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Why Do Blood Sugar Levels Rise After Surgery?

High Blood Glucose: What It Means And How To Treat It

High Blood Glucose: What It Means And How To Treat It

What is high blood glucose? People who do not have diabetes typically have fasting plasma blood glucose levels that run under 100 mg/dl. Your physician will define for you what your target blood glucose should be — identifying a blood glucose target that is as close to normal as possible that you can safely achieve given your overall medical health. In general, high blood glucose, also called 'hyperglycemia', is considered "high" when it is 160 mg/dl or above your individual blood glucose target. Be sure to ask your healthcare provider what he or she thinks is a safe target for you for blood glucose before and after meals. If your blood glucose runs high for long periods of time, this can pose significant problems for you long-term — increased risk of complications, such as eye disease, kidney disease, heart attacks and strokes and more. High blood glucose can pose health problems in the short-term as well. Your treatment plan may need adjustment if the blood glucose stays over 180 mg/dl for 3 days in a row. It is important to aim to keep your blood glucose under control, and treat hyperglycemia when it occurs. What are the symptoms of high blood glucose? Increased thirst Increased urination Dry mouth or skin Tiredness or fatigue Blurred vision More frequent infections Slow healing cuts and sores Unexplained weight loss What causes high blood glucose? Too much food Too little exercise or physical activity Skipped or not enough diabetes pills or insulin Insulin that has spoiled after being exposed to extreme heat or freezing cold Stress, illness, infection, injury or surgery A blood glucose meter that is not reading accurately What should you do for high blood glucose? Be sure to drink plenty of water. It is recommended to drink a minimum of 8 glasses each day. If yo Continue reading >>

Can Surgery Cause Increased Blood Sugar In Non-diabetics?

Can Surgery Cause Increased Blood Sugar In Non-diabetics?

Yes. As was noted in the prior answer, the stress that your body endures during surgery causes a stress response which increases blood sugar. In addition, (depending on what kind of surgery you needed), if you are getting steroids to reduce inflammation, your blood sugar would also increase. Steroids can increase circulating blood sugar and make it more difficult for your body to transport the glucose into cells, further increasing circulating glucose levels. Studies have shown that patients with normal blood sugars have better outcomes and fewer complications than those with high blood sugar. For that reason, we constantly check people’s blood sugar in the ICU that I work at, and often have to give insulin to patients who are not diabetic for this reason. Many patients are concerned that they will need to take insulin forever, but its generally only temporary. Yes, because of the stress it causes will induce higher levels of stress hormones mainly cortisol, which will raise you blood glucose levels. Know that many middle aged diabetics aren’t aware of the fact that they’ve diabetes at all, having a raised threshold for urinary loss of glucose it won’t cause peeing a lot = polyuria, which most lay people associate with having diabetes, in the US that would be one in every 4 persons having diabetes: Yes. Surgery can lead to high blood sugars even in non-diabetics. As part of evolution, a surgery is identified as a physical stress for the body. The body gears up for a speedy recovery and during this period, our body mobilizes energy i.e. glucose to overcome this stress. Certain hormones too are released to overcome this stress. Amongst many others like cortisol, these hormones include insulin and glucagon, both of which work in combination to maintain our blood su Continue reading >>

Can Steroids Have A Lasting Effect On Blood Glucose?

Can Steroids Have A Lasting Effect On Blood Glucose?

Three years ago, when I was 65, I was prescribed prednisone during a very bad cold. I have type 2 diabetes, which I controlled then with diet and exercise (no medications). After I started taking prednisone, my blood sugar shot up to 300 mg/dl, and it took me three weeks on Actos to bring it back down. My blood sugar has never been the same, and now I am on diabetes meds. Could the prednisone have caused a lasting effect? Continue reading >>

Must Read Articles Related To High Blood Sugar (hyperglycemia)

Must Read Articles Related To High Blood Sugar (hyperglycemia)

