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Where Does Glucose Come From In Cellular Respiration

Cellular Respiration | Process & Products | Britannica.com

Cellular Respiration | Process & Products | Britannica.com

Alternative Titles: cell respiration, tissue respiration Cellular respiration, the process by which organisms combine oxygen with foodstuff molecules , diverting the chemical energy in these substances into life-sustaining activities and discarding, as waste products, carbon dioxide and water. Organisms that do not depend on oxygen degrade foodstuffs in a process called fermentation . (For longer treatments of various aspects of cellular respiration, see tricarboxylic acid cycle and metabolism .) glycolysis; cellular respirationDuring the process of glycolysis in cellular respiration, glucose is oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. Energy released during the reaction is captured by the energy-carrying molecule ATP (adenosine triphosphate). One objective of the degradation of foodstuffs is to convert the energy contained in chemical bonds into the energy-rich compound adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which captures the chemical energy obtained from the breakdown of food molecules and releases it to fuel other cellular processes. In eukaryotic cells (that is, any cells or organisms that possess a clearly defined nucleus and membrane-bound organelles) the enzymes that catalyze the individual steps involved in respiration and energy conservation are located in highly organized rod-shaped compartments called mitochondria . In microorganisms the enzymes occur as components of the cell membrane . A liver cell has about 1,000 mitochondria; large egg cells of some vertebrates have up to 200,000. The three processes of ATP production include glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. In eukaryotic cells the latter two processes occur within mitochondria. Electrons that are passed through the electron transport chain ultimately generate free energy cap Continue reading >>

Chemistry For Biologists: Respiration

Chemistry For Biologists: Respiration

This requires energy, and one way of providing this is from the oxidation of glucose which is an exergonic reaction. There are two reasons why energy from the oxidation of glucose is not used directly to drive chemical reactions in the cell: the hydrolysis of ATP releases small amounts of energy compared to the oxidation of glucose, and in a controlled way energy is released instantaneously from the hydrolysis of ATP, but the oxidation of glucose takes time The types of chemical reactions called oxidation and reduction lie at the heart of respiration. They always occur together - one substance is oxidised as another is reduced. We often use the term redox reactions to describe this. There are two useful ways of thinking about redox reactions. One is that oxidation is the addition of oxygen and reduction is the removal of oxygen from a substance. For example: 6CO2 + 6H2O (oxidation of glucose). However, a more useful definition is in terms of electron transfer: Oxidation is the removal of electrons, e.g. Fe2+ Reduction is the addition of electrons, e.g. Fe3+ + e- A chemical that supplies electrons is called a reducing agent (or a reductant), and a chemical that accepts electrons is called an oxidising agent (or an oxidant). Aerobic respiration may be represented by the general equation About 3000 kJ mol-1 of energy is released. Burning glucose in air would release this amount of energy in one go. However, it is not as simple as this in aerobic respiration. Aerobic respiration is a series of enzyme-controlled reactions that release the energy stored up in carbohydrates and lipids during photosynthesis and make it available to living organisms. This is a complicated cycle. It may be summarised: Citrate (a six-carbon molecule) forms when an acetyl CoA molecule combines wit Continue reading >>

Free Biology Flashcards About Ap Biology

Free Biology Flashcards About Ap Biology

Identify some specific processes the cell does with ATP. Glycolysis goes through a process to make ATP Explain why ATP is such a "high energy" molecule. Because it's created from reactions like Glycolysis The energy released by exergonic reactions fuel endergonic reactions What is the name of enzymes which phosphorylate molecules? The loss of one or more electrons by an atom, ion, or molecule The gain of one or more electrons by an atom, ion, or molecule What is the role of NAD+ & FAD+2 is respiration? Electron carriers that transport electrons to where they need to go to make ATP Explain why respiration is considered exergonic. starts with glucose and produces pyruvate The Electron Transport Chain is located in the: Describe the role of the Electron Transport Chain. What happens to the electrons and H+? Proteins pass electrons from one carrier protein to the next What is chemiomosis and how is it generated? Electron transport and ATP synthesis are coupled by means of a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane in eukaryote ADP is added with Pi and then you get ATP What happens to most of the energy released during cell respiration? Alcholic fermentation converts glucose to: Alcholic fermentation is utilized by what organisms? Lactic acid fermentation converts glucose to: Lactic acid fermentation is utilized by what organisms? Write the summary equation for cellular respiration. What else is produced that is not listed in this equation? What was the evolutionary advantage of the proto-eukaryotes that engulfed aerobic bacteria but did not digest them? They were bigger that the aerobic bacteria that they engulfed To bring in oxygen and get rid of carbon dioxide The opposite process extracting that stored energy from glucose to form ATP Modified proteins tha Continue reading >>

Where Does Glucose Come From That Is Used In Cellular Respiration?

