Which Process Creates The Most Atp Per Glucose Molecule Metabolized? - Tutorhub
Which process creates the most ATP per glucose molecule metabolized? Welcome to our free-to-use Q&A hub, where students post questions and get help from other students and tutors. Follow the trail of responses and if you have anything to add please sign up or sign in . You can ask your own question or look at similar Biology questions . Hey there Stella, This is really a great question and some students find these areas kinda tricky. So to answer this question, we first need to understand the metabolism pathway. To answer your question, the Krebs cycle (glycolysis) plays a vital role in the mitochondria to generate the most ATP (36). I would be willing to explain and draw out the metabolism pathway and explain some important metabolic diseases regarding this pathway. Aerobic respiration in the mitochondria, more specifically the Keen cycle. In the glycolysis stage, for each molecule of glucose, 2ATP, 2NADPH and 2pyruvates are made. Pyruvate from glycolysis enters the kreb cycle where a net of 36ATP molecules are made along with more reduced NADP and FAD. That's a lot of ATPs pet glucose. Remember this value is the theoretical maximum. As this is an enzyme controlled processes, the actual number of ATP produced maybe a lot lower. I am a qualified biology teacher, do let me know if you are interested in having lessons. This is via the Krebs cycle phase of aerobic respiration, which takes place in the mitochondria. In this cycle, there is a net gain of 36 ATP molecules via the oxidation of glucose. Aerobic respiration (specificallyKrebs cycle). Continue reading >>
John W. Pelley, in Elsevier's Integrated Review Biochemistry (Second Edition) , 2012 Arsenate poisoning is due to the uncoupling of substrate level phosphorylation by G3P dehydrogenase. Arsenate is a structural analog of phosphate and is incorporated into 3PG to form an unstable mixed anhydride. The end result is the release of arsenate without the formation of ATP. This eliminates the net gain of ATP from anaerobic glycolysis and is therefore most damaging to the RBC. Aerobic cells are affected when arsenate is incorporated into ATP during oxidative phosphorylation with the subsequent spontaneous hydrolysis to produce ADP and free arsenate. In both cases, the heat associated with ATP hydrolysis is also released. Arsenite poisoning is due to the covalent reaction of arsenite with lipoic acid, thus preventing it from transferring the hydroxyethyl group from thiamine to CoA. Key Points About Metabolic Pathways and Clinical Diseases Interchange with other major pathways occurs with G6P, F6P, DHAP, pyruvate, and acetyl-CoA. Pyruvate kinase deficiencies produce hemolytic anemia as a result of lower intracellular concentrations of ATP. Self-assessment questions can be accessed at www.StudentConsult.com. John W. Pelley, in Elsevier's Integrated Review Biochemistry (Second Edition) , 2012 CoA is removed from succinyl-CoA, producing free succinate; this is coupled with substrate-level phosphorylation of guanosine diphosphate (GDP) to GTP. Succinate is oxidized to fumarate, producing FADH2; this enzyme is part of the succinate-Q reductase (complex II) in the electron transport chain (ETC). The fumarate double bond is hydrated to form malate. Malate is oxidized to OAA with production of NADH; this returns the cycle to the beginning, with OAA available to condense with another mol Continue reading >>
Print Chapter 7 Flashcards | Easy Notecards
Which compound has the highest free energy and produces the most ATP when oxidized? Cellular respiration produces the most chemical in the form of ATP from which of the following? How many ATP and NADH molecules are produced from each molecule of glucose in the citric acid cycle only? How many net ATP and NADH molecules are produced from one molecule of glucose during glycolysis? High-energy electrons from molecules of NADH and FADH2 are transferred to a chain of proteins within the electron transport chain. What is the final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain? Which of the following statements is TRUE of both aerobic and anaerobic respiration? Both use glycolysis to oxidize glucose to pyruvate and both produce NADH as high-energy intermediates. Which would be TRUE if a metabolic poison were to completely inhibit the function of mitochondrial ATP synthase? The pH difference across the inner mitochondrial membrane would increase. Which of the following is most directly responsible for driving ATP synthase and the production of ATP in cellular respiration? The ability of oxygen to rapidly capture an electron and energize ATP synthase. Which of the following statements about the electron transport chain in cell respiration is CORRECT? The loss in free energy of the electron initially donated by NADH is used to transport H+ across the inner mitochondrial membrane against its electrochemical gradient. Assuming a fat molecule can be oxidized into 2 glycerol molecules, which are immediately converted to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, in intermediate glycolysis, how many ATP can be produced from a fat molecule? Which pathway shows the correct path of electron transfer from a molecule of NADH? NADH hydrogenase-->ubiquinone-->cytochrome b-c1-->cytochrome c--> cytochr Continue reading >>
How Is 36 Atp Produced In Cellular Respiration?
