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Which Of These Carbohydrates Is Straight Chains Of Glucose Found In Plants Only

Chapter 5 - Term Definition Simple Carbohydrates...

Chapter 5 - Term Definition Simple Carbohydrates...

This preview shows page 1 - 6 out of 16 pages. Term:simple carbohydratesDefinition:Monosaccharides and disaccharides. Sugars composed of a single sugarmolecule (a monosaccharide) or twojoined sugar molecules (adisaccharide).Term:monosaccharidesDefinition:Single sugar units. The common onesare glucose, fructose, and galactose.Term:disaccharidesDefinition:Carbohydrates composed of twomonosaccharide units chemicallylinked. They include sucrose (commontable sugar), lactose (milk sugar), andmaltose.Term:glucoseDefinition:A common monosaccharide that is acomponent of disaccharides (sucrose,lactose, and maltose) and variouscomplex carbohydrates; present in theblood. Also known as DEXTROSE. Term:fructoseDefinition:A common monosaccharide naturallypresent in honey and many fruits. Also called LEVULOSE or FRUITSUGAR.Term:galactoseDefinition:A monosaccharide that has a structuresimilar to glucose; usually joined withother monosaccharides.Term:sucroseDefinition:A disaccharide composed of onemolecule of glucose and one moleculeof fructose joined together. Alsoknown as TABLE SUGAR.Term:lactoseDefinition:A disaccharide composed of glucoseand galactose; also called MILKSUGAR because it is the major sugarin milk and dairy products. Term:maltoseDefinition:A disaccharide composed of twoglucose molecules; sometimes calledMALT SUGAR. Seldom occursnaturally in foods but is formedwhenever long molecules of starchbreak down.Term:complex carbohydratesDefinition:Chains of more than twomonosaccharides. May beoligosaccharides or polysaccharides.Term:oligosaccharidesDefinition:Short carbohydrate chains composedof 3 to 10 sugar molecules.Term:polysaccharidesDefinition:Long carbohydrate chains composedof more than 10 sugar molecules. Canbe straight or branched. Term:starchDefinition:The major storag Continue reading >>

Difference Between Cellulose, Starch And Glycogen

Difference Between Cellulose, Starch And Glycogen

Difference Between Cellulose, Starch and Glycogen These three polysaccharides differ in their glycosidic linkages and their functions too. Starting from the cellulose which is the monomer of beta glucose and is found in plant cell wall only. While Starch and Glycogen act as the carbohydrate reserve in plants and animals respectively. Though their chains have slight differences at the branching point, which is described below. We all are aware of the importance of carbohydrate, whether it is plants, animals (including humans), or microorganisms. It is the most abundantly found organic substances and has the significant value, as it acts as the dietary source and also serves as the structural component, provides energy. Carbohydrates are further classified as the monosaccharide, disaccharide, and polysaccharide. This classification is on the number of glucose or sugar units linked to each other. With this, we will be discussing the difference between the three main polysaccharides, which marks their presence adequately wherever needed or required. Cellulose is solely found in the plant only and is absent in vertebrates. In plants, it acts as the structural component and is present in the cell wall, especially in trunks, the woody area of the plants. Cellulose is the polysaccharide and is made up of numerous glucose units linking together forming the long chain. The linking of the glucose unit or the glycosidic bond is of (1-4). The chain is unbranched, linear containing 10,000 to 15,000 D-glucose units. The above statement is important to notice as this is the only reason that human cannot digest (hydrolyze) cellulose, as the enzyme which is needed to the break the beta-glycosidic linkage is absent in humans. Though certain ruminating animals have the microorganisms in t Continue reading >>

