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Why Does A Person With Diabetes Have Glucose In Their Urine

Urine Tests For Diabetes: Glucose Levels And Ketones

Urine Tests For Diabetes: Glucose Levels And Ketones

What Are Urine Tests for Diabetes? Diabetes is a condition that is characterized by high blood sugar levels. This is due to the body’s inability to make any or enough insulin, use insulin effectively, or both. Insulin is a hormone that helps the cells of your body absorb blood sugar to make energy. Insulin is produced by the pancreas after you eat food. There are two major classifications of diabetes: Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body’s immune system attacks and destroys insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. This type is usually diagnosed in childhood and develops quickly. Symptoms include quick weight loss, excessive thirst, excessive urination, and fatigue. Type 1 makes up just 5 percent of diabetes cases in the United States. Type 2 diabetes is when cells aren’t able to use insulin effectively anymore. This is called insulin resistance. If the cells can’t take in and store glucose, the glucose remains in the blood. Eventually the pancreas is unable to produce enough insulin to keep blood sugar levels within normal ranges, and diabetes develops. This type of diabetes develops gradually and is associated with being overweight and having a sedentary lifestyle. Diabetes causes blood glucose (blood sugar) to rise to abnormally high levels. In type 1 diabetes, the body may also begin to burn fat for energy because the cells aren’t getting the glucose they need. When this happens, the body produces chemicals called ketones. When ketones build up in the blood, they make the blood more acidic. A buildup of ketones can poison the body and result in coma or even death. Urine tests aren’t ever used to diagnose diabetes, but they may be used to monitor a person’s levels of urine ketones and urine glucose and sometimes to make sure their diabetes is being manag Continue reading >>

Urine Test For Diabetes: What You Need To Know

Urine Test For Diabetes: What You Need To Know

Urine tests can check for a range of things, including blood in the urine, infection, and other systemic conditions. They are frequently used for diagnosing and monitoring diabetes. In this article, we look at types of urine tests for diabetes and how to understand the results. Contents of this article: What is a urine test for diabetes? Urine tests are important for both the diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes. Urine testing is less accurate than blood testing but is useful as a screening test for people who already know they have diabetes. Urine tests can also be used to check for glucose in the urine of people who are undiagnosed. A urine test will be looking for three things: glucose, ketones, and protein. Glucose Having glucose in the urine may indicate diabetes, although it can also be caused by other conditions. For example, pregnant women who do not have diabetes may have glucose in their urine. Glucose is not normally found in urine, but it can pass from the kidneys into the urine in people who have diabetes. Ketones Ketone is a chemical that the body produces when there is a shortage of insulin in the blood. It is a by-product produced when the body starts to break down body fat for energy. The presence of ketones in a person with diabetes may indicate a high blood glucose level, usually because a person with diabetes cannot use glucose as energy and has to use fat instead. Ketones in the blood can then spill into the urine. Ketones in the urine are more common in people who have type 1 diabetes but can occur in those with type 2 diabetes as well. Protein A doctor will check for the presence of protein in the urine of people with diabetes, as this can indicate kidney problems or a urinary tract infection. Types of tests If someone is concerned that they may h Continue reading >>

Glucose In Urine Test

Glucose In Urine Test

What is a Glucose in Urine Test? A glucose in urine test measures the amount of glucose in your urine. Glucose is a type of sugar. It is your body's main source of energy. A hormone called insulin helps move glucose from your bloodstream into your cells. If too much glucose gets into the blood, the extra glucose will be eliminated through your urine. A urine glucose test can be used to help determine if blood glucose levels are too high, which may be a sign of diabetes. Other names: urine sugar test; urine glucose test; glucosuria test What is it used for? A glucose in urine test may be part of a urinalysis, a test that measures different cells, chemicals, and other substances in your urine. Urinalysis is often included as part of a routine exam. A glucose in urine test may also be used to screen for diabetes. However, a urine glucose test is not as accurate as a blood glucose test. It may be ordered if blood glucose testing is difficult or not possible. Some people can't get blood drawn because their veins are too small or too scarred from repeated punctures. Other people avoid blood tests due to extreme anxiety or fear of needles. Why do I need a glucose in urine test? You may get a glucose in urine test as part of your regular checkup or if you have symptoms of diabetes and cannot take a blood glucose test. Symptoms of diabetes include: You may also need a urinalysis, which includes a glucose in urine test, if you are pregnant. If high levels of glucose in urine are found, it may indicate gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes is form of diabetes that happens only during pregnancy. Blood glucose testing can be used to confirm a diagnosis of gestational diabetes. Most pregnant women are tested for gestational diabetes with a blood glucose test, between their 24th Continue reading >>

