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# Where Does Glucose Come From In Cellular Respiration

## Cellular Respiration | Process & Products | Britannica.com

Alternative Titles: cell respiration, tissue respiration Cellular respiration, the process by which organisms combine oxygen with foodstuff molecules , diverting the chemical energy in these substances into life-sustaining activities and discarding, as waste products, carbon dioxide and water. Organisms that do not depend on oxygen degrade foodstuffs in a process called fermentation . (For longer treatments of various aspects of cellular respiration, see tricarboxylic acid cycle and metabolism .) glycolysis; cellular respirationDuring the process of glycolysis in cellular respiration, glucose is oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. Energy released during the reaction is captured by the energy-carrying molecule ATP (adenosine triphosphate). One objective of the degradation of foodstuffs is to convert the energy contained in chemical bonds into the energy-rich compound adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which captures the chemical energy obtained from the breakdown of food molecules and releases it to fuel other cellular processes. In eukaryotic cells (that is, any cells or organisms that possess a clearly defined nucleus and membrane-bound organelles) the enzymes that catalyze the individual steps involved in respiration and energy conservation are located in highly organized rod-shaped compartments called mitochondria . In microorganisms the enzymes occur as components of the cell membrane . A liver cell has about 1,000 mitochondria; large egg cells of some vertebrates have up to 200,000. The three processes of ATP production include glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. In eukaryotic cells the latter two processes occur within mitochondria. Electrons that are passed through the electron transport chain ultimately generate free energy cap Continue reading >>

## Chemistry For Biologists: Respiration

This requires energy, and one way of providing this is from the oxidation of glucose which is an exergonic reaction. There are two reasons why energy from the oxidation of glucose is not used directly to drive chemical reactions in the cell: the hydrolysis of ATP releases small amounts of energy compared to the oxidation of glucose, and in a controlled way energy is released instantaneously from the hydrolysis of ATP, but the oxidation of glucose takes time The types of chemical reactions called oxidation and reduction lie at the heart of respiration. They always occur together - one substance is oxidised as another is reduced. We often use the term redox reactions to describe this. There are two useful ways of thinking about redox reactions. One is that oxidation is the addition of oxygen and reduction is the removal of oxygen from a substance. For example: 6CO2 + 6H2O (oxidation of glucose). However, a more useful definition is in terms of electron transfer: Oxidation is the removal of electrons, e.g. Fe2+ Reduction is the addition of electrons, e.g. Fe3+ + e- A chemical that supplies electrons is called a reducing agent (or a reductant), and a chemical that accepts electrons is called an oxidising agent (or an oxidant). Aerobic respiration may be represented by the general equation About 3000 kJ mol-1 of energy is released. Burning glucose in air would release this amount of energy in one go. However, it is not as simple as this in aerobic respiration. Aerobic respiration is a series of enzyme-controlled reactions that release the energy stored up in carbohydrates and lipids during photosynthesis and make it available to living organisms. This is a complicated cycle. It may be summarised: Citrate (a six-carbon molecule) forms when an acetyl CoA molecule combines wit Continue reading >>

## Free Biology Flashcards About Ap Biology

Identify some specific processes the cell does with ATP. Glycolysis goes through a process to make ATP Explain why ATP is such a "high energy" molecule. Because it's created from reactions like Glycolysis The energy released by exergonic reactions fuel endergonic reactions What is the name of enzymes which phosphorylate molecules? The loss of one or more electrons by an atom, ion, or molecule The gain of one or more electrons by an atom, ion, or molecule What is the role of NAD+ & FAD+2 is respiration? Electron carriers that transport electrons to where they need to go to make ATP Explain why respiration is considered exergonic. starts with glucose and produces pyruvate The Electron Transport Chain is located in the: Describe the role of the Electron Transport Chain. What happens to the electrons and H+? Proteins pass electrons from one carrier protein to the next What is chemiomosis and how is it generated? Electron transport and ATP synthesis are coupled by means of a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane in eukaryote ADP is added with Pi and then you get ATP What happens to most of the energy released during cell respiration? Alcholic fermentation converts glucose to: Alcholic fermentation is utilized by what organisms? Lactic acid fermentation converts glucose to: Lactic acid fermentation is utilized by what organisms? Write the summary equation for cellular respiration. What else is produced that is not listed in this equation? What was the evolutionary advantage of the proto-eukaryotes that engulfed aerobic bacteria but did not digest them? They were bigger that the aerobic bacteria that they engulfed To bring in oxygen and get rid of carbon dioxide The opposite process extracting that stored energy from glucose to form ATP Modified proteins tha Continue reading >>