Biology Unit #2 Flashcards | Quizlet

Biology Unit #2 Flashcards | Quizlet

Why are carbon atoms so common in living things? One of the most abundant hydrocarbons in natural gass? 4 groups that are functional and organic? Hydroxyl, Carbonyl, Carboxyl, Amino group 3 shapes the carbon backbones of organic molecules can take? What determines the properties of a functional group? The carbon skeleton and the attached functional group Using the dehydration reaction, cells construct what from 2 monosaccharides? How meany monomers are polymers built from? What 4 classes are life's largest molecules classified into? Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids Each time a monomer is added to a chain, what is released? How do cells break bonds between monomers? What's the connection between monomers and polymers? Many monomers linked together make polymers What molecule is released during the construction of a polymer? What is this reaction called? What are two things that carbohydrates provide? What's at the core of most sugar molecules found in nature? What molecule is the main fuel supply for cellular work? What happens to glucose molecules that are not used immediately? Incorporated into larger carbohydrates, used to make fat molecules A glucose molecule linked to a fructose molecule Long polymer chains made up of simple sugar monomers A polysaccharide found in plant cells that consists entirely of glucose monomers What happens when plants break down starch molecules? How do animals and humans store excess sugar? In the form of a polysaccharide called glycogen What polysaccharide in plants serve as building materials? What benefit does plants get from cellulose? Protects cells, stiffens plant preventing it from flopping over Why are almost all carbohydrates hydrophilic? What's the difference between a monosaccharide and a polysaccharide? A monosac Continue reading >>

Monosaccharides - An Overview | Sciencedirect Topics

Monosaccharides - An Overview | Sciencedirect Topics

Monosaccharides are single polyhydroxyaldehyde (e.g., glucose) or polyhydroxyketone units (e.g., fructose), whereas oligosaccharides consist of 210 monosaccharide units joined together by glycosidic linkages. Larry R. Engelking, in Textbook of Veterinary Physiological Chemistry (Third Edition) , 2015 Monosaccharides (largely hexoses and pentoses) require no intestinal digestion prior to absorption; however, oligosaccharides must be hydrolyzed to monosaccharides before they can be absorbed. Since mammals lack the enzyme cellulase, they are incapable of carrying out the constitutive digestion of cellulose (which contains -1,4 glycosidic linkages). However, they can digest (i.e., hydrolyze) dietary starch and glycogen (which contain -1,4 and -1,6 glycosidic linkages). Sites for starch and glycogen digestion are in the mouth and upper small intestine. Most monosaccharide absorption occurs in the duodenum and jejunum. Elaine M Aldred BSc (Hons), DC, Lic Ac, Dip Herb Med, Dip CHM, ... Kenneth Vall, in Pharmacology , 2009 Monosaccharides can join together by condensation (see Figure 4.7B, p. 26). When sugars are linked together the links can be one of two sorts: either at the fourth carbon (14 bond) or the sixth carbon (16 bond). The bonds created between individual sugars can vary between the 1, 4 or 6 carbon atoms on each monosaccharide. This will lead to combinations that result in different chemical and physical properties (as shown in Figure 9.7). Simple carbohydrates: one to three units of sugar linked together. Oligosaccharides: carbohydrates made up of two to ten monosaccharides. Monosaccharide is a generic term that includes compounds with the general formula (CH2O)n, where n = 3 to 8. Both aldoses and ketoses are included in this group and are distinguished by the p Continue reading >>

Organic Compound #1: Carbohydrates

Organic Compound #1: Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are sugars. Sugars are carbohydrates. Saccharide means sugar. We commonly divide carbs into three classes: 2. Disaccharides (made of two single sugars, snapped together) 3. Polysaccharides (many sugars snapped together) Theres hundreds of types of these but were going to go over just a few examples of each. The first two examples are 5-carbon atoms long: Ribose and Deoxyribose. Ribose is found in RNA. Deoxyribose is found in DNA. A deoxyribose is missing one oxygen, which is why its called de-oxy. The next three examples are 6-carbon atoms long: Glucose, Fructose and Galactose. Whats interesting about these are that all three of them are 6 carbon atoms, 12 hydrogen atoms and 6 oxygen atoms. The molecular formula for all three of them is C6H12O6 So wait a second If all three of them are C6H12O6, why are they different? They are isomers. The term we use when the atoms are the same molecular formula but arranged differently are chemical isomers. Isomer literally means same type but they are not identical. These three monosaccharides above are all C6H12O6 but clearly arranged differently. These three monosaccharides are mostly used as sources of energy by living cells, including ours. Whats also shown above is that these sugars are not a straight chain of carbon atoms. They are actually looped together as a ring-shape. This is known as a cyclic shape which refers to the ring shape. When you see pictures that look like this, recognize them as sugars. Three examples of Disaccharides (double sugars) 1. Sucrose aka cane sugar is made of glucose + fructose snapping together to form a disaccharide. Hydrogen from one and an OH from another are removed and thats where they attach together and water is produced as a result. The name for this type of reaction is a dehy Continue reading >>