Where Does Glucose Come From That Is Used In Cellular Respiration?

Where does glucose come from that is used in cellular respiration? Are you sure you want to delete this answer? Best Answer: It is metabolized during the Krebs cycle. It comes from the foods we eat. Glucose is sugar. For people, glucose is something we eat every day for energy. Starch, vegetables, fruit and honey, they all have glucose in them in different chemical forms that our body know show to break down into glucose. We then breakdown that glucose in a process called glycolysis, and then the by-products of those reactions get used in cellular respiration. We also keep stores of glucose in the body for extra energy reserves. It's called glycogen, and it's a polymer of glucose (just a bunch of glucose chemically linked together). glucose is sugar that the body has processed using the pancreas to excrete insulin to 'digest' (for lack of the proper term) the sugar. there are two different forms of cellular respiration:aerobic and anaerobic. google search glucose for the info on pancreases I think this question violates the Community Guidelines Chat or rant, adult content, spam, insulting other members, show more I think this question violates the Terms of Service Harm to minors, violence or threats, harassment or privacy invasion, impersonation or misrepresentation, fraud or phishing, show more If you believe your intellectual property has been infringed and would like to file a complaint, please see our Copyright/IP Policy I think this answer violates the Community Guidelines Chat or rant, adult content, spam, insulting other members, show more I think this answer violates the Terms of Service Harm to minors, violence or threats, harassment or privacy invasion, impersonation or misrepresentation, fraud or phishing, show more If you believe your intellectual property Continue reading >>

5.9: Cellular Respiration

5.9: Cellular Respiration

[ "article:topic", "Krebs cycle", "showtoc:no", "license:ccbysa", "authorname:mgrewal", "aerobic", "columns:two", "cssprint:dense" ] [ "article:topic", "Krebs cycle", "showtoc:no", "license:ccbysa", "authorname:mgrewal", "aerobic", "columns:two", "cssprint:dense" ] This inviting campfire can be used for both heat and light. Heat and light are two forms of energy that are released when a fuel like wood is burned. The cells of living things also get energy by "burning." They "burn" glucose in the process called cellular respiration. Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\): Burning logs that convert carbon in wood into carbon dioxide and a significant amount of thermal energy (Public domain; Jon Sullivan via Wikipedia ) Inside every cell of all living things, energy is needed to carry out life processes. Energy is required to break down and build up molecules and to transport many molecules across plasma membranes. All of lifes work needs energy. A lot of energy is also simply lost to the environment as heat. The story of life is a story of energy flow its capture, its change of form, its use for work, and its loss as heat. Energy, unlike matter, cannot be recycled, so organisms require a constant input of energy. Life runs on chemical energy. Where do living organisms get this chemical energy? The chemical energy that organisms need comes from food. Food consists of organic molecules that store energy in their chemical bonds. Glucose is a simple carbohydrate with the chemical formula \(\mathrm{C_6H_{12}O_6}\). It stores chemical energy in a concentrated, stable form. In your body, glucose is the form of energy that is carried in your blood and taken up by each of your trillions of cells. Cells do cellular respiration to extract energy from the bonds of glucose and other food molecules. Continue reading >>

Cellular Respiration Module

Cellular Respiration Module

For one glucose molecule that has moved through glycolysis, the preparatory step and the Krebs cycle, answer the following questions: 1. How many ATP have been generated so far? ______________ 4. How many CO2 molecules have been produced? Electrons from glycolysis, the prep-step and the Krebs cycle are carried in NADH and FADH2 to the ETS. Electron Transport System (ETS) or Chain (ETC) The ETS is a series of electron carriers on the cristae of inner membrane of mitochondria The NADH and FADH2 bind to proteins in the ETS and the electrons that they are carrying are transferred to the ETS. The protons are released as H+. Proton pumps (using the energy from the electrons) move the H+ from the matrix to intermembrane space, creating a high concentration of H+ in the intermembrane space Electrons lose their energy as they move down the ETS (driving the H+ pumps). At the end of the ETS, two low-energy electrons along with two H+ bind to oxygen (1/2 of an O2 molecule), the final electron acceptor, forming H2O. There is a higher concentration of H+ in intermembrane space of mitochondria than in the matrix. H+ flows down its concentration gradient toward the matrix providing energy. H+ moves through the ATP synthase enzyme. As H+ moves down its gradient from the intermembrane space to the matrix, ATP synthase (in cristae) adds phosphate to ADP producing ATP (ADP + P --> ATP). Continue reading >>