Updated Jul 27, 2016 Author has 2.4k answers and 2.4m answer views Cellular respiration has a potential to produce between 36 and 38 moles of ATP per mole of glucose (C6H12O6). In aerobic respiration in the mitochondria , there are 2 moles of ATP produced in the citric acid cycle ( Krebs cycle ) by substrate-level phosphorylation , and between 32 and 34 moles of ATP produced by oxidative phosphorylation through the electron transport chain and chemiosmosis . Outside the mitochondria, glycolysis produces 2 ATP by substrate-level phosphorylation anaerobically . Each NADH [from glycolysis] produces a net 1.5 ATP (instead of usual 2.5) due to NADH transport over the mitochondrial membrane . The amount of energy contributed by glycolysis differs depending on which electron carrier (NADH or FADH2 ) is used to span the mitochondrial membrane. That is why the amount of ATP produced by cellular respiration is estimated to be between 36 and 38 moles. Biology textbooks often state that 38 ATP molecules can be made per oxidized glucose molecule during cellular respiration (2 from glycolysis, 2 from the Krebs cycle, and about 34 from the electron transport system).  However, this maximum yield is never quite reached because of losses due to leaky membranes as well as the cost of moving pyruvate and ADP into the mitochondrial matrix , and current estimates range around 29 to 30 ATP per glucose.  22.1k Views View Upvoters Answer requested by Answered Nov 12, 2017 Author has 1k answers and 378.5k answer views Glycolysis is the first step in the process of cellular respiration, where glucose molecules are broken down into two pyruvates in the cytoplasm of the cell. 4 ATP are produced here, but 2 are required for the process. So, 2 ATP net gain. 2 ATP molecules each donate a phosp Continue reading >>
How Many Atp Are Produced By The Electron Transport Chain
SDN members see fewer ads and full resolution images. Join our non-profit community! how many ATP are produced by the electron transport chain I thought I had this down but now I'm confused. I know that eukaryotic cells make 36 ATP during respiration and prokaryotes makes 38 ATP. If 2 ATP are formed during glycolysis, 2 are used during pyruvate decarboxylation, and 2 are formed during the krebs cycle, shouldn't 32 be formed during the ETC for a total of 36? Why does kaplan say 34 are made in the ETC? 1 FADH2 x two pyruvate= 2 FADH2 x2= 4 ATP In prokaryotes the NADH from glycolysis dont have to cross a mitochondrial membrane so you get all the ATP youre supposed to get for them. 2 x 3= 6 NADH from glycolysis and gives you 2 more ATP to equal 38. Not to confuse even more, but some books say only 2.5 ATP are made from NADH and 1.5 ATP from FADH2...I think Princeton does this. I thought I had this down but now I'm confused. I know that eukaryotic cells make 36 ATP during respiration and prokaryotes makes 38 ATP. If 2 ATP are formed during glycolysis, 2 are used during pyruvate decarboxylation, and 2 are formed during the krebs cycle, shouldn't 32 be formed during the ETC for a total of 36? Why does kaplan say 34 are made in the ETC? Ok... in cellular respiration there are total number of 36 ATP would generated in eukaryote and 38 atp for prokaryote. First of all, the reason of 2 atp difference b/w eukaryote and prokaryote is presence of mitochondria. Since the kreb cycle is happening in mitochondria, 2 out of 4 atp generated from glocolysis will used to get into the membrane of mitochondria, which is active transport. This is why we regard only 2 atp has generated from glycolysis. (start with 2atp--> 1 glucose became 2NADH--> 3atp/NADH, so 6 atp will generated --> 6 atp - Continue reading >>
How Do Organisms Generate Energy?
