diabetestalk.net

Where Does Glucose Come From In Cellular Respiration

All Of The Information In These Notes

All Of The Information In These Notes

Cellular respiration is the enzymatic breakdown of glucose (C6H12O6) in the presence of oxygen (O2) to produce cellular energy (ATP): 1. Glycolysis: (Fig. 18-2) a ten-step process that occurs in the cytoplasm converts each molecule of glucose to two molecules of pyruvic acid (a 3-carbon molecule) an anaerobic process - proceeds whether or not O2 is present ; O2 is not required net yield of 2 ATP per glucose molecule net yield of 2 NADH per glucose (NADH is nicotine adenine dinucleotide, a co-enzyme that serves as a carrier for H+ ions liberated as glucose is oxidized.) The pyruvic acid diffuses into the inner compartment of the mitochondrion where a transition reaction (Fig. 18-3) occurs that serves to prepare pyruvic acid for entry into the next stage of respiration: (a) pyruvic acid ® acetic acid + CO2 (a waste product of cell metabolism) + NADH+ (b) acetic acid + co-enzyme A ® acetyl CoA 2. Citric Acid or TCA Cycle:(Fig. 18-3) occurs in the inner mitochondrial matrix the acetyl group detaches from the co-enzyme A and enters the reaction cycle an aerobic process; will proceed only in the presence of O2 net yield of 2 ATP per glucose molecule (per 2 acetyl CoA) net yield of 6 NADH and 2 FADH2 (FAD serves the same purpose as NAD) in this stage of cellular respiration, the oxidation of glucose to CO2 is completed 3. Electron Transport System: consists of a series of enzymes on the inner mitochondrial membrane electrons are released from NADH and from FADH2 and as they are passed along the series of enzymes, they give up energy which is used to fuel a process called chemiosmosis by which H+ ions are actively transported across the inner mitochondrial membrane into the outer mitochondrial compartment. The H+ ions then flow back through special pores in the membrane, a pr Continue reading >>

Cellular Respiration

Cellular Respiration

Typical eukaryotic cell Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.[1] The reactions involved in respiration are catabolic reactions, which break large molecules into smaller ones, releasing energy in the process, as weak so-called "high-energy" bonds are replaced by stronger bonds in the products. Respiration is one of the key ways a cell releases chemical energy to fuel cellular activity. Cellular respiration is considered an exothermic redox reaction which releases heat. The overall reaction occurs in a series of biochemical steps, most of which are redox reactions themselves. Although technically, cellular respiration is a combustion reaction, it clearly does not resemble one when it occurs in a living cell because of the slow release of energy from the series of reactions. Nutrients that are commonly used by animal and plant cells in respiration include sugar, amino acids and fatty acids, and the most common oxidizing agent (electron acceptor) is molecular oxygen (O2). The chemical energy stored in ATP (its third phosphate group is weakly bonded to the rest of the molecule and is cheaply broken allowing stronger bonds to form, thereby transferring energy for use by the cell) can then be used to drive processes requiring energy, including biosynthesis, locomotion or transportation of molecules across cell membranes. Aerobic respiration Aerobic respiration (red arrows) is the main means by which both fungi and animals utilize chemical energy in the form of organic compounds that were previously created through photosynthesis (green arrow). Aerobic respiration requires oxygen (O2) in order to Continue reading >>