Biodotedu

Biodotedu

The basic 'monomer' from which general hydrocarbons are constructed is a -[CH2]- unit. These are joined together in long, straight chains to form molecules such as octane. Hydrocarbons contain and store a lot of energy in their bonds, and are thus good fuel molecules (gasoline, for example contains a lot of hydrocarbons). However, they are strongly hydrophobic (they 'hate' water), so it is very difficult for living cells and organisms to manipulate and use pure hydrocarbons. About the only use for nearly pure hydrocarbons is wax, which is so strongly hydrophobic that it is used as a waterproofing material. Fatty acids consist of long, unbranched hydrocarbons with a carboxylic acid group at one end. The number of carbon atoms in a fatty acid molecule is usually even (6, 8, 12, 32, 36, etc.), although it is not impossible to find a fatty acid with an odd number of carbon atoms in its structure. While the long, hydrocarbon chain of the fatty acid continues to be strongly hydrophobic, the presence of the carboxylic acid group at one end of the molecule adds some hydrophilic properties. Small fatty acids such as propionic acid (with 3 carbon atoms) mixes with water readily, caproic acid (with 6 carbon atoms) is only 0.4 percent soluble in water. Typical animal fatty acids are palmitic (C16), and stearic (C18), which have hydrocarbon chains in which each carbon atom is also linked with two hydrogen atoms (-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-). These are called saturated fatty acids. Animals also contain fatty acids in which there are less hydrogen atoms joined to some of the carbon atoms, and a double bond between two carbon atoms takes their place. These are the unsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic acid (CH3-[CH2]7-CH==CH-[CH2]7-COOH), which is the most common fatty acid found in nature Continue reading >>

Complex Carbohydrates Are Formed By Linkage Of Monosaccharides

Complex Carbohydrates Are Formed By Linkage Of Monosaccharides

Because sugars contain many hydroxyl groups, glycosidic bonds can join one monosaccharide to another. Oligosaccharides are built by the linkage of two or more monosaccharides by O-glycosidic bonds (Figure 11.10). In maltose, for example, two d-glucose residues are joined by a glycosidic linkage between the α-anomeric form of C-1 on one sugar and the hydroxyl oxygen atom on C-4 of the adjacent sugar. Such a linkage is called an α-1,4-glycosidic bond. The fact that monosaccharides have multiple hydroxyl groups means that various glycosidic linkages are possible. Indeed, the wide array of these linkages in concert with the wide variety of monosaccharides and their many isomeric forms makes complex carbohydrates information-rich molecules. Go to: 11.2.1. Sucrose, Lactose, and Maltose Are the Common Disaccharides A disaccharide consists of two sugars joined by an O-glycosidic bond. Three abundant disaccharides are sucrose, lactose, and maltose (Figure 11.11). Sucrose (common table sugar) is obtained commercially from cane or beet. The anomeric carbon atoms of a glucose unit and a fructose unit are joined in this disaccharide; the configuration of this glycosidic linkage is α for glucose and β for fructose. Sucrose can be cleaved into its component monosaccharides by the enzyme sucrase. Lactose, the disaccharide of milk, consists of galactose joined to glucose by a β-1,4-glycosidic linkage. Lactose is hydrolyzed to these monosaccharides by lactase in human beings (Section 16.1.12) and by β-galactosidase in bacteria. In maltose, two glucose units are joined by an α-1,4 glycosidic linkage, as stated earlier. Maltose comes from the hydrolysis of starch and is in turn hydrolyzed to glucose by maltase. Sucrase, lactase, and maltase are located on the outer surfaces of epith Continue reading >>

