Where Does Glucose Come From In Plants?
2009-09-17Where Does Glucose Come From in Plants? In a typical ecosystem, plants are the producers. Plants take energy from the sun and through a process called photosynthesis, produce food. The food is sugar or glucose. In order to produce glucose, a plant needs the raw materials in order for photosynthesis to occur: light energy from the sun, water from the environment and carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Sunlight is the catalyst for photosynthesis. The process occurs primarily in the leaves. The light energy bring about a chemical reaction between water and carbon dioxide that occurs in the chloroplasts within the leaves. Chloroplasts are mini-organs or organelles within the plant cells. The energy splits the water molecules into its two components, oxygen and hydrogen. Oxygen leaves the plant through respiration. This is the source of oxygen in our atmosphere. Photosynthesis consists of two processes, a light reaction and a dark reaction. As the names would imply, sunlight is required for the light reaction to happen. Without light, the plant is unable to produce energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This is the same energy chemical that we use to fuel any cell process in our bodies. The dark reaction also occurs within the chloroplasts. This is when sugar is produced. Light isn't necessary as it is for the light reaction, but the product of it is required. ATP, another chemical called NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase) and carbon dioxide through a chemical process called the Calvin cycle produce glucose. Chlorophyll is responsible for channeling the energy necessary for photosynthesis. It is also responsible for the green color of plants. The green color reflects the light waves from the sun which are not absorbed by the p Continue reading >>
Glucose is a carbohydrate, and is the most important simple sugar in human metabolism. Glucose is called a simple sugar or a monosaccharide because it is one of the smallest units which has the characteristics of this class of carbohydrates. Glucose is also sometimes called dextrose. Corn syrup is primarily glucose. Glucose is one of the primary molecules which serve as energy sources for plants and animals. It is found in the sap of plants, and is found in the human bloodstream where it is referred to as "blood sugar". The normal concentration of glucose in the blood is about 0.1%, but it becomes much higher in persons suffering from diabetes. When oxidized in the body in the process called metabolism, glucose produces carbon dioxide, water, and some nitrogen compounds and in the process provides energy which can be used by the cells. The energy yield is about 686 kilocalories (2870 kilojoules) per mole which can be used to do work or help keep the body warm. This energy figure is the change in Gibbs free energy ΔG in the reaction, the measure of the maximum amount of work obtainable from the reaction. As a primary energy source in the body, it requires no digestion and is often provided intravenously to persons in hospitals as a nutrient. Energy from glucose is obtained from the oxidation reaction C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O where a mole of glucose (about 180 grams) reacts with six moles of O2 with an energy yield ΔG = 2870 kJ. The six moles of oxygen at STP would occupy 6 x 22.4L = 134 liters. The energy yield from glucose is often stated as the yield per liter of oxygen, which would be 5.1 kcal per liter or 21.4 kJ per liter. This energy yield could be measured by actually burning the glucose and measuring the energy liberated in a calorimeter. But in living org Continue reading >>
Where Does Glucose Come From?
by Connie s Owens; Updated September 30, 2017 Glucose is sugar. To be exact, it's blood sugar, also known as monosaccharide. Glucose is manufactured by the body with carbohydrates as the primary source. However, the body will use proteins and fats to create glucose. The pancreas is responsible for regulating the use of glucose through the production of insulin; the liver is the primary manufacturer. Glucose is food for your body, the fuel for your brain to function normally and energy to sustain the body during your activities. The foods your body uses to create glucose are vegetables, fruits, grains and legumes that provide the starches the liver will use in manufacturing glucose. By eating a steady diet of these starch sources, you will keep regulated blood glucose. Other sources of glucose include dairy products such as milk, cheese and yogurt. Eating a diet filled with sugar such as candy, muffins, cakes, cookies and other prepared foods will contribute to high glucose production. The starches and sugars are used by the liver to create more glucose. What the body can't absorb is stored in fat cells. Glucose is also manufactured by pharmaceutical companies and used as a medication for such conditions as hyper/hypoglycemia. You may purchase this form of glucose in a tube as a gel or in pill form. When you being to feel nervous, light-headed, jittery, irritable and fatigued, eating a snack derived of an apple, banana, celery sticks with peanut butter, a few cheese crackers, or a snack bar made from grains will help your body create the glucose required to operate normally. Eating a candy bar or other sugar-rich foods won't keep your body functioning normally; rather, the sugar will cause your glucose levels to spike, then drop dramatically because the liver is overpro Continue reading >>
Do All Sugars Transported To The Liver Convert To Glucose?