Cellular Respiration And Photosynthesis

Cellular Respiration And Photosynthesis

Big Ideas Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis Cellular respiration is the process by which the chemical energy of "food" molecules is released and partially captured in the form of ATP. Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins can all be used as fuels in cellular respiration, but glucose is most commonly used as an example to examine the reactions and pathways involved. In glycolysis, the 6-carbon sugar, glucose, is broken down into two molecules of a 3-carbon molecule called pyruvate. This change is accompanied by a net gain of 2 ATP molecules and 2 NADH molecules. The Krebs (or Citric Acid) cycle occurs in the mitochondria matrix and generates a pool of chemical energy (ATP, NADH, and FADH 2 ) from the oxidation of pyruvate, the end product of glycolysis. Pyruvate is transported into the mitochondria and loses carbon dioxide to form acetyl-CoA, a 2-carbon molecule. When acetyl-CoA is oxidized to carbon dioxide in the Krebs cycle, chemical energy is released and captured in the form of NADH, FADH 2 , and ATP. The electron transport chain allows the release of the large amount of chemical energy stored in reduced NAD + (NADH) and reduced FAD (FADH 2 ). The energy released is captured in the form of ATP (3 ATP per NADH and 2 ATP per FADH 2 ). The electron transport chain (ETC) consists of a series of molecules, mostly proteins, embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The glucose required for cellular respiration is produced by plants. Plants go through a process known as photosynthesis. Photosynthesis can be thought of as the opposite process of cellular respiration. Through two processes known as the light reactions and the dark reactions, plants have the ability to absorb and utilize the energy in sunlight. This energy is then converted along with water and carbon d Continue reading >>

Cellular Respiration As A Series Of Reduction-oxidation Reactions

Cellular Respiration As A Series Of Reduction-oxidation Reactions

Cellular respiration is the set of the metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products. The reactions involved in respiration are catabolic reactions, which break large molecules into smaller ones, releasing energy in the process as weak so-called "high-energy" bonds are replaced by stronger bonds in the products. Respiration is one of the key ways a cell gains useful energy to fuel cellular activity. The overall reaction is broken into many smaller ones when it occurs in the body, most of which are redox reactions themselves. Nutrients that are commonly used by animal and plant cells in respiration include sugar, amino acids and fatty acids, and a common oxidizing agent (electron acceptor) is molecular oxygen (O2). The energy stored in ATP (its third phosphate group is weakly bonded to the rest of the molecule and is cheaply broken allowing stronger bonds to form, thereby transferring energy for use by the cell) can then be used to drive processes requiring energy, including biosynthesis, locomotion or transportation of molecules across cell membranes. Cellular respiration and fermentation produce energy for cells to use. Any chemical process that yields energy is known as a catabolic pathway. For nearly all organisms on Earth (except chemolithotrophs), that energy is stored in organic molecules. Cells release the energy in those organic molecules by breaking them down. Through cellular respiration and fermentation, those bonds are broken releasing the potential energy of organic molecules into kinetic energy that cells use to do work. Adenosine Triphosphate is commonly known as ATP. It is a lot like a chemical spring that gets lo Continue reading >>

The Basics Of Cellular Respiration

The Basics Of Cellular Respiration

Posted by Leslie Samuel | Cell Biology , Posts Cellular respiration is the set of reactions that produces ATP. ATP, quite possibly the most talked about molecule in biology , is our energy currency. Cellular respiration uses glucose to produce the ATP our body needs to perform essential function s. I am going to treat this as an overview article and I will do separate, more detailed articles on each part. Cellular respiration can be divided into three parts: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle and electron transport chain. This article will give you the basics in order to better understand the more detailed stuff. And believe me, cellular respiration can get pretty complicated. Before delving into the parts of cellular respiration, it is important to know a little about the key molecules. The first one is glucose, which is a sugar made of a 6 carbon ring. This is the starting molecule for cellular respiration and an important source of energy in cell s. ADP, or adenosine diphosphate is also one of the starting molecules of cellular respiration. It is formed when one of the phosphate groups on ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is lost. ADP is easily converted back into ATP, which happens in cellular respiration. ATP is probably one of the most discussed molecule in biology . It is responsible for energy transfer in our cell s. It is made of ribose (a type of sugar), three phosphate groups and adenine , which is a nucleotide. NAD is a coenzyme used in oxidation -reduction reations, or redox reactions for short. Redox reactions remove or add electrons. Oxidation is the loss of elections while reduction is the gain of electrons. The function of NAD is to transport these electrons. NAD is an oxidizing agent, which means it is reduced. NADH is the oxidized form of NAD and is a redu Continue reading >>