Cellular Respiration

Cellular Respiration

What youll learn to do: Identify the reactants and products of cellular respiration and where these reactions occur in a cell Figure 1. A hummingbird needs energy to maintain prolonged flight. The bird obtains its energy from taking in food and transforming the energy contained in food molecules into forms of energy to power its flight through a series of biochemical reactions. (credit: modification of work by Cory Zanker) Virtually every task performed by living organisms requires energy. Energy is needed to perform heavy labor and exercise, but humans also use energy while thinking, and even during sleep. In fact, the living cells of every organism constantly use energy. Nutrients and other molecules are imported into the cell, metabolized (broken down) and possibly synthesized into new molecules, modified if needed, transported around the cell, and possibly distributed to the entire organism. For example, the large proteins that make up muscles are built from smaller molecules imported from dietary amino acids. Complex carbohydrates are broken down into simple sugars that the cell uses for energy. Just as energy is required to both build and demolish a building, energy is required for the synthesis and breakdown of molecules as well as the transport of molecules into and out of cells. In addition, processes such as ingesting and breaking down pathogenic bacteria and viruses, exporting wastes and toxins, and movement of the cell require energy. From where, and in what form, does this energy come? How do living cells obtain energy, and how do they use it? This chapter will discuss different forms of energy and the physical laws that govern energy transfer. This chapter will also describe how cells use energy and replenish it, and how chemical reactions in the cell are Continue reading >>

The Basics Of Cellular Respiration

The Basics Of Cellular Respiration

Posted by Leslie Samuel | Cell Biology , Posts Cellular respiration is the set of reactions that produces ATP. ATP, quite possibly the most talked about molecule in biology , is our energy currency. Cellular respiration uses glucose to produce the ATP our body needs to perform essential function s. I am going to treat this as an overview article and I will do separate, more detailed articles on each part. Cellular respiration can be divided into three parts: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle and electron transport chain. This article will give you the basics in order to better understand the more detailed stuff. And believe me, cellular respiration can get pretty complicated. Before delving into the parts of cellular respiration, it is important to know a little about the key molecules. The first one is glucose, which is a sugar made of a 6 carbon ring. This is the starting molecule for cellular respiration and an important source of energy in cell s. ADP, or adenosine diphosphate is also one of the starting molecules of cellular respiration. It is formed when one of the phosphate groups on ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is lost. ADP is easily converted back into ATP, which happens in cellular respiration. ATP is probably one of the most discussed molecule in biology . It is responsible for energy transfer in our cell s. It is made of ribose (a type of sugar), three phosphate groups and adenine , which is a nucleotide. NAD is a coenzyme used in oxidation -reduction reations, or redox reactions for short. Redox reactions remove or add electrons. Oxidation is the loss of elections while reduction is the gain of electrons. The function of NAD is to transport these electrons. NAD is an oxidizing agent, which means it is reduced. NADH is the oxidized form of NAD and is a redu Continue reading >>

Cellular Respiration

Cellular Respiration

Identify the reactants and products of cellular respiration and where these reactions occur in a cell Now that weve learned how autotrophs like plants convert sunlight to sugars, lets take a look at how all eukaryoteswhich includes humans!make use of those sugars. In the process of photosynthesis, plants and other photosynthetic producers createglucose, which stores energy in its chemical bonds. Then, both plantsand consumers, such as animals, undergo a series of metabolic pathwayscollectively called cellular respiration. Cellular respirationextracts the energy from the bonds in glucose and converts it into a form that all living things can use. Describe the process of glycolysis and identify its reactants and products Describe the process of pyruvate oxidation and identify its reactants and products Describe the process of the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle) and identify its reactants and products Describe the respiratory chain (electron transport chain) and its role in cellular respiration Cellular respiration is a process that all living things use to convert glucose into energy. Autotrophs (like plants)produce glucose during photosynthesis. Heterotrophs (like humans) ingest other living things to obtain glucose. While the process can seem complex, this page takes you through the key elements of each part of cellular respiration. Glycolysis is the first step in the breakdown of glucose to extract energy for cellular metabolism. Nearly all living organisms carry out glycolysis as part of their metabolism. The process does not use oxygen and is therefore anaerobic (processes that use oxygen are called aerobic). Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Glucose enters heterotrophic cells in two ways. Through secondary active tran Continue reading >>