Urine Glucose Test

Urine Glucose Test

Test for glycosuria, the excretion of glucose in the urine. The test for urine glucose uses a small dipstick that changes color after it has been dipped in urine. Matching the color on the dipstick against a chart on the test package reveals whether there is glucose in the urine. Before people with diabetes started measuring blood glucose levels, urine glucose testing was the best way to monitor diabetes control. Some people still use urine glucose tests, but these tests are of dubious value in monitoring diabetes control for two reasons. First, the renal threshold — the blood glucose level at which the kidneys begin to excrete glucose in the urine — is relatively high. In healthy, nondiabetic individuals, the average renal threshold is at a blood glucose level of 160–180 mg/dl. In other words, only when the blood glucose level reaches 160–180 mg/dl will some glucose appear in the urine. Many people with diabetes have an even higher renal threshold, so glucose will not appear in their urine until blood glucose levels are very high — well above the normal range. Thus, a positive urine glucose test would indicate that the blood glucose level is very high, and a negative urine glucose test could mean that the level is low, normal, or slightly elevated. The second factor that limits the value of this test is that urine can remain in the bladder for several hours, which means that a positive urine glucose test may actually reflect a high blood glucose level from several hours ago, even if the current blood glucose level is actually normal. Continue reading >>

Diabetes: Urine Test For Sugar - Topic Overview

Diabetes: Urine Test For Sugar - Topic Overview

Sugar (glucose) normally is not found in urine. But when blood sugar levels rise well above a target range-which can occur in type 1 and type 2 diabetes-the kidneys often release some of the excess sugar from the blood into the urine. In pregnant women, the kidneys sometimes release sugar into the urine even when blood sugar levels are within a safe range. You can test urine for sugar by using plastic strips you can buy at a pharmacy. You dip a strip into a urine sample. The strip changes color to show how much sugar is in the sample. You compare the resulting color to a chart of colors. Each color indicates a level of glucose. Urine testing for sugar is not an accurate way to measure how much sugar is in your blood. So most doctors no longer recommend it for people who have diabetes. A sample of urine often is stored in your bladder for several hours before you test it. Also, because sugar does not show up in urine until it is much higher than normal in the bloodstream (180 mg/dL), urine cannot be used to check for slightly high or low blood sugar levels. Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes: Measuring Sugar Levels In Blood And Urine Yourself

Type 2 Diabetes: Measuring Sugar Levels In Blood And Urine Yourself

Many people with diabetes mellitus measure their blood sugar levels themselves. For those who inject insulin several times a day, checking their sugar levels with a blood glucose meter is an important part of their daily treatment. The amount of insulin injected at mealtimes depends on various factors, including the measured blood sugar (glucose) level. Sugar levels in blood or urine can be measured in various ways. Measuring blood sugar levels yourself You can measure your blood sugar levels yourself using an electronic device called a blood glucose meter. To do this, you prick your fingertip with a small needle, and place a drop of blood on a test strip. The strip is inserted into the blood glucose meter. Shortly after the digital display then shows your blood sugar level. You can follow these steps to measure your blood: First of all, lay out everything you need. These include: a blood glucose meter, a blood-sampling device with a fine needle (lancet), and a test strip. Wash your hands before measuring your blood sugar because dirt and other residues can mix with the blood and distort the results. One small drop of blood is enough for the test. It should just fill the test field. If you prick the side of your finger rather than your fingertip, it is less noticeable. You can get the right amount by gently squeezing the tip of your finger. After a short while your blood sugar level will be displayed on the meter. Modern devices can save the measurements along with the date and time, and transfer this information to a computer or smartphone. If this is not possible you could write the measurements down in a special diary. If you measure your blood sugar levels frequently, pricking yourself is less uncomfortable if you use a different finger, or a different place on your Continue reading >>