Biology Chapter 9 Flashcards | Quizlet

Biology Chapter 9 Flashcards | Quizlet

Where does glucose used in respiration come from? By breaking down carbohydrates such as starch What stages of Cellular Respiration occurs in mitochondria? the process that releases energy by breaking sown food molecules in the presences of oxygen. What happens during the process of glycolysis? which one molecule of glucose is broken in half, producing 2 molecules of pyruvic acid, a 3-carbon compound. What are the two main types of fermentation? Write the equation for alcoholic fermentation. pyruvic acid + NADH -> alcohol +CO2 + NAD+ Write the equation for lactic acid fermentation. pyruvic acid + NADH2 -> Lactic acis + NAD+ How do you know this series of reactions occur in the presents of oxygen? If no oxygen was present fermentation would occur not cellular respiration. Whay does glycolysis suppy to the Kreb Cycle and to the eclectron transport chain? It supplies pyrubic acid to the Kreb Cycle and high electrons Via NADH to the electron transport chain. a molecule of glucose into 2 pyruvic acid. Where in the cell does glycolysis take place? a compound that can accept a pair of high-energy electrons being released. pyruvic acid is broken soen into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions. How are high energy electrons used by the electron transport chain? Why is the Krebs cycle also known as the acid cycle? because citric acid is the 1st compound formed in this series of reactions. Where does Krebs cycle take place in the cell? Where does the 3rd stage of respiration take place? How many ATP molecules are generated for every 1 turn of the Krebs Cycle? Where is most of the chemical energy in pyrubic acid transfered as a result of the cycle? most of the chemical energy is transferred to the electron carriers NAD, FAD prodicing 4 NADH's and 1 FADH2 What h Continue reading >>

Role Of Glucose In Cellular Respiration

Role Of Glucose In Cellular Respiration

This lesson is on the role of glucose in cellular respiration. In this lesson, we'll explain what cellular respiration is and what we need to start with to get the end products. We'll specifically look at the importance of glucose in this process. What Is Cellular Respiration? Sugar is everywhere in our world, from packaged foods in our diet, like tomato sauce, to homemade baked goods, like pies. In fact, sugar is even the main molecule in fruits and vegetables. The simplest form of sugar is called glucose. Glucose is getting a bad rap lately and many people are cutting sugar out from their diet entirely. However, glucose is the main molecule our bodies use for energy and we cannot survive without it. The process of using glucose to make energy is called cellular respiration. The reactants, or what we start with, in cellular respiration are glucose and oxygen. We get oxygen from breathing in air. Our bodies do cellular respiration to make energy, which is stored as ATP, and carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is a waste product, meaning our bodies don't want it, so we get rid of it through exhaling. To start the process of cellular respiration, we need to get glucose into our cells. The first step is to eat a carbohydrate-rich food, made of glucose. Let's say we eat a cookie. That cookie travels through our digestive system, where it is broken down and absorbed into the blood. The glucose then travels to our cells, where it is let inside. Once inside, the cells use various enzymes, or small proteins that speed up chemical reactions, to change glucose into different molecules. The goal of this process is to release the energy stored in the bonds of atoms that make up glucose. Let's examine each of the steps in cellular respiration next. Steps of Cellular Respiration There are Continue reading >>

