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Where Does Glucose Come From In Plants

Biology Flashcards | Quizlet

Biology Flashcards | Quizlet

Equation that shows how ADP is changed into ATP Which molecule stores more than 90 times the energy in ATP? How are these cell used How do animal cells store glucose for later? How do plants store glucose for later? 2. Strach - storage energy - storage energy 3. Glvogen- animals, stored sugar in animal cell. Liver plus muscle Jan van helmont, Jan ingenhousz, Joseph priestly, Melvin Calvin What was "wrong" about the van helmont's conclusion that when plants grow, their increase in mass comes from water Grew in mass size because the soil made the plant bigger, process of photosynthesis creating the plant to grow Write the chemical equation for photosynthesis What is a pigment? Why is the main pigment used by green plants to absorb energy? Molecule that absorbs light energy. Cloraphl- used blue and red light Which wavelength of light are the best absorbed by chlorophyll a & b? Which are reflected? How are carotene pigments different from chlorophyll? Fwy do plants have these other pigments besides chlorophyll? Why do plants look green Orange, yellow, some reds. To help the plant to get more light Be able to label the parts of a chloroplast and tell where the reactions for photosynthesis happen What is NADP? What does it do? How does it change into NADPH NADPH is an electron carrier molecule, carries exited electrons to the stroma used in the Calvin cycle. Ex: little kids energy Where does the H that ends up in NADPH ultimately come from Pick up from the water as it carries energized electrons Describe the 2 sets of reactions involved in photosynthesis Where are they located and what happens in each Lights absorbed, electrons get exited, heading to photosynthesis one. Join an electron carrier and makes NADP - goes to the light independent- stroma attached to NADP now makes Continue reading >>

Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis

Green plants are producers. This means that they can survive without animals! They can make lots of organic chemicals from a few simple inorganic chemicals. They need simple things like carbon dioxide and water and can make complex things like sugar, starch, fat, and proteins. Plants get their nutrients from the environment. Carbon dioxide comes from the air (unless they are aquatic plants, in which case they get it from the water surrounding them). They get water from the soil. They also need other inorganic nutrients like nitrate, sulphate and phosphate. A few plants cannot get nitrate out of the soil so they have to eat animals to get the nitrogen which they must have for growth. Animals are consumers; they cannot carry out photosynthesis. This means that they have to eat other things to get the carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins and minerals which they need. When plants are in the sunlight they can make a sugar called glucose. This is slightly different from the sugar (sucrose) which you put into your tea. Glucose contains three chemical elements: Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen All the carbon needed for photosynthesis comes from carbon dioxide. All the hydrogen comes from water. When plants use carbon dioxide and water to make glucose there is a lot of oxygen left over. Here is a word equation: Light CarbonDioxide + Water → Glucose + Oxygen Chlorophyll Carbon dioxide and water are inorganic chemicals, whereas glucose is an organic chemical. Plants need energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose; this energy comes from sunlight. Plants can also use artificial light providing that it contains the right frequencies (colours). Light energy is trapped by a green chemical called chlorophyll. In photosynthesis, light energy is converted into chemical energy. Wh Continue reading >>

Photosynthesis Flashcards | Quizlet

Photosynthesis Flashcards | Quizlet

What substance is needed to trap light energy from the sun? What gas is absorbed by plants during photosynthesis? What would happen to a green plant that received only green light? Plants are green because they do not absorb green light, but reflect or transmit it. So if a plant is kept in green light it will not be able to absorb it and will not be able to carry out photosynthesis. Where does energy in most food come from? A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption Because this pigment absorbs all the wavelengths of sunlight except green. Green is reflected back so our eyes could detect it; green has the lowest rate of photosynthesis (less absorption of photons), and when you see a color it is because it reflects that color, not absorbing it. The technique of separating and analyzing the components (colors) of a mixture of liquids or gases by selective adsorption Organism that goes through photosynthesis Green algae, Elodea, Diatoms (most Plantae) 6CO2 + 6H2O + sunlight ----> C6H12O6 + 6O2 (Carbon Dioxide + Water + Light ----> Glucose + Oxygen) What does sunlight do during the light reaction? The energy from light propels the electrons from a photosystem into a high-energy state What molecule do the hydrogen atoms that are found in glucose at the end of photosynthesis come from? What molecule do the carbon atoms that are found in glucose at the end of photosynthesis come from? What molecule do the oxygen atoms that are found in glucose at the end of photosynthesis come from? What is the difference between a heterotroph and an autotroph? What do autotrophs require? What do heterotrophs require? An autotroph (plant) makes its own food/energy (using sunlight in the process of photosynt Continue reading >>