Sugar In Urine

Sugar In Urine

What is sugar in urine? Sugar (glucose) is usually present in the urine at very low levels or not at all. Abnormally high amounts of sugar in the urine, known as glycosuria, are usually the result of high blood sugar levels. High blood sugar usually occurs in diabetes, especially when untreated. Normally, when blood is filtered in the kidneys, some sugar remains in the fluid that will later become urine. If the level of blood sugar is low, as is normally the case, the body can reabsorb the sugar from this fluid before it leaves the kidney to be excreted as urine. When the blood sugar is high, there is too much sugar in the fluid leaving the kidney to be reabsorbed, so some sugar passes into the urine. Sugar in the urine can be detected in the laboratory or is easy to detect at home with a urine dipstick test. Because sugar in the urine is associated with high blood sugar and diabetes, it is important to consult a physician if you suspect you have sugar in your urine. Sugar in the urine is often accompanied by other symptoms of diabetes, including fatigue, unexplained weight loss, excessive thirst or hunger, and frequent urination. Seek immediate medical care (call 911) if you have sugar in the urine along with more serious symptoms, including the inability to think clearly. Seek prompt medical care if your sugar in the urine is persistent or causes you concern. Continue reading >>

Glycosuria (glucose In Urine) Symptoms, Causes, And Potential Complications

Glycosuria (glucose In Urine) Symptoms, Causes, And Potential Complications

Glycosuria, or glucose in the urine, is the presence of higher than normal levels of sugar in the urine and may be due to complications with your kidneys or diabetes. To learn more about this condition, including symptoms, causes, and prevention strategies, as well as what normal and abnormal levels of glucose in the urine are, continue reading. Glycosuria symptoms Glycosuria may occur with a host of other symptoms, including excessive hunger, fatigue, infections, frequent urination, irritability, increased thirst, issues with vision, slower healing of wounds, tingling sensation in hands and feet, unexplained weight loss, abdominal pain, and in some cases, high blood sugar levels. Difference between blood glucose and glucose in urine Blood glucose is regulated by insulin produced by the pancreas, though in patients with diabetes, the insulin is not produced or processed properly meaning they may need insulin injections to regulate their blood sugar. If left unmanaged, diabetes can cause blood glucose levels to rise and some may enter into the urine. Urine glucose may not always be due to diabetes, and can be a benign symptom that sometimes accompanies pregnancy. Glucose in urine causes Some of the most common causes of glucose in the urine include: Diabetes mellitus: The excess blood glucose levels of people with unmanaged diabetes make it difficult for your kidneys to properly reabsorb the glucose and can cause it to leak into the urine. Hyperthyroidism: Excessive thyroid hormones can cause decreased absorption of glucose that is then passed out of the body through the urine. High sugar diet: Consuming excessive sugar can raise your blood glucose past the level that your kidneys can properly reabsorb, which causes some glucose to be passed into the urine. Benign glycos Continue reading >>

How Diabetes Works

How Diabetes Works

Now that you know the symptoms of diabetes -- high blood glucose, excessive hunger and thirst, frequent urination -- let's look at what happens to your body during diabetes. For the purposes of this discussion, let's suppose that you have undiagnosed, and therefore unmanaged, diabetes. Now, let's see how the lack of insulin or insulin-resistance affects your body to produce the clinical symptoms and signs of diabetes: Your lack of insulin or insulin resistance directly causes high blood-glucose levels during fasting and after a meal (reduced glucose tolerance). High blood glucose causes glucose to appear in your urine. High blood glucose causes you to urinate frequently. The high blood glucose and increased urine flow make you constantly thirsty. You are constantly hungry. It's not clear exactly what stimulates your brain's hunger centers, possibly the lack of insulin or high glucagon levels. You feel tired because your cells cannot absorb glucose, leaving them with nothing to burn for energy. Your poor blood circulation causes numbness in your hands and feet, changes in vision, slow-healing wounds and frequent infections. High blood glucose or lack of insulin may also depress the immune system. Ultimately, these can lead to gangrene in the limbs and blindness. Fortunately, these consequences can be managed by correcting your high blood glucose through diet, exercise and medications, as we'll discuss next. As of now, there is no cure for diabetes; however, the disease can be treated and managed successfully. The key to treating diabetes is to closely monitor and manage your blood-glucose levels through exercise, diet and medications. The exact treatment regime depends on the type of diabetes. If you have Type 1 diabetes, you lack insulin and must administer it several t Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus And Polyuria