Do All Sugars Transported to the Liver Convert to Glucose? Written by Aglaee Jacob; Updated December 06, 2018 Do All Sugars Transported to the Liver Convert to Glucose? Sugar can come from natural sources, such as fruits, honey and maple syrup, or added sugars, such as table sugar or high-fructose corn syrup. The way sugar is processed by your body does not depend on what food it is found in but rather on the nature of the sugar molecules. Some sugars need to be transported directly to the liver in order to be metabolized or processed by your body, while others can also be used directly by your muscles and brain. Fructose is transported to your liver to be converted to glucose or fat, while glucose can be burned for energy as is anywhere in your body. Glucose is one of the main sugar molecules found in various types of sugar. The sucrose found in table sugar and maple sugar is actually half glucose. Dextrose is 100 percent glucose. Although fructose is usually thought to be the main sugar in fruits, all fruits also contain varying proportion of glucose and sucrose. Both fructose and glucose are also found in high-fructose corn syrup, agave syrup and other sweeteners. Once absorbed into your bloodstream, glucose does not necessarily have to be transported to your liver. Almost all of your cells, including the cells of your liver, muscles, brain and fat, can take some of the glucose circulating in your blood. Glucose can be used as a form of energy by most of your cells and converted to glycogen by your liver or muscles or converted to fat in your fat cells. Fructose can only be processed by your liver. After absorbing fructose from fruits or a food sweetened with sugar, agave syrup or high-fructose corn syrup, fructose enters your bloodstream to be transported right to Continue reading >>
Blood Sugar Or Blood Glucose: What Does It Do?
Blood sugar, or blood glucose, is sugar that the bloodstream carries to all the cells in the body to supply energy. Blood sugar or blood glucose measurements represent the amount of sugar being transported in the blood during one instant. The sugar comes from the food we eat. The human body regulates blood glucose levels so that they are neither too high nor too low. The blood's internal environment must remain stable for the body to function. This balance is known as homeostasis. The sugar in the blood is not the same as sucrose, the sugar in the sugar bowl. There are different kinds of sugar. Sugar in the blood is known as glucose. Blood glucose levels change throughout the day. After eating, levels rise and then settle down after about an hour. They are at their lowest point before the first meal of the day, which is normally breakfast. How does sugar get into the body's cells? When we eat carbohydrates, such as sugar, or sucrose, our body digests it into glucose, a simple sugar that can easily convert to energy. The human digestive system breaks down carbohydrates from food into various sugar molecules. One of these sugars is glucose, the body's main source of energy. The glucose goes straight from the digestive system into the bloodstream after food is consumed and digested. But glucose can only enter cells if there is insulin in the bloodstream too. Without insulin, the cells would starve. After we eat, blood sugar concentrations rise. The pancreas releases insulin automatically so that the glucose enters cells. As more and more cells receive glucose, blood sugar levels return to normal again. Excess glucose is stored as glycogen, or stored glucose, in the liver and the muscles. Glycogen plays an important role in homeostasis, because it helps our body function du Continue reading >>
Unlocking The Energy In Foods