Polysaccharides - Carbohydates - University Of Maine

Polysaccharides - Carbohydates - University Of Maine

Amylopectin: a branched glucose polymer shaped like the branches of a tree with chains of: a-1, 4 linked glucose residues (20-30) cross linked by Molecular weight approaches 1,000,000 and is one of the largest molecules in nature. In plants, starch occurs in the form of distinct granules with characteristic structures. This offers a means of identifying raw starches under the electron microscope. This structure also affects the rate at which starch is digested by enzymes Amylases such as bacterial a-amylase, bovine or porcine pancreatic amylase, diastase in malted grains. Raw potato starch is very resistant to mammalian hydrolysis so it should be cooked first. On complete hydrolysis, starch produces dextrins followed by maltose and finally glucose. Starch is insoluble in cold water, but when heated with water, the grains swell by absorbing water and finally burst and become a gelatinous solution (Gelatinization). The amount of swelling is the degree of gelatinization. When cereal grains are processed for animal feeds the processing causes different degrees of gelatinization. This gelatinization increases the surface area for enzyme attack and therefore increases the rate of attack (steam flaking, popping, micronizing). b. Glycogen: Sometimes called animal starch because it is the only storage carbohydrate found in animals, and even then it only appears in small amounts in the muscle and liver. Like starch, it has a branched structure, but is more branched than starch and has shorter side chains. Like amylopectin, it is a glucose polymer with a-1, 4 and a-1, 6 linkages, however, the side chains are smaller and contain only 12 units. c. Dextrins: A poorly defined group of intermediates resulting from partial hydrolysis of starch. They occur as temporary intermediates in Continue reading >>

Polysaccharides

Polysaccharides

Compare and contrast the structures and uses of starch, glycogen, and cellulose. The polysaccharides are the most abundant carbohydrates in nature and serve a variety of functions, such as energy storage or as components of plant cell walls. Polysaccharides are very large polymers composed of tens to thousands of monosaccharides joined together by glycosidic linkages. The three most abundant polysaccharides are starch, glycogen, and cellulose. These three are referred to as homopolymers because each yields only one type of monosaccharide (glucose) after complete hydrolysis. Heteropolymers may contain sugar acids, amino sugars, or noncarbohydrate substances in addition to monosaccharides. Heteropolymers are common in nature (gums, pectins, and other substances) but will not be discussed further in this textbook. The polysaccharides are nonreducing carbohydrates, are not sweet tasting, and do not undergo mutarotation. Starch is the most important source of carbohydrates in the human diet and accounts for more than 50% of our carbohydrate intake. It occurs in plants in the form of granules, and these are particularly abundant in seeds (especially the cereal grains) and tubers, where they serve as a storage form of carbohydrates. The breakdown of starch to glucose nourishes the plant during periods of reduced photosynthetic activity. We often think of potatoes as a starchy food, yet other plants contain a much greater percentage of starch (potatoes 15%, wheat 55%, corn 65%, and rice 75%). Commercial starch is a white powder. Starch is a mixture of two polymers: amylose A linear polymer of glucose units found in starch. and amylopectin A branched polymer of glucose units found in starch.. Natural starches consist of about 10%30% amylase and 70%90% amylopectin. Amylose is a Continue reading >>

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates (also called saccharides) are molecular compounds made from just three elements: carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Monosaccharides (e.g. glucose) and disaccharides (e.g. sucrose) are relatively small molecules. They are often called sugars. Other carbohydrate molecules are very large (polysaccharides such as starch and cellulose). Carbohydrates are: a source of energy for the body e.g. glucose and a store of energy, e.g. starch in plants building blocks for polysaccharides (giant carbohydrates), e.g. cellulose in plants and glycogen in the human body components of other molecules eg DNA, RNA, glycolipids, glycoproteins, ATP Monosaccharides Monosaccharides are the simplest carbohydrates and are often called single sugars. They are the building blocks from which all bigger carbohydrates are made. Monosaccharides have the general molecular formula (CH2O)n, where n can be 3, 5 or 6. They can be classified according to the number of carbon atoms in a molecule: n = 3 trioses, e.g. glyceraldehyde n = 5 pentoses, e.g. ribose and deoxyribose ('pent' indicates 5) n = 6 hexoses, e.g. fructose, glucose and galactose ('hex' indicates 6) There is more than one molecule with the molecular formula C5H10O5 and more than one with the molecular formula C6H12O6. Molecules that have the same molecular formula but different structural formulae are called structural isomers. Glyceraldehyde's molecular formula is C3H6O3. Its structural formula shows it contains an aldehyde group (-CHO) and two hydroxyl groups (-OH). The presence of an aldehyde group means that glyceraldehyde can also be classified as an aldose. It is a reducing sugar and gives a positive test with Benedict's reagent. CH2OHCH(OH)CHO is oxidised by Benedict's reagent to CH2OHCH(OH)COOH; the aldehyde group is oxidised to Continue reading >>