Enzymes of Glycolysis Yeast 20, J.A. Barnett, A history of research on yeast 6: the main respiratory pathway, 1015-44 (2003). All cells need energy, which they get through ATP, an inherently unstable molecule that must continually be produced. Though ATP can be produced in different ways, nearly all living cells can harness ATP through glycolysis, the stepwise degradation of glucose, and other sugars, obtained from the breakdown of carbohydrates without the need for molecular oxygen (anaerobic). Glycolysis is an ancient, universal pathway that probably developed before there was sufficient oxygen in the atmosphere to sustain more effective methods of energy extraction. When aerobic organisms evolved, they simply added more efficient energy extraction pathways onto glycolysis, breaking down the end products from glycolysis (pyruvate) still further through the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Yet, aerobic cells can still rely predominantly on glycolysis when oxygen is limiting, such as in hard working muscle cells where glycolysis ends in the production of lactate, causing muscle fatigue. The aerobic and anaerobic processes are kept separate in eukaryotic cells, with glycolysis occurring in the cytoplasm, and the aerobic tricarboxylic acid cycle occurring in the mitochondria. Glycolysis During glycolysis, glucose is broken down in ten steps to two molecules of pyruvate, which then enters the mitochondria where it is oxidised through the tricarboxylic acid cycle to carbon dioxide and water. Glycolysis can be split into two phases, both of which occur in the cytosol. Phase I involves splitting glucose into two molecules of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) at the expense of 2 ATP molecules, but allows the subsequent energy-producing reactions to be doubled up with a higher net gain Continue reading >>
Chapter 6 Study Aid Flashcards | Quizlet
what organelles are used for photosynthesis and cellular respiration? what are correct sequences of stages for cellular respiration? aerobic means with oxygen and anaerobic means without oxygen six oxygen makes six carbon dioxide and 6 H2O which creates ATP what is the chemical equation for cellular respiration? what are the products of cellular respiration? which stage of cellular respiration occurs in the cytoplasm? sugar, proteins, or fats so food molecules what does cellular respiration breakdown so it can release energy? for each molecule of glucose how many ATP molecules are produced? what causes muscle soreness after strenuous exercise? what process is used to produce beer and wine? how do cells catch the energy released by cellular respiration? what enzyme is important in the regulation of redox reactions? what metabolic pathway is common in both aerobic and anaerobic organisms? which metabolic process produces the most ATP per molecule of glucose? where does the citric acid cycle take place? wat are the end products of the citric acid cycle? at the end of the krebs cycle where is most of the energy stored from the original glucose ? in the ETC what is the final electron acceptor? ATP is produced as hydrogen ions flow through ATP synthase (protein) what type of fermentation do yeast cells perform? out of all the organic compounds, which one will yield the most ATP per molecule? convert to intermediates of glycolysis and citric acid cycle what happens when proteins are used for cellular respiration? occurs in the cytoplasm, there are six carbon, breaks down glucose into pyruvate producing a small amount of ATP takes place in the matrix of mitochondria, supplies the third stage of cellular respiration with electrons uses the energy released by "falling" electron Continue reading >>
Bbc Bitesize - Higher Biology - Cellular Respiration - Revision 4
Cellular respiration refers to the breakdown of glucose and other respiratory substrates to make energy carrying molecules called ATP. The electron transport chain is the last stage of the respiration pathway and is the stage that produces the most ATP molecules. The electron transport chain is a collection of proteins found on the inner membrane of mitochondria. NADH and FADH2 release the electrons into the transport chain. The electrons transfer their energy to the proteins in the membrane providing the energy for hydrogen ions to be pumped across the membrane. The flow of the ions across the membrane synthesises ATP by a protein called ATP synthase. Three ATP are produced from each NADH, and two ATP are produced from each FADH2, which transfers high energy electrons to the electron transport chain. This results in a total gain of 