## 5.9: Cellular Respiration

[ "article:topic", "Krebs cycle", "showtoc:no", "license:ccbysa", "authorname:mgrewal", "aerobic", "columns:two", "cssprint:dense" ] [ "article:topic", "Krebs cycle", "showtoc:no", "license:ccbysa", "authorname:mgrewal", "aerobic", "columns:two", "cssprint:dense" ] This inviting campfire can be used for both heat and light. Heat and light are two forms of energy that are released when a fuel like wood is burned. The cells of living things also get energy by "burning." They "burn" glucose in the process called cellular respiration. Figure $$\PageIndex{1}$$: Burning logs that convert carbon in wood into carbon dioxide and a significant amount of thermal energy (Public domain; Jon Sullivan via Wikipedia ) Inside every cell of all living things, energy is needed to carry out life processes. Energy is required to break down and build up molecules and to transport many molecules across plasma membranes. All of lifes work needs energy. A lot of energy is also simply lost to the environment as heat. The story of life is a story of energy flow its capture, its change of form, its use for work, and its loss as heat. Energy, unlike matter, cannot be recycled, so organisms require a constant input of energy. Life runs on chemical energy. Where do living organisms get this chemical energy? The chemical energy that organisms need comes from food. Food consists of organic molecules that store energy in their chemical bonds. Glucose is a simple carbohydrate with the chemical formula $$\mathrm{C_6H_{12}O_6}$$. It stores chemical energy in a concentrated, stable form. In your body, glucose is the form of energy that is carried in your blood and taken up by each of your trillions of cells. Cells do cellular respiration to extract energy from the bonds of glucose and other food molecules. Continue reading >>

## Cellular Respiration

What youll learn to do: Identify the reactants and products of cellular respiration and where these reactions occur in a cell Figure 1. A hummingbird needs energy to maintain prolonged flight. The bird obtains its energy from taking in food and transforming the energy contained in food molecules into forms of energy to power its flight through a series of biochemical reactions. (credit: modification of work by Cory Zanker) Virtually every task performed by living organisms requires energy. Energy is needed to perform heavy labor and exercise, but humans also use energy while thinking, and even during sleep. In fact, the living cells of every organism constantly use energy. Nutrients and other molecules are imported into the cell, metabolized (broken down) and possibly synthesized into new molecules, modified if needed, transported around the cell, and possibly distributed to the entire organism. For example, the large proteins that make up muscles are built from smaller molecules imported from dietary amino acids. Complex carbohydrates are broken down into simple sugars that the cell uses for energy. Just as energy is required to both build and demolish a building, energy is required for the synthesis and breakdown of molecules as well as the transport of molecules into and out of cells. In addition, processes such as ingesting and breaking down pathogenic bacteria and viruses, exporting wastes and toxins, and movement of the cell require energy. From where, and in what form, does this energy come? How do living cells obtain energy, and how do they use it? This chapter will discuss different forms of energy and the physical laws that govern energy transfer. This chapter will also describe how cells use energy and replenish it, and how chemical reactions in the cell are Continue reading >>

## Cellular Respiration

Identify the reactants and products of cellular respiration and where these reactions occur in a cell Now that weve learned how autotrophs like plants convert sunlight to sugars, lets take a look at how all eukaryoteswhich includes humans!make use of those sugars. In the process of photosynthesis, plants and other photosynthetic producers createglucose, which stores energy in its chemical bonds. Then, both plantsand consumers, such as animals, undergo a series of metabolic pathwayscollectively called cellular respiration. Cellular respirationextracts the energy from the bonds in glucose and converts it into a form that all living things can use. Describe the process of glycolysis and identify its reactants and products Describe the process of pyruvate oxidation and identify its reactants and products Describe the process of the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle) and identify its reactants and products Describe the respiratory chain (electron transport chain) and its role in cellular respiration Cellular respiration is a process that all living things use to convert glucose into energy. Autotrophs (like plants)produce glucose during photosynthesis. Heterotrophs (like humans) ingest other living things to obtain glucose. While the process can seem complex, this page takes you through the key elements of each part of cellular respiration. Glycolysis is the first step in the breakdown of glucose to extract energy for cellular metabolism. Nearly all living organisms carry out glycolysis as part of their metabolism. The process does not use oxygen and is therefore anaerobic (processes that use oxygen are called aerobic). Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Glucose enters heterotrophic cells in two ways. Through secondary active tran Continue reading >>

## Cellular Respiration

Microorganisms such as cyanobacteria can trap the energy in sunlight through the process of photosynthesis and store it in the chemical bonds of carbohydrate molecules. The principal carbohydrate formed in photosynthesis is glucose. Other types of microorganisms such as nonphotosynthetic bacteria, fungi, and protozoa are unable to perform this process. Therefore, these organisms must rely upon preformed carbohydrates in the environment to obtain the energy necessary for their metabolic processes. Cellular respirationis the process by which microorganisms obtain the energy available in carbohydrates. They take the carbohydrates into their cytoplasm, and through a complex series of metabolic processes, they break down the carbohydrate and release the energy. The energy is generally not needed immediately, so it is used to combine ADP with phosphate ions to form ATP molecules. During the process of cellular respiration,carbon dioxideis given off as a waste product. This carbon dioxide can be used by photosynthesizing cells to form new carbohydrates. Also in the process of cellular respiration, oxygen gas is required to serve as an acceptor of electrons. This oxygen gas is identical to the oxygen gas given off in photosynthesis. The overall mechanism of cellular respiration involves four subdivisions:glycolysis, in which glucose molecules are broken down to form pyruvic acid molecules; theKrebs cycle, in which pyruvic acid is further broken down and the energy in its molecule is used to form high-energy compounds such as NADH; theelectron transport system, in which electrons are transported along a series of coenzymes and cytochromes and the energy in the electrons is released; andchemiosmosis, in which the energy given off by electrons is used to pump protons across a mem Continue reading >>