The foods we eat supply the energy needed by the body to drive its complex chemical, mechanical and electrical systems. Where does this energy come from, how is it locked into food molecules and how is it released? The energy content of all food molecules can be traced back to the Sun. It is the process of photosynthesis that locks the Suns energy into simple carbohydrates like glucose. Although the photosynthetic process, which is carried out in the chloroplasts present in plant cells, involves numerous steps, it can be summarised in the following equation. Energy from sunlight trapped by chlorophyll present in the chloroplasts This reaction only proceeds with an input of solar energy, and the product glucose stores this energy as chemical potential energy. Plants are able to convert some of the glucose formed into starch and other macronutrients such as proteins and lipids. The origin of the energy locked into these molecules is from the Sun. The purpose of this animation is to show visually how glucose molecules can be assembled to form simple sugars and large macromolecular carbohydrates such as starch and cellulose. To use this interactive, select any of the labelled boxes 15 to obtain more information. The food we eat supplies the body with energy-rich molecules like glucose. On entering the cells of the body, these molecules are broken down in a series of steps to reform carbon dioxide and water, releasing energy to be used by the body. Adenosine triphosphates structure shows 3 phosphate groups linked to ribose, a 5-carbon sugar, which, in turn, is bonded to adenine. Some of the chemical potential energy locked into these molecules is transferred within the cell to a substance called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is often referred to as the energy currency o Continue reading >>
Where Does All That Glucose Come From? Co 2 Radiant Energy Photosynthesis Glucose.
Where does all that glucose come from? CO 2 radiant energy Photosynthesis glucose. Published by Gerard Boyd Modified over 3 years ago Presentation on theme: "Where does all that glucose come from? CO 2 radiant energy Photosynthesis glucose." Presentation transcript: 4 CO 2 radiant energy Photosynthesis glucose 5 In the process of photosynthesis, plants convert radiant energy from the sun into chemical energy in the form of glucose (sugar) 10 O2O2 glucose CO 2 H2OH2O H+H+ H+H+ Energy CO 2 + H 2 O + energy glucose + O 2 Photosynthesis 11 glucose + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O + energy CO 2 H2OH2O H+H+ H+H+ Energy O2O2 glucose Cellular RespirationPhotosynthesis 13 vascular bundle palisade mesophyll spongy mesophyll epidermis cuticle stomate EpidermisMesophyllVascular Bundles 18 Outer membrane Inner membrane Stroma Thylakoid Granum 19 Thylakoid (contains chlorophyll) Stroma Lamella (connects grana) Thylakoid Space (Lumen) 20 PHOTOSYNTHESIS Light ReactionsDark Reactions makes NADPH ATP some glucose 21 PHOTOSYNTHESIS Light ReactionsDark Reactions makes NADPH ATP some glucose DONT BE FOOLED!! Both light and dark reactions occur during the day. The Dark reactions dont REQUIRE light while the Light reactions do! 22 PHOTOSYNTHESIS Light Dependent ReactionsLight Independent Reactions makes NADPH ATP some glucose 36 Thylakoid PS IPS II aa a Electron Acceptor P 37 PS II High Low Energy H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H2OH2O H+H+ H+H+ O2O2 H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ P Stroma Thylakoid Lumen Thylakoid Membrane 38 PS II High Low Energy H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ Thylakoid Membrane Stroma Thylakoid Lumen E T C H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ PS I O2O2 ATP P Electrons Continue reading >>
Sandwalk: Where Did The Glucose Come From?