Free Biology Flashcards About Ap Biology

Free Biology Flashcards About Ap Biology

Identify some specific processes the cell does with ATP. Glycolysis goes through a process to make ATP Explain why ATP is such a "high energy" molecule. Because it's created from reactions like Glycolysis The energy released by exergonic reactions fuel endergonic reactions What is the name of enzymes which phosphorylate molecules? The loss of one or more electrons by an atom, ion, or molecule The gain of one or more electrons by an atom, ion, or molecule What is the role of NAD+ & FAD+2 is respiration? Electron carriers that transport electrons to where they need to go to make ATP Explain why respiration is considered exergonic. starts with glucose and produces pyruvate The Electron Transport Chain is located in the: Describe the role of the Electron Transport Chain. What happens to the electrons and H+? Proteins pass electrons from one carrier protein to the next What is chemiomosis and how is it generated? Electron transport and ATP synthesis are coupled by means of a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane in eukaryote ADP is added with Pi and then you get ATP What happens to most of the energy released during cell respiration? Alcholic fermentation converts glucose to: Alcholic fermentation is utilized by what organisms? Lactic acid fermentation converts glucose to: Lactic acid fermentation is utilized by what organisms? Write the summary equation for cellular respiration. What else is produced that is not listed in this equation? What was the evolutionary advantage of the proto-eukaryotes that engulfed aerobic bacteria but did not digest them? They were bigger that the aerobic bacteria that they engulfed To bring in oxygen and get rid of carbon dioxide The opposite process extracting that stored energy from glucose to form ATP Modified proteins tha Continue reading >>

Cellular Respiration

Cellular Respiration

Microorganisms such as cyanobacteria can trap the energy in sunlight through the process of photosynthesis and store it in the chemical bonds of carbohydrate molecules. The principal carbohydrate formed in photosynthesis is glucose. Other types of microorganisms such as nonphotosynthetic bacteria, fungi, and protozoa are unable to perform this process. Therefore, these organisms must rely upon preformed carbohydrates in the environment to obtain the energy necessary for their metabolic processes. Cellular respirationis the process by which microorganisms obtain the energy available in carbohydrates. They take the carbohydrates into their cytoplasm, and through a complex series of metabolic processes, they break down the carbohydrate and release the energy. The energy is generally not needed immediately, so it is used to combine ADP with phosphate ions to form ATP molecules. During the process of cellular respiration,carbon dioxideis given off as a waste product. This carbon dioxide can be used by photosynthesizing cells to form new carbohydrates. Also in the process of cellular respiration, oxygen gas is required to serve as an acceptor of electrons. This oxygen gas is identical to the oxygen gas given off in photosynthesis. The overall mechanism of cellular respiration involves four subdivisions:glycolysis, in which glucose molecules are broken down to form pyruvic acid molecules; theKrebs cycle, in which pyruvic acid is further broken down and the energy in its molecule is used to form high-energy compounds such as NADH; theelectron transport system, in which electrons are transported along a series of coenzymes and cytochromes and the energy in the electrons is released; andchemiosmosis, in which the energy given off by electrons is used to pump protons across a mem Continue reading >>

Process Of Cellular Respiration

Process Of Cellular Respiration

Of course if you didn't breathe, you couldn't survive. Why do you need air to live? You need the gas oxygen to perform cellular respiration to get energy from your food. The Process of Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration is the process of extracting energy in the form of ATP from the glucose in the food you eat. How does cellular respiration happen inside of the cell? Cellular respiration is a three step process. Briefly: In stage one, glucose is broken down in the cytoplasm of the cell in a process called glycolysis. In stage two, the pyruvate molecules are transported into the mitochondria. The mitochondria are the organelles known as the energy "powerhouses" of the cells (Figure below). In the mitochondria, the pyruvate, which have been converted into a 2-carbon molecule, enter the Krebs cycle. Notice that mitochondria have an inner membrane with many folds, called cristae. These cristae greatly increase the membrane surface area where many of the cellular respiration reactions take place. In stage three, the energy in the energy carriers enters an electron transport chain. During this step, this energy is used to produce ATP. Oxygen is needed to help the process of turning glucose into ATP. The initial step releases just two molecules of ATP for each glucose. The later steps release much more ATP. What goes into the cell? Oxygen and glucose are both reactants of cellular respiration. Oxygen enters the body when an organism breathes. Glucose enters the body when an organism eats. What does the cell produce? The products of cellular respiration are carbon dioxide and water. Carbon dioxide is transported from your mitochondria out of your cell, to your red blood cells, and back to your lungs to be exhaled. ATP is generated in the process. When one molecule of glu Continue reading >>