Ucsb Science Line

Ucsb Science Line

How come plants produce oxygen even though they need oxygen for respiration? By using the energy of sunlight, plants canconvert carbon dioxide and water intocarbohydrates and oxygen in a process calledphotosynthesis. As photosynthesis requiressunlight, this process only happens during theday. We often like to think of this as plants`breathing in carbon dioxide and `breathing outoxygen. However, the process is not exactly thissimple. Just like animals, plants need to breakdown carbohydrates into energy. Oxygen is requiredto do this. Then why do the plants get rid of allthe oxygen they produce during photosynthesis? Theanswer is, they do not. Plants actually hold on toa small amount of the oxygen they produced inphotosynthesis and use that oxygen to break downcarbohydrates to give them energy. Butwhat happens at night when there is no sunlightwhich is needed in photosynthesis? Interestingly,in order to maintain their metabolism and continuerespiration at night, plants must absorb oxygenfrom the air and give off carbon dioxide (which isexactly what animals do). Fortunately for all ofus oxygen breathers, plants produce approximatelyten times more oxygen during the day that whatthey consume at night. Plants break down sugar to energy using thesame processes that we do. Oxygen is needed tobreak the sugar into carbon dioxide, releasingenergy the plants can use to stay alive. However, plants also take in energy from thesun and use it to make sugar, a step that convertscarbon dioxide to oxygen. (They use the 'carbon'in carbon dioxide to build the sugar molecule).Since there's no sunlight at night, this gives theplants a way to stay alive, even when there's nolight. However, plants use sugar to buildpretty much everything! Cellulose, the hard stuffin plants, is just a bunch of s Continue reading >>

How Is Glucose Made In Photosynthesis?

How Is Glucose Made In Photosynthesis?

Adam Cloe has been published in various scientific journals, including the "Journal of Biochemistry." He is currently a pathology resident at the University of Chicago. Cloe holds a Bachelor of Arts in biochemistry from Boston University, a M.D. from the University of Chicago and a Ph.D. in pathology from the University of Chicago. Sunlight shining on trees in the forest.Photo Credit: alexkich/iStock/Getty Images The first step for the formation of glucose from photosynthesis is the absorption of light. According to Estrella Mountain Community College's website, when sunlight hits an organism that can perform photosynthesis (such as a plant), one of three things can happen. The light energy can be given off as heat; it can be re-emitted at a different wavelength (color); or it can set off a chemical reaction. Photosynthetic organisms contain various pigments, such as chlorophyll, that can absorb and harness light to make high-energy molecules. When light gets absorbed by these pigments, it causes the release of a high-energy particle (called an electron), which can then be used to convert the light energy into chemical energy. This portion of photosynthesis is called the light reaction. because it has to occur in parts of the organism that receive sunlight. Once high-energy electrons have been generated, the photosynthetic organism can turn these electrons into sugar. The first step is storing this energy in a more stable form. The electron gets absorbed by molecules in the organism that are able to perform a series of reactions. These reactions use the electron's energy to form a molecule called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is a molecule that is similar to DNA but is used by organisms as a temporary energy reservoir. In order to turn the energy from ATP into gluc Continue reading >>

Bbc - Gcse Bitesize: Photosynthesis

Bbc - Gcse Bitesize: Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis captures energy for life on Earth. Many chemicals are made to allow life processes to occur in plants. These chemicals can move in and out of cells by the process of diffusion. Osmosis is a specific type of diffusion. Photosynthesis is a process used by plants in which energy from sunlight is used to convert carbon dioxide and water into molecules needed for growth. These molecules include sugars, enzymes and chlorophyll. Light energy is absorbed by the green chemical chlorophyll. This energy allows the production of glucose by the reaction between carbon dioxide and water. Oxygen is also produced as a waste product. This reaction can be summarised in the word equation: The chemical equation for photosynthesis is: Glucose is made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Glucose made by the process of photosynthesis may be used in three ways: It can be converted into chemicals required for growth of plant cells such as cellulose It can be converted into starch, a storage molecule, that can be converted back to glucose when the plant requires it It can be broken down during the process of respiration, releasing energy stored in the glucose molecules Plants cells contain a number of structures that are involved in the process of photosynthesis: Diagram of a plant cell involved in production of glucose from photosynthesis Chloroplasts - containing chlorophyll and enzymes needed for reactions in photosynthesis. Nucleus - containing DNA carrying the genetic code for enzymes and other proteins used in photosynthesis Cell membrane - allowing gas and water to pass in and out of the cell while controlling the passage of other molecules Vacuole - containing cell sap to keep the cell turgid Cytoplasm - enzymes and other proteins used in photosynthesis made here Continue reading >>