Strolling with a skeptical biochemist Currently there are two distinct views on the origin of life. The majority of scientists think that life arose in a prebiotic soup of complex organic molecules. Most of them think this "warm little pond" was the ocean (!) and most of them have bought into the stories about asteroids and comets delivering complex organic molecules to create a soup of amino acids and sugars. Presumably, all the earliest forms of life had to do was to join together the amino acids to make proteins and hook up the nucleotides to make RNA. The energy for these reactions was derived from breaking down all the glucose in the sweet ocean. The other view is the one supported by the majority of experts and people who make a serious study of the origin of life. It proposes a "metabolism first" view where the initial products of non-enzymatic reactions were small molecules like pyruvate and glycine and gradually pathways evolved to make the more complex molecules like glucose, more complex amino acids, and nucleotides. The energy for these reactions came from proton gradients in the pores of hydrothermal vents. In this view, life arose in tiny compartments, where concentrations could be significant, then spread to the ocean. [ Changing Ideas About The Origin Of Life ] [ Was the Origin of Life a Lucky Accident? ] [ Why Are Cells Powered by Proton Gradients? ] [ Metabolism First and the Origin of Life ]. In biochemistry courses we distinguish between catabolic pathways where something is broken down or degraded (= catabolism) and anabolic pathways where complex molecules are synthesised (= biosynthesis, anabolism). Glycolyisthe breakdown of glucose to pyruvateis the classic example of catabolism. Gluconeogenesisthe synthesis of glucose from pyruvateis the classi Continue reading >>
Biology Flashcards | Quizlet
Equation that shows how ADP is changed into ATP Which molecule stores more than 90 times the energy in ATP? How are these cell used How do animal cells store glucose for later? How do plants store glucose for later? 2. Strach - storage energy - storage energy 3. Glvogen- animals, stored sugar in animal cell. Liver plus muscle Jan van helmont, Jan ingenhousz, Joseph priestly, Melvin Calvin What was "wrong" about the van helmont's conclusion that when plants grow, their increase in mass comes from water Grew in mass size because the soil made the plant bigger, process of photosynthesis creating the plant to grow Write the chemical equation for photosynthesis What is a pigment? Why is the main pigment used by green plants to absorb energy? Molecule that absorbs light energy. Cloraphl- used blue and red light Which wavelength of light are the best absorbed by chlorophyll a & b? Which are reflected? How are carotene pigments different from chlorophyll? Fwy do plants have these other pigments besides chlorophyll? Why do plants look green Orange, yellow, some reds. To help the plant to get more light Be able to label the parts of a chloroplast and tell where the reactions for photosynthesis happen What is NADP? What does it do? How does it change into NADPH NADPH is an electron carrier molecule, carries exited electrons to the stroma used in the Calvin cycle. Ex: little kids energy Where does the H that ends up in NADPH ultimately come from Pick up from the water as it carries energized electrons Describe the 2 sets of reactions involved in photosynthesis Where are they located and what happens in each Lights absorbed, electrons get exited, heading to photosynthesis one. Join an electron carrier and makes NADP - goes to the light independent- stroma attached to NADP now makes Continue reading >>
Role Of Glucose In Cellular Respiration
This lesson is on the role of glucose in cellular respiration. In this lesson, we'll explain what cellular respiration is and what we need to start with to get the end products. We'll specifically look at the importance of glucose in this process. What Is Cellular Respiration? Sugar is everywhere in our world, from packaged foods in our diet, like tomato sauce, to homemade baked goods, like pies. In fact, sugar is even the main molecule in fruits and vegetables. The simplest form of sugar is called glucose. Glucose is getting a bad rap lately and many people are cutting sugar out from their diet entirely. However, glucose is the main molecule our bodies use for energy and we cannot survive without it. The process of using glucose to make energy is called cellular respiration. The reactants, or what we start with, in cellular respiration are glucose and oxygen. We get oxygen from breathing in air. Our bodies do cellular respiration to make energy, which is stored as ATP, and carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is a waste product, meaning our bodies don't want it, so we get rid of it through exhaling. To start the process of cellular respiration, we need to get glucose into our cells. The first step is to eat a carbohydrate-rich food, made of glucose. Let's say we eat a cookie. That cookie travels through our digestive system, where it is broken down and absorbed into the blood. The glucose then travels to our cells, where it is let inside. Once inside, the cells use various enzymes, or small proteins that speed up chemical reactions, to change glucose into different molecules. The goal of this process is to release the energy stored in the bonds of atoms that make up glucose. Let's examine each of the steps in cellular respiration next. Steps of Cellular Respiration There are Continue reading >>
How Our Bodies Turn Food Into Energy