Plant Life: Carbohydrates

Plant Life: Carbohydrates

Common organic chemicals found in all living organisms, important in energy metabolism and structural polymers, carbohydrate molecules are made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Carbohydrates are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen molecules in a 1:2:1 ratio, respectively. This is often simplified using the formula nCH2O, where n represents the number of CH2O subunits in a carbohydrate. This formula should make it clear how the name carbohydrate was derived, as nCH2O is essentially carbon and water . The simplest carbohydrates are the monosaccharides , or simple sugars. Individual monosaccharides can be joined together to make disaccharides (composed of two monosaccharides), oligosaccharides (short polymers composed of two to several monosaccharides), and polysaccharides (longer polymers composed of numerous monosaccharides). The common monosaccharides found in plants have from three to six carbon atoms in a straight chain with one oxygen atom. Most of the oxygen atoms also have a hydrogen atom attached, making them hydroxyl groups (OH). One of the oxygen atoms is connected to a carbon by a double covalent bond, while the hydroxyl groups are attached to carbon atoms by single covalent bonds. If the double-bonded oxygen is on a terminal carbon (as an aldehyde group), the monosaccharide is called an aldose. If the double-bonded oxygen is on an internal carbon, the monosaccharide is called a ketose. The simplest monosaccharides are the three carbon sugars, or trioses. Pentoses, with five carbons, are also important in plants. Ribose and deoxyribose are found in RNA(ribonucleic acid) and DNA(deoxyribonucleic acid), respectively. Ribulose bisphosphate is an important intermediate in the incorporation of carbon dioxide into carbohydrates during photosynthesis . Xylose and Continue reading >>

Structural Biochemistry/carbohydrates/polysaccharides

Structural Biochemistry/carbohydrates/polysaccharides

Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrate polymers consisting of more than 2 monosaccharides linked together covalently by glycosidic linkages in a condensation reaction. Being comparatively large macromolecules, polysaccharides are most often insoluble in water. Polysaccharides are extremely important in organisms for the purposes of energy storage and structural integrity. There are two types of polysaccharides: homo-polysaccharides and hetero-polysaccharides. A homo-polysaccharide is defined to have only one type of monosaccharide repeating in the chain; whereas, a hetero-polysaccharide is composed of two or more types of monosaccharides. In both types of polysaccharide, the monosaccharide can link in a linear fashion or they can branch out into complex formations. It should also be noted that for a polysaccharide to be considered acidic it must contain one or more of the following groups: phosphate, sulfuric, or carboxyl. Polysaccharides have several roles. Polysaccharides such as starch, glycogen, and dextrans are all stored in the liver and muscles to be converted to energy for later use. Amylose and Amylopectin are polysaccharides of starch. Amylose has a linear chain structure made up of hundreds of glucose molecules that is linked by a alpha 1,4 glycosidic linkage. Due to the nature of these alpha 1,4 bonds, the macromolecule often assumes a bent shape. The starch molecules form a hollow helix that is suitable for easy energy access and storage. This gives starch a less fibrous quality and a more granule-like shape which is better suited for storage. Unlike the linear structure of Amylose, the Amylopectin starches are branched containing an alpha 1,6 glycosidic linkage about every 30 glucose units. Like amylose it is a homopolymer composed of many glucose units. Continue reading >>