Cellular Respiration

Cellular Respiration

Microorganisms such as cyanobacteria can trap the energy in sunlight through the process of photosynthesis and store it in the chemical bonds of carbohydrate molecules. The principal carbohydrate formed in photosynthesis is glucose. Other types of microorganisms such as nonphotosynthetic bacteria, fungi, and protozoa are unable to perform this process. Therefore, these organisms must rely upon preformed carbohydrates in the environment to obtain the energy necessary for their metabolic processes. Cellular respirationis the process by which microorganisms obtain the energy available in carbohydrates. They take the carbohydrates into their cytoplasm, and through a complex series of metabolic processes, they break down the carbohydrate and release the energy. The energy is generally not needed immediately, so it is used to combine ADP with phosphate ions to form ATP molecules. During the process of cellular respiration,carbon dioxideis given off as a waste product. This carbon dioxide can be used by photosynthesizing cells to form new carbohydrates. Also in the process of cellular respiration, oxygen gas is required to serve as an acceptor of electrons. This oxygen gas is identical to the oxygen gas given off in photosynthesis. The overall mechanism of cellular respiration involves four subdivisions:glycolysis, in which glucose molecules are broken down to form pyruvic acid molecules; theKrebs cycle, in which pyruvic acid is further broken down and the energy in its molecule is used to form high-energy compounds such as NADH; theelectron transport system, in which electrons are transported along a series of coenzymes and cytochromes and the energy in the electrons is released; andchemiosmosis, in which the energy given off by electrons is used to pump protons across a mem Continue reading >>

Ks3 Bitesize

Ks3 Bitesize

Respiration Respiration is a chemical reaction that happens in all living cells. It is the way that energy is released from glucose, for our cells to use to keep us functioning. Remember that respiration is not the same as breathing (which is properly called ventilation). Aerobic respiration The glucose and oxygen react together in the cells to produce carbon dioxide and water. The reaction is called aerobic respiration because oxygen from the air is needed for it to work. Here is the word equation for aerobic respiration: glucose + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water (+ energy) (Energy is released in the reaction. We show it in brackets in the equation because energy is not a substance.) Now we will look at how glucose and oxygen get to the cells so that respiration can take place and how we get rid of the carbon dioxide. Glucose from food to cells Glucose is a type of carbohydrate, obtained through digestion of the food we eat. Digestion breaks food down into small molecules. These can be absorbed across the wall of the small intestine into the bloodstream. Glucose is carried round the body dissolved in blood plasma, the pale yellow liquid part of our blood. The dissolved glucose can diffuse into the cells of the body from the capillaries. Once in the cell glucose can be used in respiration. Oxygen from the air to cells When we breathe in oxygen enters the small air sacs, called alveoli, in the lungs. Oxygen diffuses from there into the bloodstream. Oxygen is not carried in the plasma, but is carried by the red blood cells. These contain a red substance called haemoglobin, which joins onto oxygen and carries it around the body in the blood, then lets it go when necessary. Like glucose, oxygen can diffuse into cells from the capillaries. Red blood cells carry oxygen arou Continue reading >>

What Is The Role Of Glucose In Cellular Respiration?

What Is The Role Of Glucose In Cellular Respiration?

What Is the Role of Glucose in Cellular Respiration? Cellular respiration is the process that animals use to disseminate energy. Animals are consumers, meaning that they do not create their own energy. Instead, animals get their energy from eating producers that create energy or from eating other consumers. The purpose of all this activity is to digest and break down the molecule known as glucose. Glucose is a simple carbohydrate and the primary molecular input that initially enters the process of cellular respiration. Its purpose, in this respect, is to produce the molecule ATP, the main energy storage and transfer unit of a cell. Cells need a constant flow of glucose in order to remain healthy and active. Most glucose is apprehended by the body through the digestion of complex carbohydrates. It is carried through the body by blood (which is the origin of the term "blood sugar level") and arrives at the cell so that it can enter the process of cellular respiration. In order to galvanize the production of ATP, glucose must be constantly rearranged or augmented with different atoms. The goal is to turn the glucose molecule into an appropriate package that can eventually donate atoms and particles later in the process. The constant influx of glucose creates a condition in which the process can be sustained for the life of the organism. The first major step of cellular respiration is the anaerobic (meaning that it doesn't require oxygen) process of glycolysis. Here the glucose is modified into a molecule of pyruvate, which after further modification ends up donating particles in order to fuel the production of ATP out of ADP and phosphate. At the end of the process oxygen accepts any loose particles and becomes water. The main purpose of ATP is to facilitate processes suc Continue reading >>