All parts of the body (muscles, brain, heart, and liver) need energy to work. This energy comes from the food we eat. Our bodies digest the food we eat by mixing it with fluids (acids and enzymes) in the stomach. When the stomach digests food, the carbohydrate (sugars and starches) in the food breaks down into another type of sugar, called glucose. The stomach and small intestines absorb the glucose and then release it into the bloodstream. Once in the bloodstream, glucose can be used immediately for energy or stored in our bodies, to be used later. However, our bodies need insulin in order to use or store glucose for energy. Without insulin, glucose stays in the bloodstream, keeping blood sugar levels high. Insulin is a hormone made by beta cells in the pancreas. Beta cells are very sensitive to the amount of glucose in the bloodstream. Normally beta cells check the blood's glucose level every few seconds and sense when they need to speed up or slow down the amount of insulin they're making and releasing. When someone eats something high in carbohydrates, like a piece of bread, the glucose level in the blood rises and the beta cells trigger the pancreas to release more insulin into the bloodstream. When insulin is released from the pancreas, it travels through the bloodstream to the body's cells and tells the cell doors to open up to let the glucose in. Once inside, the cells convert glucose into energy to use right then or store it to use later. As glucose moves from the bloodstream into the cells, blood sugar levels start to drop. The beta cells in the pancreas can tell this is happening, so they slow down the amount of insulin they're making. At the same time, the pancreas slows down the amount of insulin that it's releasing into the bloodstream. When this happens, Continue reading >>
How Does Eating Affect Your Blood Sugar?
Part 1 of 8 What is blood sugar? Blood sugar, also known as blood glucose, comes from the food you eat. Your body creates blood sugar by digesting some food into a sugar that circulates in your bloodstream. Blood sugar is used for energy. The sugar that isn’t needed to fuel your body right away gets stored in cells for later use. Too much sugar in your blood can be harmful. Type 2 diabetes is a disease that is characterized by having higher levels of blood sugar than what is considered within normal limits. Unmanaged diabetes can lead to problems with your heart, kidneys, eyes, and blood vessels. The more you know about how eating affects blood sugar, the better you can protect yourself against diabetes. If you already have diabetes, it’s important to know how eating affects blood sugar. Part 2 of 8 Your body breaks down everything you eat and absorbs the food in its different parts. These parts include: carbohydrates proteins fats vitamins and other nutrients The carbohydrates you consume turn into blood sugar. The more carbohydrates you eat, the higher the levels of sugar you will have released as you digest and absorb your food. Carbohydrates in liquid form consumed by themselves are absorbed more quickly than those in solid food. So having a soda will cause a faster rise in your blood sugar levels than eating a slice of pizza. Fiber is one component of carbohydrates that isn’t converted into sugar. This is because it can’t be digested. Fiber is important for health, though. Protein, fat, water, vitamins, and minerals don’t contain carbohydrates. These components won’t affect your blood sugar levels. If you have diabetes, your carbohydrate intake is the most important part of your diet to consider when it comes to managing your blood sugar levels. Part 3 Continue reading >>
How Are Respiration And Photosynthesis Related?
How are respiration and photosynthesis related? Question Date: 2002-09-07 Answer 1: During photosynthesis, a plant is able to convert solar energy into a chemical form. It does this by capturing light coming from the sun and, through a series of reactions, using its energy to help build a sugar molecule called glucose. Glucose is made of six carbon atoms, six oxygen atoms, and twelve hydrogen atoms. When the plant makes the glucose molecule, it gets the carbon and oxygen atoms it needs from carbon dioxide, which it takes from the air. Carbon dioxide doesn't have any hydrogen in it, though, so the plant must use another source for hydrogen. The source that it uses is water. There is a lot of water on the earth, and every water molecule is composed of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. In order to take the hydrogen it needs to build glucose molecules, the plant uses the energy from the sun to break the water molecule apart, taking electrons and hydrogen from it and releasing the oxygen into the air. The electrons it takes are put into an electron transport system, where they are used to produce energy molecules called ATP that are used to build the glucose molecule-- all made possible by the sun's energy. Thus, during photosynthesis a plant consumes water, carbon dioxide, and light energy, and produces glucose and oxygen. The sugar glucose is important because it is necessary for cellular respiration. During cellular respiration, the chemical energy in the glucose molecule is converted into a form that the plant can use for growth and reproduction. In the first step of respiration, called glycolysis, the glucose molecule is broken down into two smaller molecules called pyruvate, and a little energy is released in the form of ATP. This step in respiration does not req Continue reading >>
Photosynthesis Where Does All That Glucose Come From? Chapter 3.
