is why water is a good solvent and dissolves many different compounds. Sugars consist of hydrogen, carbon and oxygen in long chains, and these chains develop weak electrical bonds with one another. This is what causes sugar to form solid crystals. When water and sugar come into contact, the stronger magnetic field of the water molecule pulls apart the molecular bonds of the sugar, attracting the oxygen-hydrogen portion of the sugar molecule. The sugar molecule effectively bonds to the water molecule, breaking away from the crystalline sugar matrix. Since each water molecule has two ends that can form these bonds, each can connect to a sugar molecule and another water molecule, forming a solution of dissolved sugar in water. Vinegar and alcohol are also able to dissolve sugar, but not as completely as water. Continue reading >>

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