Cellular Respiration

Cellular Respiration

Typical eukaryotic cell Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.[1] The reactions involved in respiration are catabolic reactions, which break large molecules into smaller ones, releasing energy in the process, as weak so-called "high-energy" bonds are replaced by stronger bonds in the products. Respiration is one of the key ways a cell releases chemical energy to fuel cellular activity. Cellular respiration is considered an exothermic redox reaction which releases heat. The overall reaction occurs in a series of biochemical steps, most of which are redox reactions themselves. Although technically, cellular respiration is a combustion reaction, it clearly does not resemble one when it occurs in a living cell because of the slow release of energy from the series of reactions. Nutrients that are commonly used by animal and plant cells in respiration include sugar, amino acids and fatty acids, and the most common oxidizing agent (electron acceptor) is molecular oxygen (O2). The chemical energy stored in ATP (its third phosphate group is weakly bonded to the rest of the molecule and is cheaply broken allowing stronger bonds to form, thereby transferring energy for use by the cell) can then be used to drive processes requiring energy, including biosynthesis, locomotion or transportation of molecules across cell membranes. Aerobic respiration Aerobic respiration (red arrows) is the main means by which both fungi and animals utilize chemical energy in the form of organic compounds that were previously created through photosynthesis (green arrow). Aerobic respiration requires oxygen (O2) in order to Continue reading >>

Cellular Respiration Summary

Cellular Respiration Summary

It is expected that you have studied this topic in High School Biology. This subject may not be covered in the lectures, but you are responsible for all of the information in these notes because it is important background for topics in this course, suchas muscle cell physiology (Chapter 7). Please be familiar with this material before we reach those topics in lecture. Pay special attention to bold and underlined terms. is the enzymatic breakdown of glucose (C6H12O6) in the presence of oxygen (O2) to produce cellular energy (ATP): a ten-step process that occurs in the cytoplasm converts each molecule of glucose to two molecules of pyruvic acid (a 3-carbon molecule) - proceeds whether or not O2 is present ; O2 is not required net yield of 2 NADH per glucose (NADH is nicotine adenine dinucleotide, a co-enzyme that serves as a carrier for H+ ions liberated as glucose is oxidized.) The pyruvic acid diffuses into the inner compartment of the mitochondrion where a transition reaction (Fig. 18-3) occurs that serves to prepare pyruvic acid for entry into the next stage of respiration: (a) pyruvic acid acetic acid + CO2 (a waste product of cell metabolism) + NADH+ (b) acetic acid + co-enzyme A acetyl CoA the acetyl group detaches from the co-enzyme A and enters the reaction cycle an aerobic process; will proceed only in the presence of O2 net yield of 2 ATP per glucose molecule (per 2 acetyl CoA) net yield of 6 NADH and 2 FADH2 (FAD serves the same purpose as NAD) in this stage of cellular respiration, the oxidation of glucose to CO2 is completed consists of a series of enzymes on the inner mitochondrial membrane electrons are released from NADH and from FADH2 and as they are passed along the series of enzymes, they give up energy which is used to fuel a process called chemiosmo Continue reading >>

Process Of Cellular Respiration

Process Of Cellular Respiration

Of course if you didn't breathe, you couldn't survive. Why do you need air to live? You need the gas oxygen to perform cellular respiration to get energy from your food. The Process of Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration is the process of extracting energy in the form of ATP from the glucose in the food you eat. How does cellular respiration happen inside of the cell? Cellular respiration is a three step process. Briefly: In stage one, glucose is broken down in the cytoplasm of the cell in a process called glycolysis. In stage two, the pyruvate molecules are transported into the mitochondria. The mitochondria are the organelles known as the energy "powerhouses" of the cells (Figure below). In the mitochondria, the pyruvate, which have been converted into a 2-carbon molecule, enter the Krebs cycle. Notice that mitochondria have an inner membrane with many folds, called cristae. These cristae greatly increase the membrane surface area where many of the cellular respiration reactions take place. In stage three, the energy in the energy carriers enters an electron transport chain. During this step, this energy is used to produce ATP. Oxygen is needed to help the process of turning glucose into ATP. The initial step releases just two molecules of ATP for each glucose. The later steps release much more ATP. What goes into the cell? Oxygen and glucose are both reactants of cellular respiration. Oxygen enters the body when an organism breathes. Glucose enters the body when an organism eats. What does the cell produce? The products of cellular respiration are carbon dioxide and water. Carbon dioxide is transported from your mitochondria out of your cell, to your red blood cells, and back to your lungs to be exhaled. ATP is generated in the process. When one molecule of glu Continue reading >>

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