6 7 Overall (Net) Equation O2O2 glucose CO 2 H2OH2O H+H+ H+H+ Energy CO 2 + H 2 O + energy glucose + O 2 Photosynthesis 8 glucose + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O + energy Overall (Net) Equation CO 2 H2OH2O H+H+ H+H+ Energy O2O2 glucose Cellular RespirationPhotosynthesis Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration appear to be reverse processes, but they use very different mechanisms 9 Similarities Both cellular respiration and Photosynthesis are similar in that both use: 1.electron transport chains 2.dissolved enzymes 3.membrane-enclosed space for chemiosmosis 10 Plant Tissues Plants are made of various types of tissues egs. Stem, leaves, roots, reproductive organs The main site of photosynthesis is the leaves, although chloroplasts are found in all green plant parts 11 Leaves vascular bundle palisade mesophyll spongy mesophyll epidermis cuticle stomate EpidermisMesophyllVascular Bundles 12 Leaves Leaves have 3 main types of tissues: 1.Epidermis Usually one cell thick and secrets a waxy cuticle to prevent water loss Pores called stomata found in lower epidermis epidermis vascular bundle palisade mesophyll cuticle spongy mesophyll stomate 13 Leaves 2.Mesophyll Most photosynthesis occurs here Two layers of parenchyma cells Palisade layer Cell arrangement maximizes exposure to light Spongy layer Loose arrangement of cells leaving air spaces for gas exchange epidermis vascular bundle palisade mesophyll cuticle spongy mesophyll stomate 14 Leaves 3.Vascular Bundles Transport system of the plants Contains xylem (water transport) and phloem (sugar transport) epidermis vascular bundle palisade mesophyll cuticle spongy mesophyll stomate 15 Opening/Closing Stomata The guard cells (stomata) can be opened and closed to regulate gas exchange and minimize water loss in leaves Chloroplast Pore Guard C Continue reading >>
How Is Glucose Made In Photosynthesis?
Adam Cloe has been published in various scientific journals, including the "Journal of Biochemistry." He is currently a pathology resident at the University of Chicago. Cloe holds a Bachelor of Arts in biochemistry from Boston University, a M.D. from the University of Chicago and a Ph.D. in pathology from the University of Chicago. Sunlight shining on trees in the forest.Photo Credit: alexkich/iStock/Getty Images The first step for the formation of glucose from photosynthesis is the absorption of light. According to Estrella Mountain Community College's website, when sunlight hits an organism that can perform photosynthesis (such as a plant), one of three things can happen. The light energy can be given off as heat; it can be re-emitted at a different wavelength (color); or it can set off a chemical reaction. Photosynthetic organisms contain various pigments, such as chlorophyll, that can absorb and harness light to make high-energy molecules. When light gets absorbed by these pigments, it causes the release of a high-energy particle (called an electron), which can then be used to convert the light energy into chemical energy. This portion of photosynthesis is called the light reaction. because it has to occur in parts of the organism that receive sunlight. Once high-energy electrons have been generated, the photosynthetic organism can turn these electrons into sugar. The first step is storing this energy in a more stable form. The electron gets absorbed by molecules in the organism that are able to perform a series of reactions. These reactions use the electron's energy to form a molecule called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is a molecule that is similar to DNA but is used by organisms as a temporary energy reservoir. In order to turn the energy from ATP into gluc Continue reading >>