Diabetes Mellitus And Polyuria

Diabetes comes from the Greek word which means “siphon”. There are two distinct disorders that share the first name diabetes: diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus. This is because both disorders cause polyuria, or excessive urine output. Diabetes insipidus is a disorder of urine concentration which we will discuss in spring quarter. Diabetes mellitus is a disorder of blood glucose regulation, which results from a deficiency in the action of the hormone insulin. This may be due to autoimmune destruction of the insulin-secreting cells of the pancreas (type 1 diabetes mellitus) or it may result from a problem in the responsiveness of tissues to insulin, known as insulin resitance (type 2 diabetes mellitus). With either disorder, the result is hyperglycemia, or high levels of glucose in the plasma. How does hyperglycemia cause excessive urine production? To answer this, we need to understand a little bit about how the kidney works. Each kidney contains about a million functional units called nephrons (blue structure in the figure). The first step in the production of urine is a process called filtration (green arrow). In filtration, there is bulk flow of water and small molecules from the plasma into Bowman’s capsule (the first part of the nephron). Because of the nonspecific nature of filtration, useful small molecules such as glucose, amino acids, and certain ions end up in the forming urine, which flows into the kidney tubules. To prevent the loss of these useful substances from the body, the cells lining the kidney tubules use epithelial transport to transfer these substances out of the forming urine and back into the extracellular fluid. This process is known as reabsorption (purple arrows). Under normal circumstances, 100% of the glucose that is filtered is Continue reading >>

Does Sugar In My Urine Mean I Have Diabetes?

Does Sugar In My Urine Mean I Have Diabetes?

Question: I went to my Doctor for general check up, and mentioned frequent urination, and a feeling that my bladder was full. I thought I may have urinary tract infection. Urine sample revealed sugar in urine although my blood was only 7.5 mmo/L nearly two hours after a breakfast of Special K. I am scheduled for a fasting blood sugar. I would be very grateful if you could advise me whether sugar can be present in urine for reasons other than diabetes and also if there is a link between having underactive thyroid and developing diabetes? Thank you, Answer: Hello Kate! You ask good questions and have astute observation! The most common cause of sugar in the urine, by far, is the presence of diabetes mellitus. There is other potential cause for sugar in the urine which includes the use of certain drugs that may increase urine glucose measurements; and renal glycosuria which is a rare condition in which glucose is excreted in the urine, even when blood glucose levels are normal or low, due to improper functioning of the renal tubules in the kidneys. Fasting blood glucose levels in the 5.5 to 7 mmol/L range (100 to126 mg/dl), and blood glucose levels two hours following an oral glucose tolerance test in the 7.7 to 11.11 mmol/L range (140 to 200 mg/dl) are considered Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) and are indicative of Pre-Diabetes. Your blood glucose reading of 7.5 mmol/L two hours following a light meal of Special-K (most likely a lesser glucose load than a glucose tolerance test involves) would therefore raise concern that you may have Pre-Diabetes or Diabetes. And sugar in the urine is not indicative of the actual blood glucose level at time of a urine test, but rather of blood glucose levels prior to the time of sampling . . . perhaps in the early AM hours when blood g Continue reading >>

Kidneys And Diabetes

Kidneys And Diabetes

Tweet The kidneys are remarkable organs of the human body that are responsible for many essential regulatory roles, including filtering the blood to keep it clean and chemically balanced. Diabetes, however, can cause this vital filtering system to break down. High levels of blood sugar can damage the kidneys and cause them to fail, thus eliminating their ability to filter out waste, which over time can lead to kidney disease (nephropathy). What are the Kidneys? The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that are located near the middle of the back, just below the rib cage with one on each side of the spine. Of the many roles they perform, one of the most important is the removal of waste products from the blood, which come from food and the normal breakdown of active tissues, such as muscles. Other key functions of the kidneys include the secretion of three important hormones: Erythropoietin - which is released in response to hypoxia (low levels of oxygen at tissue level) to stimulate the production of red blood cells in the bone marrow. Calcitriol - the active form of vitamin D, which helps maintain calcium for bones and for normal chemical balance in the body Renin - an enzyme involved in the regulation of blood pressure The Kidneys and Blood Sugar Levels Each kidney is made up of millions of tiny blood vessels called nephrons, which act as filters to help keep the blood clean. Each nephron interlinks with a small tube to keep useful substances, such as proteins and red blood cells, in the bloodstream and allow extra fluid and waste products to pass through, where they become part of the urine. This filtration system can, however, be damaged by high levels of blood sugar. Excess glucose in the bloodstream can cause the kidneys to filter too much blood. Over time, this extra w Continue reading >>