A A A High Blood Sugar (Hyperglycemia) Whenever the glucose (sugar) level in one's blood rises high temporarily, this condition is known as hyperglycemia. The opposite condition, low blood sugar, is called hypoglycemia. Glucose comes from most foods, and the body uses other chemicals to create glucose in the liver and muscles. The blood carries glucose (blood sugar) to all the cells in the body. To carry glucose into the cells as an energy supply, cells need help from insulin. Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas, an organ near the stomach. The pancreas releases insulin into the blood, based upon the blood sugar level. Insulin helps move glucose from digested food into cells. Sometimes, the body stops making insulin (as in type 1 diabetes), or the insulin does not work properly (as in type 2 diabetes). In diabetic patients, glucose does not enter the cells sufficiently, thus staying in the blood and creating high blood sugar levels. Blood sugar levels can be measured in seconds by using a blood glucose meter, also known as a glucometer. A tiny drop of blood from the finger or forearm is placed on a test strip and inserted into the glucometer. The blood sugar (or glucose) level is displayed digitally within seconds. Blood glucose levels vary widely throughout the day and night in people with diabetes. Ideally, blood glucose levels range from 90 to 130 mg/dL before meals, and below 180 mg/dL within 1 to 2 hours after a meal. Adolescents and adults with diabetes strive to keep their blood sugar levels within a controlled range, usually 80-150 mg/dL before meals. Doctors and diabetes health educators guide each patient to determine their optimal range of blood glucose control. When blood sugar levels remain high for several hours, dehydration and more serious complicat Continue reading >>

High Blood Sugar Increases Risk Of Blood Clots After Surgery

High Blood Sugar Increases Risk Of Blood Clots After Surgery

Study finds a sixfold higher threat of pulmonary embolism after hip or knee replacements Please note: This article was published more than one year ago. The facts and conclusions presented may have since changed and may no longer be accurate. And "More information" links may no longer work. Questions about personal health should always be referred to a physician or other health care professional. HealthDay Reporter MONDAY, Oct. 16, 2006 (HealthDay News) -- Patients, such as diabetics, who have high blood-sugar levels before undergoing hip- or knee-replacement surgery are at increased risk of developing potentially life-threatening blood clots, according to a new study. "The take-home message is that all patients should get their blood sugar under control before undergoing elective surgery," said the study's lead author, Dr. Boris Mraovic, an assistant professor of anesthesiology at Thomas Jefferson University in Philadelphia. Mraovic's team examined records of 6,500 patients who underwent hip- or knee-replacement surgery at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital between 2003 and 2005. They identified 38 patients who had blood-glucose levels above 250 milligrams per deciliter during pre-operative testing and on the day of surgery. All but one of the patients were diabetic, which is defined as a fasting blood-glucose level above 126 mg/dl. "We found that 10.5 percent of those with high blood sugar developed a pulmonary embolism compared to only 1.7 percent of the other patients," Mraovic said. "This rate is more than six times higher than we would expect to see in the general population." Pulmonary embolism is a potentially life-threatening condition in which a blood clot forms in a vein and travels to the lungs. It's usually caused by clots that form in veins deep in the m Continue reading >>

High Blood Glucose Levels Linked To Higher Risk Of Wound Complications

High Blood Glucose Levels Linked To Higher Risk Of Wound Complications

Arlington Heights, Ill. - A new study released today shows that among patients undergoing surgery for chronic wounds related to diabetes, the risk of wound-related complications is affected by how well the patient's blood sugar levels are controlled before surgery. These findings appear in the October issue of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery®, the official medical journal of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS). The risk of serious wound complications is more than three times higher for patients who have high blood glucose before and after surgery, and in those with poor long-term diabetes control, according to the study by ASPS Member Surgeons, Drs. Mathew Endara and Christopher Attinger of the Center for Wound Healing at Georgetown University, Washington, DC. The researchers emphasize the need for "tight control" of glucose levels before surgery for diabetic patients at high risk of wound complications. The researchers analyzed rates of wound-related complications in 79 patients undergoing surgery for closure of chronic wounds-a common and troublesome complication of diabetes. Blood glucose levels were measured five days before and after surgery. Hemoglobin A1c, a key indicator of long-term diabetes control, was measured an average of two weeks before surgery. Blood glucose levels and diabetes control were analyzed as risk factors for wound dehiscence (a serious complication in which the surgical incision re-opens), wound infections and need for repeat surgery. Blood glucose levels over 200 were considered to represent elevated blood glucose (hyperglycemia). The results showed a higher risk of wound complications in patients who had high blood glucose levels either before or after surgery. For example, wound dehiscence occurred in about 44 percent of pa Continue reading >>