34 ATP molecules in the electron transport chain. Oxygen is the final electron acceptor. The oxygen combines with the hydrogen to form water. If oxygen is not present then hydrogen cannot pass through the electron transport chain resulting in a reduction of ATP molecules produced. In total, 38 ATP molecules are produced from one molecule of glucose. If glucose is not available for the respiration pathway, other respiratory substrates can be used via alternative metabolic pathways. Starch, glycogen, proteins (amino acids) and fats can all be broken down into intermediates in glycolysis or the citric acid cycle. This provides alternative metabolic pathways to make ATP. Continue reading >>
Ch 6 Bio Flashcards | Quizlet
Which of the following statements regarding photosynthesis and cellular respiration is true? Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts, and cellular respiration occurs in mitochondria. How do cells capture the energy released by cellular respiration? The processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration are complementary. During these energy conversions, some energy is Which of the following are products of cellular respiration? The overall equation for the cellular respiration of glucose is During cellular respiration, the energy in glucose electrons are lost from one substance and added to another substance. In biological systems, an important enzyme involved in the regulation of redox reactions is delivers its electron load to the first electron carrier molecule. Which of the following options lists the stages in cellular respiration in the correct order? glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation During which of the following phases of cellular respiration does substrate-level phosphorylation take place? Which of the following metabolic pathways is common in aerobic and anaerobic metabolism? As a result of glycolysis there is a net gain of ________ ATPs. After glycolysis but before the citric acid cycle, The enzymes of the citric acid cycle are located in the The end products of the citric acid cycle include all of the following except At the end of the citric acid cycle, most of the energy remaining from the original glucose is stored in ATP is synthesized when H+ ions move through a channel in ATP synthase. In the electron transport chain, the final electron acceptor is Which of the following processes produces the most ATP per molecule of glucose oxidized? Which of the following statements regarding cellular respiration is false? Cellular re Continue reading >>
Section 16.1oxidation Of Glucose And Fatty Acids To Co2
The complete aerobic oxidation of glucose is coupled to the synthesis of as many as 36 molecules of ATP: Glycolysis, the initial stage of glucose metabolism, takes place in the cytosol and does not involve molecular O. It produces a small amount of ATP and the three-carbon compound pyruvate. In aerobic cells, pyruvate formed in glycolysis is transported into the mitochondria, where it is oxidized by O to CO. Via chemiosmotic coupling, the oxidation of pyruvate in the mitochondria generates the bulk of the ATP produced during the conversion of glucose to CO. In this section, we discuss the biochemical pathways that oxidize glucose and fatty acids to CO and HO; the fate of the released electrons is described in the next section. Go to: Cytosolic Enzymes Convert Glucose to Pyruvate A set of 10 enzymes catalyze the reactions, constituting the glycolytic pathway, that degrade one molecule of glucose to two molecules of pyruvate (Figure 16-3). All the metabolic intermediates between glucose and pyruvate are watersoluble phosphorylated compounds. Four molecules of ATP are formed from ADP in glycolysis (reactions 6 and 9). However, two ATP molecules are consumed during earlier steps of this pathway: the first by the addition of a phosphate residue to glucose in the reaction catalyzed by hexokinase (reaction 1), and the second by the addition of a second phosphate to fructose 6-phosphate in the reaction catalyzed by phosphofructokinase-1 (reaction 3). Thus there is a net gain of two ATP molecules. The balanced chemical equation for the conversion of glucose to pyruvate shows that four hydrogen atoms (four protons and four electrons) are also formed: (For convenience, we show pyruvate in its un-ionized form, pyruvic acid, although at physiological pH it would be largely dissociat Continue reading >>
24.2 Carbohydrate Metabolism