Bbc - Gcse Bitesize: Photosynthesis

Bbc - Gcse Bitesize: Photosynthesis

Plants make their own food by photosynthesis. Carbon dioxide and water react together in the presence of light and chlorophyll to make glucose and oxygen. The glucose is converted into starch, fats and oils for storage. It is used to make cellulose for cell walls, and proteins for growth and repair. It is also used by the plant to release energy by respiration. Photosynthesis is the chemical change which happens in the leaves of green plants. It is the first step towards making food, not just for plants but ultimately every animal on the planet as well. During this reaction, carbon dioxide and water are converted into glucose and oxygen. The reaction requires light energy, which is absorbed by a green substance called chlorophyll. Photosynthesis takes place in leaf cells. These contain chloroplasts - tiny objects that contain chlorophyll. Here are the equations for photosynthesis: Higher tier only for the following equation Glucose is soluble. It is transported in the plant as soluble sugars but stored as starch - which is insoluble, so it cannot escape from the cells. The stored starch can be turned back into glucose later and used to release energy by respiration. Starch and glucose can also be used by the plant to make: Continue reading >>

How Plants Acquire Their Energy

How Plants Acquire Their Energy

Plants must get food into their systems in order to acquire energy and continue living, similar to animals. Plants create energy for animals to use, so they must replenish their nutrients. And plants breathe, in a way. They take in the carbon dioxide that all the animals give off, and they give off oxygen for all the animals to use. Pretty cool design, isnt it? Making energy from the ultimate energy source Photosynthesis is the process by which plants convert energy from the sun. It is the process that allows plants to create organic molecules that they use as fuel. Here is how it works. The molecules of chlorophyll contained in the chloroplasts absorb energy in the form of light from the sun. Some plants need more sunlight than others, but all need at least a little. Instead of taking in oxygen and breathing out carbon dioxide like animals do, plants take in carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Plants absorb water from the ground up through their roots. During photosynthesis, the energy from the sun splits the water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen. The oxygen molecules are given off by the plant and emitted into the atmosphere. Molecules of ATP are created within the plant cell. These reactions are called photochemical or light reactions because they require light to occur. Enzymes within the plant then catalyze the combination of hydrogen and carbon dioxide to create a carbon compound that is called an intermediate. An intermediate is a compound used to continue a process to create a different compound. In plants, the intermediate is called phosphoglyceraldehyde (PGAL). PGAL goes on in the process to produce glucose, which the plant uses as fuel to survive. These reactions are called carbon-fixation reactions (or dark reactions to differentiate them from the light Continue reading >>

Photosynthetic Cells

Photosynthetic Cells

Cells get nutrients from their environment, but where do those nutrients come from? Virtually all organic material on Earth has been produced by cells that convert energy from the Sun into energy-containing macromolecules. This process, called photosynthesis, is essential to the global carbon cycle and organisms that conduct photosynthesis represent the lowest level in most food chains (Figure 1). Plants exist in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. (A) Coleochaete orbicularis (Charophyceae) gametophyte; magnification x 75 (photograph courtesy of L. E. Graham). (B) Chara (Charophyceae) gametophyte; magnification x 1.5 (photograph courtesy of M. Feist). (C) Riccia (liverwort) gametophyte showing sporangia (black) embedded in the thallus; magnification x 5 (photograph courtesy of A. N. Drinnan). (D) Anthoceros (hornwort) gametophyte showing unbranched sporophytes; magnification x 2.5 (photograph courtesy of A. N. Drinnan). (E) Mnium (moss) gametophyte showing unbranched sporophytes with terminal sporangia (capsule); magnification x 4.5 (photograph courtesy of W. Burger). (F) Huperzia (clubmoss) sporophyte with leaves showing sessile yellow sporangia; magnification x 0.8. (G) Dicranopteris (fern) sporophyte showing leaves with circinate vernation; magnification x 0.08. (H) Psilotum (whisk fern) sporophyte with reduced leaves and spherical synangia (three fused sporangia); magnification x 0.4. (I) Equisetum (horsetail) sporophyte with whorled branches, reduced leaves, and a terminal cone; magnification x 0.4. (J) Cycas (seed plant) sporophyte showing leaves and terminal cone with seeds; magnification x 0.05 (photograph courtesy of W. Burger). Figure Detail Most living things depend on photosynthetic cells to manufacture the complex organic molecules they require as a source Continue reading >>

What Do Chloroplasts Use To Make Glucose?