Cellular Respiration Module

Cellular Respiration Module

For one glucose molecule that has moved through glycolysis, the preparatory step and the Krebs cycle, answer the following questions: 1. How many ATP have been generated so far? ______________ 4. How many CO2 molecules have been produced? Electrons from glycolysis, the prep-step and the Krebs cycle are carried in NADH and FADH2 to the ETS. Electron Transport System (ETS) or Chain (ETC) The ETS is a series of electron carriers on the cristae of inner membrane of mitochondria The NADH and FADH2 bind to proteins in the ETS and the electrons that they are carrying are transferred to the ETS. The protons are released as H+. Proton pumps (using the energy from the electrons) move the H+ from the matrix to intermembrane space, creating a high concentration of H+ in the intermembrane space Electrons lose their energy as they move down the ETS (driving the H+ pumps). At the end of the ETS, two low-energy electrons along with two H+ bind to oxygen (1/2 of an O2 molecule), the final electron acceptor, forming H2O. There is a higher concentration of H+ in intermembrane space of mitochondria than in the matrix. H+ flows down its concentration gradient toward the matrix providing energy. H+ moves through the ATP synthase enzyme. As H+ moves down its gradient from the intermembrane space to the matrix, ATP synthase (in cristae) adds phosphate to ADP producing ATP (ADP + P --> ATP). Continue reading >>

Ks3 Bitesize

Ks3 Bitesize

Respiration Respiration is a chemical reaction that happens in all living cells. It is the way that energy is released from glucose, for our cells to use to keep us functioning. Remember that respiration is not the same as breathing (which is properly called ventilation). Aerobic respiration The glucose and oxygen react together in the cells to produce carbon dioxide and water. The reaction is called aerobic respiration because oxygen from the air is needed for it to work. Here is the word equation for aerobic respiration: glucose + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water (+ energy) (Energy is released in the reaction. We show it in brackets in the equation because energy is not a substance.) Now we will look at how glucose and oxygen get to the cells so that respiration can take place and how we get rid of the carbon dioxide. Glucose from food to cells Glucose is a type of carbohydrate, obtained through digestion of the food we eat. Digestion breaks food down into small molecules. These can be absorbed across the wall of the small intestine into the bloodstream. Glucose is carried round the body dissolved in blood plasma, the pale yellow liquid part of our blood. The dissolved glucose can diffuse into the cells of the body from the capillaries. Once in the cell glucose can be used in respiration. Oxygen from the air to cells When we breathe in oxygen enters the small air sacs, called alveoli, in the lungs. Oxygen diffuses from there into the bloodstream. Oxygen is not carried in the plasma, but is carried by the red blood cells. These contain a red substance called haemoglobin, which joins onto oxygen and carries it around the body in the blood, then lets it go when necessary. Like glucose, oxygen can diffuse into cells from the capillaries. Red blood cells carry oxygen arou Continue reading >>

Where Does Glucose Come From That Is Used In Cellular Respiration?

Where Does Glucose Come From That Is Used In Cellular Respiration?