Management Of Diabetes Mellitus In Surgical Patients

Management Of Diabetes Mellitus In Surgical Patients

Abstract In Brief Diabetes is associated with increased requirement for surgical procedures and increased postoperative morbidity and mortality. The stress response to surgery and the resultant hyperglycemia, osmotic diuresis, and hypoinsulinemia can lead to perioperative ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar syndrome. Hyperglycemia impairs leukocyte function and wound healing. The management goal is to optimize metabolic control through close monitoring, adequate fluid and caloric repletion, and judicious use of insulin. Patients with diabetes undergo surgical procedures at a higher rate than do nondiabetic people.1,2 Major surgical operations require a period of fasting during which oral antidiabetic medications cannot be used. The stress of surgery itself results in metabolic perturbations that alter glucose homeostasis, and persistent hyperglycemia is a risk factor for endothelial dysfunction,3 postoperative sepsis,4 impaired wound healing,5,6 and cerebral ischemia.7 The stress response itself may precipitate diabetic crises (diabetic ketoacidosis [DKA], hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome [HHS]) during surgery or postoperatively, with negative prognostic consequences.8,9 HHS is a well known postoperative complication following certain procedures, including cardiac bypass surgery, where it is associated with 42% mortality.9,10 Furthermore, gastrointestinal instability provoked by anesthesia, medications, and stress-related vagal overlay can lead to nausea, vomiting, and dehydration. This compounds the volume contraction that may already be present from the osmotic diuresis induced by hyperglycemia, thereby increasing the risk for ischemic events and acute renal failure. Subtle to gross deficits in key electrolytes (principally potassium, but also magnesium) may pose an arrhy Continue reading >>

Post Surgery Blood Sugar: High But Not Worried

Post Surgery Blood Sugar: High But Not Worried

“If you have all that inflammation, your blood sugar will be high. And if you still have pain then you probably still have inflammation,” Jessica told me after I told her that my morning blood sugar was 225. This morning wasn’t exceptional in any way. My blood sugar has been out of control since my surgery last Wednesday. Most mornings begin somewhere between 200-250 and the rest of the day is spent chasing my blood sugar down, but it seems as if the glucose meter is broken and won’t go south of 150. I expected this to happen, but thought I would be able to control it better and that it wouldn’t last this long. I’ve tried different things. On Thursday afternoon I gave in and took Tylenol for the pain. The Tylenol did make me feel better, but still, my blood sugar remained high despite the fact that I was feeling less pain. Friday morning I decided to set my basal rate to 150%, but that, too, had little effect on my blood sugar levels. It may have allowed me to bolus less, but my blood sugar levels stayed high. Since my surgery I have cut down even more on the carbs while using way more insulin than I usually do. Normally, I use 17-18 units of insulin a day and now have been using around 25 units. The first few days the high numbers drove me nuts. I actually told Jessica one day that I would love to have a low. You know you’ve been a diabetic for a long time when you catch yourself saying, “Something in the 40’s would be nice.” On Monday, feeling a little better physically, I went out on my first walk outdoors since my surgery (a quarter of a mile). While walking, slowly, carefully and a little hunched over I thought about my blood sugar. I wasn’t thinking about my health in that moment, but I was actually worried that these numbers would ruin my ne Continue reading >>

The Risks Of High Blood Sugar After Surgery

The Risks Of High Blood Sugar After Surgery

The period of time after surgery can be challenging for diabetics trying to control their blood sugar levels. Learn more about how stress affects blood sugar levels and what you can do to control this problem. Surgery can be a stressful experience, especially for diabetics. It’s quite common to have a blood sugar rise after surgery in people who have diabetes and sometimes in normal people too. What causes this blood sugar rise after surgery? Causes Any type of stress makes blood sugars more difficult to control, including the stress of surgery. When diabetics are stressed for any reason, their body pumps out hormones that alter blood sugar levels – causing blood sugars to go up or down. Sometimes medications doctors give during or after surgery, particularly steroids, cause blood sugar levels to rise. Although high blood sugar levels are more common after surgery, hypoglycemia or low blood sugars can also occur in some cases. It’s critical to control blood sugars after surgery since diabetics with high blood sugars are at a higher risk of complications including post-surgical infection and poor wound healing. Diabetics have up to a five times greater risk of developing a wound infection than non-diabetics and poorly controlled blood sugars elevates the risk even more. Poorly controlled blood sugars are especially common after heart surgery, and very high blood sugar levels increases mortality after such a procedure. Obviously, it’s important for doctors to treat these blood sugar rises to increase the chances of a good outcome. How Are Rises in Blood Sugar After Surgery Controlled? After surgery, doctors and nurses monitor glucose levels more frequently and adjust insulin dosages based on the results. The goal now is to keep blood sugar levels less than 180 mil Continue reading >>