## Ks3 Bitesize

Respiration Respiration is a chemical reaction that happens in all living cells. It is the way that energy is released from glucose, for our cells to use to keep us functioning. Remember that respiration is not the same as breathing (which is properly called ventilation). Aerobic respiration The glucose and oxygen react together in the cells to produce carbon dioxide and water. The reaction is called aerobic respiration because oxygen from the air is needed for it to work. Here is the word equation for aerobic respiration: glucose + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water (+ energy) (Energy is released in the reaction. We show it in brackets in the equation because energy is not a substance.) Now we will look at how glucose and oxygen get to the cells so that respiration can take place and how we get rid of the carbon dioxide. Glucose from food to cells Glucose is a type of carbohydrate, obtained through digestion of the food we eat. Digestion breaks food down into small molecules. These can be absorbed across the wall of the small intestine into the bloodstream. Glucose is carried round the body dissolved in blood plasma, the pale yellow liquid part of our blood. The dissolved glucose can diffuse into the cells of the body from the capillaries. Once in the cell glucose can be used in respiration. Oxygen from the air to cells When we breathe in oxygen enters the small air sacs, called alveoli, in the lungs. Oxygen diffuses from there into the bloodstream. Oxygen is not carried in the plasma, but is carried by the red blood cells. These contain a red substance called haemoglobin, which joins onto oxygen and carries it around the body in the blood, then lets it go when necessary. Like glucose, oxygen can diffuse into cells from the capillaries. Red blood cells carry oxygen arou Continue reading >>

## What Is The Role Of Glucose In Cellular Respiration?

What Is the Role of Glucose in Cellular Respiration? Cellular respiration is the process that animals use to disseminate energy. Animals are consumers, meaning that they do not create their own energy. Instead, animals get their energy from eating producers that create energy or from eating other consumers. The purpose of all this activity is to digest and break down the molecule known as glucose. Glucose is a simple carbohydrate and the primary molecular input that initially enters the process of cellular respiration. Its purpose, in this respect, is to produce the molecule ATP, the main energy storage and transfer unit of a cell. Cells need a constant flow of glucose in order to remain healthy and active. Most glucose is apprehended by the body through the digestion of complex carbohydrates. It is carried through the body by blood (which is the origin of the term "blood sugar level") and arrives at the cell so that it can enter the process of cellular respiration. In order to galvanize the production of ATP, glucose must be constantly rearranged or augmented with different atoms. The goal is to turn the glucose molecule into an appropriate package that can eventually donate atoms and particles later in the process. The constant influx of glucose creates a condition in which the process can be sustained for the life of the organism. The first major step of cellular respiration is the anaerobic (meaning that it doesn't require oxygen) process of glycolysis. Here the glucose is modified into a molecule of pyruvate, which after further modification ends up donating particles in order to fuel the production of ATP out of ADP and phosphate. At the end of the process oxygen accepts any loose particles and becomes water. The main purpose of ATP is to facilitate processes suc Continue reading >>

## Cellular Respiration

Typical eukaryotic cell Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.[1] The reactions involved in respiration are catabolic reactions, which break large molecules into smaller ones, releasing energy in the process, as weak so-called "high-energy" bonds are replaced by stronger bonds in the products. Respiration is one of the key ways a cell releases chemical energy to fuel cellular activity. Cellular respiration is considered an exothermic redox reaction which releases heat. The overall reaction occurs in a series of biochemical steps, most of which are redox reactions themselves. Although technically, cellular respiration is a combustion reaction, it clearly does not resemble one when it occurs in a living cell because of the slow release of energy from the series of reactions. Nutrients that are commonly used by animal and plant cells in respiration include sugar, amino acids and fatty acids, and the most common oxidizing agent (electron acceptor) is molecular oxygen (O2). The chemical energy stored in ATP (its third phosphate group is weakly bonded to the rest of the molecule and is cheaply broken allowing stronger bonds to form, thereby transferring energy for use by the cell) can then be used to drive processes requiring energy, including biosynthesis, locomotion or transportation of molecules across cell membranes. Aerobic respiration Aerobic respiration (red arrows) is the main means by which both fungi and animals utilize chemical energy in the form of organic compounds that were previously created through photosynthesis (green arrow). Aerobic respiration requires oxygen (O2) in order to Continue reading >>