By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe how the body digests carbohydrates Describe how, when, and why the body metabolizes carbohydrates Describe the pathway of a pyruvate molecule through the Krebs cycle Explain the transport of electrons through the electron transport chain Describe the process of ATP production through oxidative phosphorylation Carbohydrates are organic molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. The family of carbohydrates includes both simple and complex sugars. Glucose and fructose are examples of simple sugars, and starch, glycogen, and cellulose are all examples of complex sugars. The complex sugars are also called polysaccharides and are made of multiple monosaccharide molecules. Polysaccharides serve as energy storage (e.g., starch and glycogen) and as structural components (e.g., chitin in insects and cellulose in plants). During digestion, carbohydrates are broken down into simple, soluble sugars that can be transported across the intestinal wall into the circulatory system to be transported throughout the body. Carbohydrate digestion begins in the mouth with the action of salivary amylase on starches, continues in the duodenum with the action of pancreatic amylase, and ends with monosaccharides being absorbed across the epithelium of the small intestine. Once the absorbed monosaccharides are transported to the tissues, the process of cellular respiration begins ( Figure 1 ). The goal of cellular respiration is to produce ATP for use by the body to power physiological processes. To start the process, a glucose molecule will get modified to two pyruvate molecules in the metabolic pathway called glycolysis. When oxygen is available, the pyruvate molecules will then be converted to acetyl CoA which enters the m Continue reading >>
Typical eukaryotic cell Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products. The reactions involved in respiration are catabolic reactions, which break large molecules into smaller ones, releasing energy in the process, as weak so-called "high-energy" bonds are replaced by stronger bonds in the products. Respiration is one of the key ways a cell releases chemical energy to fuel cellular activity. Cellular respiration is considered an exothermic redox reaction which releases heat. The overall reaction occurs in a series of biochemical steps, most of which are redox reactions themselves. Although technically, cellular respiration is a combustion reaction, it clearly does not resemble one when it occurs in a living cell because of the slow release of energy from the series of reactions. Nutrients that are commonly used by animal and plant cells in respiration include sugar, amino acids and fatty acids, and the most common oxidizing agent (electron acceptor) is molecular oxygen (O2). The chemical energy stored in ATP (its third phosphate group is weakly bonded to the rest of the molecule and is cheaply broken allowing stronger bonds to form, thereby transferring energy for use by the cell) can then be used to drive processes requiring energy, including biosynthesis, locomotion or transportation of molecules across cell membranes. Aerobic respiration Aerobic respiration (red arrows) is the main means by which both fungi and animals utilize chemical energy in the form of organic compounds that were previously created through photosynthesis (green arrow). Aerobic respiration requires oxygen (O2) in order to Continue reading >>
Molecular Biology Of The Cell. 4th Edition.
As we have just seen, cells require a constant supply of energy to generate and maintain the biological order that keeps them alive. This energy is derived from the chemical bond energy in food molecules, which thereby serve as fuel for cells. Sugars are particularly important fuel molecules, and they are oxidized in small steps to carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (Figure 2-69). In this section we trace the major steps in the breakdown, or catabolism, of sugars and show how they produce ATP, NADH, and other activated carrier molecules in animal cells. We concentrate on glucose breakdown, since it dominates energy production in most animal cells. A very similar pathway also operates in plants, fungi, and many bacteria. Other molecules, such as fatty acids and proteins, can also serve as energy sources when they are funneled through appropriate enzymatic pathways. Go to: Food Molecules Are Broken Down in Three Stages to Produce ATP The proteins, lipids, and polysaccharides that make up most of the food we eat must be broken down into smaller molecules before our cells can use them—either as a source of energy or as building blocks for other molecules. The breakdown processes must act on food taken in from outside, but not on the macromolecules inside our own cells. Stage 1 in the enzymatic breakdown of food molecules is therefore digestion, which occurs either in our intestine outside cells, or in a specialized organelle within cells, the lysosome. (A membrane that surrounds the lysosome keeps its digestive enzymes separated from the cytosol, as described in Chapter 13.) In either case, the large polymeric molecules in food are broken down during digestion into their monomer subunits—proteins into amino acids, polysaccharides into sugars, and fats into fatty acids and g Continue reading >>