Carbohydrates Flashcards | Quizlet

Carbohydrates Flashcards | Quizlet

chains of 3+ monosaccharides (oligosaccharides or polysaccharides) short carbohydrate chanis of 3-10 molecules long carbohydrate chains of 11+ molecules. straight or branched major storage form of carbohydrates in plants. long chains of glucose in straight (amylose) or branching (amylopectin) arrangements straight chain polysaccharide composed of glucose units branched chain polysaccharide composed of glucose very large, highly branched polysaccharide composed of multi-glucose units. animal starch- primary storage of glucose in animals carbohydrates and lignin that are naturally present in plants and are nondigestable. not digested and absorbed by small intestine isolated nondigestable carbohydrates including some manufactured carbohydrates that have beneficial effects on humans straight chain polysaccharide compose of hundreds of glucose units linked by beta bonds. nondigestable and component of dietary fiber group of large polysaccharides in dietary fiber that are fermented more easily than cellulose dietary fibers that contain galactose and other monosaccharides, found between plant cell walls gel-forming dietary fibers containing galactose, maltose, and glucose. found in seaweed dietary fibers that are not carbohydrates. in broccoli and carrots branched polysaccharide chains of glucose found in barley and oats, help decreased blood cholesterol levels long chain structural polysaccharide of slightly modified glucose. found in hard exterior skeletons of insects, crustaceans, and other invertebrates. cell walls of fungi starch-digesting enzyme secreated by pancrease chemical bonds linked monosaccharides which can be broken by human intestinal enzymes, releasing monosaccharides. in starch, maltose, and sucrose chemical bonds linking monosaccharides which sometimes cann Continue reading >>

Help Us Do More

Help Us Do More

What’s in a spud? Besides water, which makes up most of the potato’s weight, there’s a little fat, a little protein…and a whole lot of carbohydrate (about 37 grams in a medium potato). Some of that carbohydrate is in the form of sugars. These provide the potato, and the person eating the potato, with a ready fuel source. A bit more of the potato's carbohydrate is in the form of fiber, including cellulose polymers that give structure to the potato’s cell walls. Most of the carbohydrate, though, is in the form of starch, long chains of linked glucose molecules that are a storage form of fuel. When you eat French fries, potato chips, or a baked potato with all the fixings, enzymes in your digestive tract get to work on the long glucose chains, breaking them down into smaller sugars that your cells can use. Carbohydrates are biological molecules made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of roughly one carbon atom (C) to one water molecule (H​O). This composition gives carbohydrates their name: they are made up of carbon (carbo-) plus water (-hydrate). Carbohydrate chains come in different lengths, and biologically important carbohydrates belong to three categories: monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. In this article, we’ll learn more about each type of carbohydrates, as well as the essential energetic and structural roles they play in humans and other organisms. If the sugar has an aldehyde group, meaning that the carbonyl C is the last one in the chain, it is known as an aldose. If the carbonyl C is internal to the chain, so that there are other carbons on both sides of it, it forms a ketone group and the sugar is called a ketose. Sugars are also named according to their number of carbons: some of the most common types are trioses (thre Continue reading >>

Glossary

Glossary

The conversion ofcarbohydrates to alcohols, acids, and carbondioxide without the use of oxygen. Carbohydrates containingmany glucose units, from 10 to 1000 or more. A digestible straight-chain type ofstarch composed of glucose units. A digestible branched-chaintype of starch composed of glucose units. An insoluble straight-chainpolysaccharide made of glucose moleculesthat is undigestible. An insoluble fiber containingxylose, galactose, glucose, and othermonosaccharides bonded together. A soluble fiber containing chains ofgalacturonic acid and other monosaccharides;characteristically found between plant cellwalls. A soluble fiber containing chains ofgalactose, glucuronic acid, and othermonosaccharides; characteristically found inexudates from plant stems. A soluble fiber consisting ofchains of galactose, mannose, and othermonosaccharides; characteristically found inseaweed. An insoluble fiber made up of amultiringed alcohol (noncarbohydrate)structure. Grains containing the entireseed of the plant, including the bran, germ,and endosperm (starchy interior). Examplesare whole wheat and brown rice. Fiber added to foods thathas shown to provide health benefits. Combination of dietary fiber andfunctional fiber in a food. Also just called fiber. Starch-digesting enzyme from thesalivary glands or pancreas. An enzyme made by absorptive cellsof the small intestine; this enzyme digestsmaltose to two glucoses. An enzyme made by absorptive cellsof the small intestine; this enzyme digestssucrose to glucose and fructose. An enzyme made by absorptive cellsof the small intestine; this enzyme digestslactose to glucose and galactose. Products of incompletebreakdown of fat containing three or fourcarbons. The condition of having a highconcentration of ketone bodies and relatedbreakdown pro Continue reading >>

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