What Do Chloroplasts Use To Make Glucose?

Chloroplasts are the original “green” solar power transformers. These tiny organelles, found only in the cells of plants and algae, use energy from the sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. Dan Jenk, science writer for the Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University describes the process as follows, “…plants approach the pinnacle of stinginess by scavenging nearly every photon of available light energy to produce food.” Chemical Potential Energy Energy that is stored within a molecular bond is called, “chemical potential energy.” When a chemical bond is broken, such as when a starch molecule is eaten then broken down in the digestive system of an animal, energy is released. All organisms need energy to survive. Photosynthesis Photosynthesis converts light energy into chemical energy that is stored in the molecular bonds of glucose. This process takes place in chloroplasts. A plant uses the glucose molecules to create carbohydrates -- starch and cellulose -- and other nutrients that it needs to grow and reproduce. Photosynthesis thus makes it possible to convert light energy to a form of energy that can be used for food, by both the plant and the animals that eat the plant. Photosynthesis can be represented by the following simplified equation: 6 CO2 (carbon dioxide) + 6 H2O (water) → C6H12O6 (glucose) + 6 O2 (oxygen) Light-Dependent Reactions The light reactions of photosynthesis begin when light from the Sun hits a chloroplast. Chlorophyll, the green pigment inside a chloroplast, absorbs particles of light energy called photons. An absorbed photon initiates a sequence of chemical reactions that create two types of high energy compounds, ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate). I Continue reading >>

How Are Respiration And Photosynthesis Related?

How Are Respiration And Photosynthesis Related?

How are respiration and photosynthesis related? Question Date: 2002-09-07 Answer 1: During photosynthesis, a plant is able to convert solar energy into a chemical form. It does this by capturing light coming from the sun and, through a series of reactions, using its energy to help build a sugar molecule called glucose. Glucose is made of six carbon atoms, six oxygen atoms, and twelve hydrogen atoms. When the plant makes the glucose molecule, it gets the carbon and oxygen atoms it needs from carbon dioxide, which it takes from the air. Carbon dioxide doesn't have any hydrogen in it, though, so the plant must use another source for hydrogen. The source that it uses is water. There is a lot of water on the earth, and every water molecule is composed of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. In order to take the hydrogen it needs to build glucose molecules, the plant uses the energy from the sun to break the water molecule apart, taking electrons and hydrogen from it and releasing the oxygen into the air. The electrons it takes are put into an electron transport system, where they are used to produce energy molecules called ATP that are used to build the glucose molecule-- all made possible by the sun's energy. Thus, during photosynthesis a plant consumes water, carbon dioxide, and light energy, and produces glucose and oxygen. The sugar glucose is important because it is necessary for cellular respiration. During cellular respiration, the chemical energy in the glucose molecule is converted into a form that the plant can use for growth and reproduction. In the first step of respiration, called glycolysis, the glucose molecule is broken down into two smaller molecules called pyruvate, and a little energy is released in the form of ATP. This step in respiration does not req Continue reading >>

Where Does Glucose Come From In Plants?

Where Does Glucose Come From In Plants?

2009-09-17Where Does Glucose Come From in Plants? In a typical ecosystem, plants are the producers. Plants take energy from the sun and through a process called photosynthesis, produce food. The food is sugar or glucose. In order to produce glucose, a plant needs the raw materials in order for photosynthesis to occur: light energy from the sun, water from the environment and carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Sunlight is the catalyst for photosynthesis. The process occurs primarily in the leaves. The light energy bring about a chemical reaction between water and carbon dioxide that occurs in the chloroplasts within the leaves. Chloroplasts are mini-organs or organelles within the plant cells. The energy splits the water molecules into its two components, oxygen and hydrogen. Oxygen leaves the plant through respiration. This is the source of oxygen in our atmosphere. Photosynthesis consists of two processes, a light reaction and a dark reaction. As the names would imply, sunlight is required for the light reaction to happen. Without light, the plant is unable to produce energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This is the same energy chemical that we use to fuel any cell process in our bodies. The dark reaction also occurs within the chloroplasts. This is when sugar is produced. Light isn't necessary as it is for the light reaction, but the product of it is required. ATP, another chemical called NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase) and carbon dioxide through a chemical process called the Calvin cycle produce glucose. Chlorophyll is responsible for channeling the energy necessary for photosynthesis. It is also responsible for the green color of plants. The green color reflects the light waves from the sun which are not absorbed by the p Continue reading >>