Where does glucose come from that is used in cellular respiration? Are you sure you want to delete this answer? Best Answer: It is metabolized during the Krebs cycle. It comes from the foods we eat. Glucose is sugar. For people, glucose is something we eat every day for energy. Starch, vegetables, fruit and honey, they all have glucose in them in different chemical forms that our body know show to break down into glucose. We then breakdown that glucose in a process called glycolysis, and then the by-products of those reactions get used in cellular respiration. We also keep stores of glucose in the body for extra energy reserves. It's called glycogen, and it's a polymer of glucose (just a bunch of glucose chemically linked together). glucose is sugar that the body has processed using the pancreas to excrete insulin to 'digest' (for lack of the proper term) the sugar. there are two different forms of cellular respiration:aerobic and anaerobic. google search glucose for the info on pancreases I think this question violates the Community Guidelines Chat or rant, adult content, spam, insulting other members, show more I think this question violates the Terms of Service Harm to minors, violence or threats, harassment or privacy invasion, impersonation or misrepresentation, fraud or phishing, show more If you believe your intellectual property has been infringed and would like to file a complaint, please see our Copyright/IP Policy I think this answer violates the Community Guidelines Chat or rant, adult content, spam, insulting other members, show more I think this answer violates the Terms of Service Harm to minors, violence or threats, harassment or privacy invasion, impersonation or misrepresentation, fraud or phishing, show more If you believe your intellectual property Continue reading >>

Glycolysis

Glycolysis

Suppose that we gave one molecule of glucose to you and one molecule of glucose to Lactobacillus acidophilus—the friendly bacterium that turns milk into yogurt. What would you and the bacterium do with your respective glucose molecules? Glycolysis is a series of reactions that and extract energy from glucose by splitting it into two three-carbon molecules called pyruvates. Glycolysis is an ancient metabolic pathway, meaning that it evolved long ago, and it is found in the great majority of organisms alive today​. In organisms that perform cellular respiration, glycolysis is the first stage of this process. However, glycolysis doesn’t require oxygen, and many anaerobic organisms—organisms that do not use oxygen—also have this pathway. Glycolysis has ten steps, and depending on your interests—and the classes you’re taking—you may want to know the details of all of them. However, you may also be looking for a greatest hits version of glycolysis, something that highlights the key steps and principles without tracing the fate of every single atom. Let’s start with a simplified version of the pathway that does just that. Glycolysis takes place in the cytosol of a cell, and it can be broken down into two main phases: the energy-requiring phase, above the dotted line in the image below, and the energy-releasing phase, below the dotted line. Energy investment phase. Glucose is first converted to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate in a series of steps that use up two ATP. Then, unstable fructose-1,6-bisphosphate splits in two, forming two three-carbon molecules called DHAP and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphae. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate can continue with the next steps of the pathway, and DHAP can be readily converted into glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. Energy payoff phase. In a s Continue reading >>

Cellular Respiration:

Cellular Respiration:

Or, How one good meal provides energy for the work of 75 trillion cells February 16-18, 2004 Every living thing is a sort of imperialist, seeking to transform as much as possible of its environment into itself... -- Bertrand Russell I. Cellular Respiration: breaking down sugar in the presence of oxygen (aerobic). Photosynthesis (you recall...) is the process by which CO2 and H2O are used to make sugars and starches. During Cellular Respiration, sugar is broken down to CO2 and H2O, and in the process, ATP is made that can then be used for cellular work. The overall reaction for cellular respiration: (does this reaction look familiar? Overall, it is the reverse reaction of photosynthesis, but chemically, the steps involved are very different.) C6H12O6 + 6O2 -------------------> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ~38 ATP Whereas only photosynthetic cells can make sugar using photosynthesis, ALL cells need to be able to break down sugars they take in from their environment and turn it into energy to be used in cellular work.... II. Cellular respiration can be broken down into 4 stages: Essentially, sugar (C6H12O6) is burned, or oxidized, down to CO2 and H2O, releasing energy (ATP) in the process. Why do cells need ATP? ALL cellular work -all the activities of life - requires energy, either from ATP or from related molecules. A lot of oxygen is required for this process! The sugar AND the oxygen are delivered to your cells via your bloodstream. This process occurs partially in the cytoplasm, and partially in the mitochondria. The mitochondria is another organelle in eukaryotic cells. like the chloroplast, the mitochondria has two lipid bilayers around it, and its own genome (indicating that it may be the result of endosymbiosis long ago). In some ways similar to the chloroplast, the mitochondria Continue reading >>

More in blood sugar