High Blood Sugar Can Increase Post-surgery Wound Complications

High Blood Sugar Can Increase Post-surgery Wound Complications

High blood glucose levels can lead to wound infection. Diabetes is a disease that can not only lead to serious issues like amputation, but can also affect the way your body handles the wound healing process. Researchers have recently analyzed how maintaining a high blood sugar level could eventually lead to an increase in wound complications after undergoing a surgical procedure. Members of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons analyzed the rates of 79 patients who had endured wound-related complications after receiving surgery to close up chronic wounds. The doctors measured the blood glucose levels of the patients five days leading up to the medical procedure as well as five days after, and extensively tested the subjects for measurements of hemoglobin A1c, which is a primary indicator of long-term diabetes control in the body. High levels of blood glucose as well as diabetes control are the main risk factors that can influence an occurrence of wound infection, additional surgery and wound dehiscence, which is when a wound is re-opened after already receiving surgery to close it. Blood glucose levels that are considered higher than average are measured at 200 milligrams per deciliter or greater. The researchers found that 44 percent of the patients who exhibited high blood glucose levels either before or after surgery underwent experiences of wound dehiscence, while only 19 percent of diabetic patients who had normal blood glucose levels received any type of wound complication. The records of those who had high hemoglobin A1c levels, which are primary indicators of poor diabetes control, also showed significant spikes in the rates of wound infection or re-opening occurring. Dr. Christopher Attinger, a professor at Georgetown University as well as one of the lead st Continue reading >>

How Does Having Diabetes Affect My Cancer Treatment?

How Does Having Diabetes Affect My Cancer Treatment?

More than 25 million people in the United States have been diagnosed with diabetes, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Among people 65 and older, nearly 27 percent have diabetes. The vast majority of diabetes cases are type 2 diabetes, which is associated largely with older age and being overweight as well as family history. Older age and obesity also are risk factors for developing cancer, which means that people with type 2 diabetes are diagnosed with cancer more often than those in the general population. Having diabetes can complicate cancer treatment due to a number of factors. At the same time, some treatments for cancer, including certain newer targeted therapy drugs, can spur the development of diabetes, especially in patients who already had a propensity toward developing the disease, although this effect is usually reversible. Azeez Farooki is a Memorial Sloan Kettering endocrinologist who specializes in treating cancer patients who also have diabetes. We spoke with Dr. Farooki about what special considerations are taken into account when treating this group of patients. A Disease of Blood Sugar “Diabetes is a disease in which a person has increased levels of glucose, or sugar, in the blood,” Dr. Farooki explains. “It can occur because the pancreas does not produce enough insulin — the hormone that allows glucose to be absorbed — or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced. Cells should normally take in sugar from the blood; if they don’t, then high blood sugar or ‘hyperglycemia’ results.” The majority of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight, which often causes the body to become resistant to the effects of insulin. Type 2 disease may be treated with insulin injections, other hormonal inject Continue reading >>

Effect Of Anaesthesia And Surgery On Blood Sugar And Carbohydrate Tolerance In African Children.

Effect Of Anaesthesia And Surgery On Blood Sugar And Carbohydrate Tolerance In African Children.

Abstract The effect of pre-operative starvation, anaesthesia and surgery on blood sugar levels and the handling of carbohydrate load during operation were studied in 28 Nigerian children between 2 months and 15 years of age. (1) Age and body weight were important factors influencing the relationship between duration of pre-operative fast and the pre-induction blood sugar level in children. Hypoglycaemic values occurred in 7 per cent of the subjects studied although none was clinically hypoglycaemic. (2) Halothane anaesthesia alone did not affect blood sugar levels but relaxant anaesthesia in this study caused significant rise of blood sugar. (3) There was a marked hyperglycaemic response to surgery and handling of glucose load during operation was significantly poorer than before operation. Continue reading >>

High Blood Sugar After Exercise?