Photosynthesis & Respiration

Photosynthesis & Respiration

Photosynthesis Light interception by leaves powers photosynthesis All organisms, animals and plants, must obtain energy to maintain basic biological functions for survival and reproduction. Plants convert energy from sunlight into sugar in a process called photosynthesis. Photosynthesis uses energy from light to convert water and carbon dioxide molecules into glucose (sugar molecule) and oxygen (Figure 2). The oxygen is released, or “exhaled”, from leaves while the energy contained within glucose molecules is used throughout the plant for growth, flower formation, and fruit development. There are several structures within a leaf that have important roles in the movement of nutrients and water throughout a plant. Each plant contains a branched system of tubes called xylem, which is responsible for water transport from the roots (where it is taken up) to the leaves (where it is used in photosynthesis). Water flows up from the roots, through the trunk and branches, to the leaves, where it is used in photosynthesis. Alongside xylem is another system of tubes called phloem, which transports the glucose formed in photosynthesis into the branches, fruit, trunk and roots of the tree. The ends of both the xylem and phloem transport systems can be seen within each leaf vein (Figure 3). The structure of xylem and phloem in a plant is analogous to arteries and veins in humans, which move blood to and from the heart and lungs. For more information regarding the structure and function of xylem and phloem, review the Irrigation and Rootstock sections. Leaves contain water which is necessary to convert light energy into glucose through photosynthesis. Leaves have two structures that minimize water loss, the cuticle and stomata. The cuticle is a waxy coating on the top and bottom of Continue reading >>

Cellular Respiration - Why Is Atp Produced In Photosynthesis Used To Synthesize Glucose? - Biology Stack Exchange

Cellular Respiration - Why Is Atp Produced In Photosynthesis Used To Synthesize Glucose? - Biology Stack Exchange

Why is ATP produced in photosynthesis used to synthesize glucose? In photosynthesis ATP is produced in light-dependent reactions only to go to the Calvin cycle to be turned into glucose to make ATP during respiration: Why isn't this ATP just directly released into the cell? Is there a benefit to using the ATP to make glucose? Also, ATP can be made in the chloroplasts with cellular respiration? What happens to this ATP? Okay so i did edit some of the text too, in it's initial form it didnt make sense to most of us, as in the ATP isnt converted to glucose, it's used to catalyze reactions that fix CO into 3-carbon sugars that can result in glucose, bear in mind lipid/nucleic acid metabolism also need these sugars so glucose isnt the only output! CKM Feb 2 '16 at 1:41 As far as I can understand your question, you wish to know why a plant cell consumes ATP to produce glucose when it can directly use the ATP as an energy molecule. ATP is an energy currency and is required in different biochemical pathways. However, it is not a good energy storage molecule. Following are the reasons why production of an energy molecule such as glucose is essential: Not all parts of the plant are photosynthetic. These non-photosynthetic plants need an alternate source of energy. Since ATP is unstable, it cannot be transported to different parts of the plant without degradation. Since photosynthesis cannot happen in the dark, the plants would require some energy molecule that can be utilized later on, in the dark conditions. Chloroplasts themselves require ATP in the dark conditions. They express an ATP-ADP translocase that actually imports ATP from the cytosol while pumping out ADP+Pi Plants also need energy storage for seeds. This storage is usually in the form of starch (a polymer of glucose Continue reading >>

Bbc - Gcse Bitesize: Photosynthesis And Respiration

Bbc - Gcse Bitesize: Photosynthesis And Respiration

Plants make their own food by photosynthesis. Carbon dioxide and water react together in the presence of light and chlorophyll to make glucose and oxygen. The glucose is converted into starch, fats and oils for storage. It is used to make cellulose for cell walls, and proteins for growth and repair. It is also used by the plant to release energy by respiration. Photosynthesis [photosynthesis: The chemical change that occurs in the leaves of green plants. It uses light energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose. Oxygen is produced as a by-product of photosynthesis. ] is a chemical reaction that happens in the chloroplasts of plant cells. It produces glucose for use by the plant, and oxygen as a waste product. Here are the equations for photosynthesis: Light energy is absorbed by chlorophyll in the chloroplastschloroplast: Microscopic structure containing chlorophyl found in green plant cells where photosynthesis takes place. for photosynthesis to happen. It is not just animals that respire [respire: To engage in respiration - the energy-producing process inside living cells ] plants carry out respiration as well. Plants respire all the time because their cells need energy to stay alive, but plants can only photosynthesise when they are in the light. Continue reading >>

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