Glycosuria

Glycosuria

Glycosuria or glucosuria is the excretion of glucose into the urine. Ordinarily, urine contains no glucose because the kidneys are able to reabsorb all of the filtered glucose from the tubular fluid back into the bloodstream. Glycosuria is nearly always caused by elevated blood glucose levels, most commonly due to untreated diabetes mellitus. Rarely, glycosuria is due to an intrinsic problem with glucose reabsorption within the kidneys (such as Fanconi syndrome), producing a condition termed renal glycosuria.[1] Glycosuria leads to excessive water loss into the urine with resultant dehydration, a process called osmotic diuresis. Alimentary glycosuria is a temporary condition, when a high amount of carbohydrate is taken, it is rapidly absorbed in some cases where a part of the stomach is surgically removed, the excessive glucose appears in urine producing glucosuria. Pathophysiology[edit] Blood is filtered by millions of nephrons, the functional units that comprise the kidneys. In each nephron, blood flows from the arteriole into the glomerulus, a tuft of leaky capillaries. The Bowman's capsule surrounds each glomerulus, and collects the filtrate that the glomerulus forms. The filtrate contains waste products (e.g. urea), electrolytes (e.g. sodium, potassium, chloride), amino acids, and glucose. The filtrate passes into the renal tubules of the kidney. In the first part of the renal tubule, the proximal tubule, glucose is reabsorbed from the filtrate, across the tubular epithelium and into the bloodstream. The proximal tubule can only reabsorb a limited amount of glucose. When the blood glucose level exceeds about 160 – 180 mg/dl, the proximal tubule becomes overwhelmed and begins to excrete glucose in the urine. Approximate correlation between dipstick designation and Continue reading >>

Your Urine And Diabetes: What You Should Know

Your Urine And Diabetes: What You Should Know

Paula’s story Paula came to see mcomplaining that her urine smelt funny. She had been referred to through a friend who had diabetes, and who thought that I might be able to help Paula understand why her pee smelled funny. “My friend told me my urine smells like diabetes,” said Paula. “She said she had that same fruity smell when she got diagnosed.” Paula said her urine smelled like, “Sugar Smacks,” of all things. I suspected that Paula may have Type 2 Diabetes, but we needed to run some lab tests in order to confirm this suspicion We tested her urine using a urinalysis. She had high levels of glucose in her urine. After the urinalysis, we ran a random blood sugar, which detected her levels at 798 mg/dL. With the results at hand, Paula was diagnosed with diabetes. She had to start on insulin seemingly right off the bat, as other oral medications wouldn’t control her diabetes. She had weight to lose, and goals to reach. While she’s a work in progress,her urine no longer smells like Sugar Smacks. What exactly is urine made of ? Urine is a clear, yellow liquid produced by the body to handle the wastes from normal body metabolism. When nitrogenous by-products build up in the blood from cellular metabolism, it must be cleared from the bloodstream. In our bodies, some of our toxic waste from metabolism is excreted through perspiration as urea. The rest is handled by an intricate filter system that makes up the human urinary system. The kidneys work through processes of filtering waste, reabsorption, and tubular secretion. They make urine through this complex filtration process, after which then the urine goes through the ureters, which are tubes to the bladder. Once urine reaches the bladder, it is then dispelled out of the body through a tube called the “u Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus - The Work Pays Off

Diabetes Mellitus - The Work Pays Off

DOCTOR'S VIEW ARCHIVE Diabetes mellitus, commonly referred to as diabetes, means sweet urine. It is a chronic medical condition associated with abnormally high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Elevated levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia) lead to spillage of glucose into the urine, hence the term sweet urine. Normally, blood glucose levels are tightly controlled by insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin lowers the blood glucose level. When the blood glucose elevates (for example, after eating food), insulin is released from the pancreas to normalize the glucose level. In patients with diabetes mellitus, the absence or insufficient production of insulin causes hyperglycemia. Diabetes mellitus is a chronic medical condition, meaning it can last a life time. Over time, diabetes mellitus can lead to blindness, kidney failure, and nerve damage. Diabetes mellitus is also an important factor in accelerating the hardening and narrowing of the arteries (atherosclerosis), leading to strokes, coronary heart diseases, and other blood vessel diseases in the body. Diabetes mellitus affects 12 million people (6% of the population) in the United States. The direct and indirect cost of diabetes mellitus is $40 billion per year. It is the third leading cause of death in the United States after heart disease and cancer. Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis, Treatment, Medication In the United States, diabetes mellitus is the leading cause of new blindness in adults, kidney failure, and amputations (not caused by injury). The lack of insulin, insufficient production of insulin, production of defective insulin, or the inability of cells to use insulin leads to elevated blood glucose (sugar) levels, referred to as hyperglycemia, and diabetes mellitus. Glucose is a simple sugar f Continue reading >>

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