High Blood Sugar After Exercise?

back to Overview Markus, one of our great German-language authors, wrote about struggling with high blood sugar after exercise. I know it's a common problem, and one I've struggled with personally, so I want to make sure you get to see it, too. From Markus Berndt: It’s one of the first recommendations you get after being diagnosed with diabetes. “Get active, do more exercise, it’s good for you!” And since we’ve been a child we’ve heard that exercise is healthy. If we do it consistently we’re rewarded, literally, with an awesome beach body. Adding exercise into our day is also good for our diabetes. We’re taught that exercise lowers blood sugar, right? But can the opposite also be true? Can you have high blood sugar after exercise? Up close We now know that physical activity usually lowers blood sugar because it reduces how much insulin is needed to move sugar into the cells. While, in the past, most experts advised frequent training intervals at moderate intensity, but recent studies have shown that even short, intense workouts are very effective. For example, a 15-minute intense weight training lowered blood sugar even more than what’s seen in some endurance training. So activity lowers blood sugar – but not always! Personally, I experienced this very early on and was extremely irritated! I just learned that exercise lowers blood sugar, but an intense 45-minute run consistently resulted in higher blood sugars than when I started! What in the world? At first, I was confused and felt like I didn’t understand the world anymore. Then it was more of a “would you look at this?” kind of thing. And finally, I was determined to figure out what was happening. I knew there had to be an explanation. Why does exercise sometimes raise blood sugar? Exercise Continue reading >>

What Causes High Blood Pressure After Surgery?

What Causes High Blood Pressure After Surgery?

All surgeries have the potential for certain risks, even if they’re routine procedures. One of these risks is the alteration of blood pressure. People can experience high blood pressure after surgery for a number of reasons. Whether or not you develop this complication depends on the type of surgery you’re having, the type of anesthesia and medications administered, and whether or not you had issues with blood pressure before. History Heart surgeries are often associated with a risk for blood pressure spikes. One reason for this might be that many people having these surgeries already have high blood pressure. If your blood pressure is poorly controlled before going into surgery, there is a good chance you’ll experience complications during or after surgery. Blood pressure is measured by recording two numbers. The top number is systolic pressure, which describes the pressure when your heart is beating and pumping blood. The bottom number is diastolic pressure, which describes the pressure when your heart is resting between beats. You’ll see the numbers displayed as 120/80 mmHg, for example. According to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, these are the ranges for normal, borderline, and high blood pressure: Normal: less than 120 over less than 80 Borderline: 120 to 139 over 80 to 89 High: 140 or higher over 90 or higher Having poorly controlled high blood pressure means that your numbers are in the high range and you’re not being effectively treated. This could be because doctors haven’t diagnosed you before surgery, your current treatment plan isn’t working, or maybe you haven’t been taking medication regularly. Medication Withdrawal If your body was used to blood pressure-lowering medications, it’s possible that you may experience withdraw Continue reading >>

The Clinical Significance Of An Elevated Postoperative Glucose Value In Nondiabetic Patients After Colorectal Surgery: Evidence For The Need For Tight Glucose Control?

The Clinical Significance Of An Elevated Postoperative Glucose Value In Nondiabetic Patients After Colorectal Surgery: Evidence For The Need For Tight Glucose Control?

Abstract OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the significance of hyperglycemia in patients without a preoperative diagnosis of diabetes undergoing elective colorectal surgery. METHODS: Preoperative and all postoperative blood glucose measurements were retrieved for 2628 consecutive patients undergoing elective colorectal resection within 2 years at 1 center. Nondiabetic patients were identified as those without a preoperative diagnosis of diabetes and/or based on HbA1C levels. The association between any elevated postoperative random glucose value (hyperglycemia: >125 mg/dL) and level of elevation (>125 mg/dL or >200 mg/dL) within 72 hours of surgery in nondiabetic patients with 30-day mortality and infectious and noninfectious complications was assessed. RESULTS: Evaluation of 16,404 postoperative glucose measurements for all 2447 nondiabetic patients who underwent surgery in 2010 and 2011 revealed that 66.7% patients experienced hyperglycemia. Degree of hyperglycemia correlated with increasing American Society of Anesthesiologists class and surgical severity (blood loss). Hyperglycemia was associated with infectious and noninfectious complications and mortality, the rates of these complications increasing parallel to the degree of hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia was independently associated with septic complications (P = 0.024). CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative hyperglycemia is frequent after elective colorectal surgery in nondiabetic patients. Even a single postoperative elevated glucose value is adversely associated with morbidity and mortality; this risk is related to the degree of glucose elevation. These findings strongly support monitoring of glucose values and early consideration of management strategies for glycemic control after surgery even in nondiabetic patients. Continue reading >>

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