- Cell-Centered: Scientists Embrace Cell-Replacement Therapy for Type 1 Diabetes
- International Textbook of Diabetes Mellitus, 4th Ed., Excerpt #59: Mechanisms of insulin signal transduction Part 3 of 8
- International Textbook of Diabetes Mellitus, 4th Ed., Excerpt #82: Insulin Actions In Vivo: Glucose Metabolism Part 9 of 9
In The Electron Transport Chain The Final Electron
In the electron transport chain the final electron acceptor is a An oxygen atom In the electron transport chain the final electron This preview shows page 4 - 5 out of 5 pages. In the electron transport chain, the final electron acceptor isa.An oxygen atom52.By-products of cellular respiration includea.CO2 and Water53.During cellular respiration, electrons move through a series of electron carrier molecules. Which of the following statements about this process is true?a.Molecular oxygen is reduced when it accepts electrons and forms water. 54.Which of the following options lists the stages in aerobic cellular respiration in the correct order?a.Glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation55.Which of the following processes produces the most ATP per molecule of glucose oxidized?a.Aerobic Respiration56.In fermentation, ________ is ________.a.NADH . . . oxidized57.Organisms that are unable to survive in the presence of oxygen are calleda.Obligate anaerobes.58.When an organism such as a yeast lives by fermentation, it converts the pyruvate from glycolysis into a different compound, such as alcohol. Why does it carry out fermentation? a.The conversion is needed to regenerate the NAD+ consumed during glycolysis.59.Yeasts and muscle cells can produce ATP by either fermentation or oxidative phosphorylation; thus, they area.Facultative anaerobes60.Muscle soreness associated with strenuous exercise is at least partly due toa.The presence of lactic acid produced during fermentation in muscle cells.61.When proteins are used as a source of energy for the body, the proteinsa.Are converted mainly into intermediates of glycolysis or the citric acid cycle.62.In lactic acid fermentation, ________ is ________.a.Pyruvate Reduced63.If you consume 1 g of each of the follo Continue reading >>
Which Pathway Produces The Most Atp Per Glucose Molecule?
Which pathway produces the most ATP per glucose molecule? Are you sure you want to delete this answer? Well Glycolisys has a net 2ATP synthesis, the krebs cycle has also 2net ATP, however the Oxidative Phosporilation (Electron chain/chemiosomosis) produces a net ATP of 28, to make a total of 32-36 net ATP in one molecule of glucose. During glycolysis, you use 2mol ATP and create 4 mol ATP giving a net gain of 2 ATP. the Krebs cycle also only produces 2 mol ATP. the ETC (electron transport chain) makes 28 mol ATP Source(s): My mighty biological brain (plus the 5 yrs at uni and working as a teacher!) somewhat the two 36 or 38 finished ATPs are produced via a mixture of glycolysis ( internet 2 ), the glycerol-phosphate holiday ( 4 ) or the malate/aspartate holiday (6 ) plus 30 ATPs from the 2GTPs in TCA, the two FADH2s, the 8 NADHs ( 2 from PDH ) and six from TCA ). evaluate that's the finished for 2 pyruvates moving into according to mole of glucose ( 2 3C fragments from a million 6 C compound ). reckoning on which holiday is used for the extramitochondrial NADH reducing comparable generated in glycolysis...the finished yield could be 36 or 38 ATPs from glucose . I think this question violates the Community Guidelines Chat or rant, adult content, spam, insulting other members, show more I think this question violates the Terms of Service Harm to minors, violence or threats, harassment or privacy invasion, impersonation or misrepresentation, fraud or phishing, show more If you believe your intellectual property has been infringed and would like to file a complaint, please see our Copyright/IP Policy I think this answer violates the Community Guidelines Chat or rant, adult content, spam, insulting other members, show more I think this answer violates the Terms of Service H Continue reading >>