diabetestalk.net

Where Does All Of This Glucose Come From?

Do All Sugars Transported To The Liver Convert To Glucose?

Do All Sugars Transported To The Liver Convert To Glucose?

Do All Sugars Transported to the Liver Convert to Glucose? Written by Aglaee Jacob; Updated December 06, 2018 Do All Sugars Transported to the Liver Convert to Glucose? Sugar can come from natural sources, such as fruits, honey and maple syrup, or added sugars, such as table sugar or high-fructose corn syrup. The way sugar is processed by your body does not depend on what food it is found in but rather on the nature of the sugar molecules. Some sugars need to be transported directly to the liver in order to be metabolized or processed by your body, while others can also be used directly by your muscles and brain. Fructose is transported to your liver to be converted to glucose or fat, while glucose can be burned for energy as is anywhere in your body. Glucose is one of the main sugar molecules found in various types of sugar. The sucrose found in table sugar and maple sugar is actually half glucose. Dextrose is 100 percent glucose. Although fructose is usually thought to be the main sugar in fruits, all fruits also contain varying proportion of glucose and sucrose. Both fructose and glucose are also found in high-fructose corn syrup, agave syrup and other sweeteners. Once absorbed into your bloodstream, glucose does not necessarily have to be transported to your liver. Almost all of your cells, including the cells of your liver, muscles, brain and fat, can take some of the glucose circulating in your blood. Glucose can be used as a form of energy by most of your cells and converted to glycogen by your liver or muscles or converted to fat in your fat cells. Fructose can only be processed by your liver. After absorbing fructose from fruits or a food sweetened with sugar, agave syrup or high-fructose corn syrup, fructose enters your bloodstream to be transported right to Continue reading >>

What Is Glucose?

What Is Glucose?

Glucose comes from the Greek word for "sweet." It's a type of sugar you get from foods you eat, and your body uses it for energy. As it travels through your bloodstream to your cells, it's called blood glucose or blood sugar. Insulin is a hormone that moves glucose from your blood into the cells for energy and storage. People with diabetes have higher-than-normal levels in their blood. Either they don't have enough insulin to move it through or their cells don't respond to insulin as well as they should. High blood glucose for a long period of time can damage your kidneys, eyes, and other organs. How Your Body Makes Glucose It mainly comes from foods rich in carbohydrates, like bread, potatoes, and fruit. As you eat, food travels down your esophagus to your stomach. There, acids and enzymes break it down into tiny pieces. During that process, glucose is released. It goes into your intestines where it's absorbed. From there, it passes into your bloodstream. Once in the blood, insulin helps glucose get to your cells. Energy and Storage Your body is designed to keep the level of glucose in your blood constant. Beta cells in your pancreas monitor your blood sugar level every few seconds. When your blood glucose rises after you eat, the beta cells release insulin into your bloodstream. Insulin acts like a key, unlocking muscle, fat, and liver cells so glucose can get inside them. Most of the cells in your body use glucose along with amino acids (the building blocks of protein) and fats for energy. But it's the main source of fuel for your brain. Nerve cells and chemical messengers there need it to help them process information. Without it, your brain wouldn't be able to work well. After your body has used the energy it needs, the leftover glucose is stored in little bundles Continue reading >>

How Is Glucose Made In Photosynthesis?

How Is Glucose Made In Photosynthesis?

Adam Cloe has been published in various scientific journals, including the "Journal of Biochemistry." He is currently a pathology resident at the University of Chicago. Cloe holds a Bachelor of Arts in biochemistry from Boston University, a M.D. from the University of Chicago and a Ph.D. in pathology from the University of Chicago. Sunlight shining on trees in the forest.Photo Credit: alexkich/iStock/Getty Images The first step for the formation of glucose from photosynthesis is the absorption of light. According to Estrella Mountain Community College's website, when sunlight hits an organism that can perform photosynthesis (such as a plant), one of three things can happen. The light energy can be given off as heat; it can be re-emitted at a different wavelength (color); or it can set off a chemical reaction. Photosynthetic organisms contain various pigments, such as chlorophyll, that can absorb and harness light to make high-energy molecules. When light gets absorbed by these pigments, it causes the release of a high-energy particle (called an electron), which can then be used to convert the light energy into chemical energy. This portion of photosynthesis is called the light reaction. because it has to occur in parts of the organism that receive sunlight. Once high-energy electrons have been generated, the photosynthetic organism can turn these electrons into sugar. The first step is storing this energy in a more stable form. The electron gets absorbed by molecules in the organism that are able to perform a series of reactions. These reactions use the electron's energy to form a molecule called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is a molecule that is similar to DNA but is used by organisms as a temporary energy reservoir. In order to turn the energy from ATP into gluc Continue reading >>

Where Does Glucose Come From In Plants?

Where Does Glucose Come From In Plants?

2009-09-17Where Does Glucose Come From in Plants? In a typical ecosystem, plants are the producers. Plants take energy from the sun and through a process called photosynthesis, produce food. The food is sugar or glucose. In order to produce glucose, a plant needs the raw materials in order for photosynthesis to occur: light energy from the sun, water from the environment and carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Sunlight is the catalyst for photosynthesis. The process occurs primarily in the leaves. The light energy bring about a chemical reaction between water and carbon dioxide that occurs in the chloroplasts within the leaves. Chloroplasts are mini-organs or organelles within the plant cells. The energy splits the water molecules into its two components, oxygen and hydrogen. Oxygen leaves the plant through respiration. This is the source of oxygen in our atmosphere. Photosynthesis consists of two processes, a light reaction and a dark reaction. As the names would imply, sunlight is required for the light reaction to happen. Without light, the plant is unable to produce energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This is the same energy chemical that we use to fuel any cell process in our bodies. The dark reaction also occurs within the chloroplasts. This is when sugar is produced. Light isn't necessary as it is for the light reaction, but the product of it is required. ATP, another chemical called NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase) and carbon dioxide through a chemical process called the Calvin cycle produce glucose. Chlorophyll is responsible for channeling the energy necessary for photosynthesis. It is also responsible for the green color of plants. The green color reflects the light waves from the sun which are not absorbed by the p Continue reading >>

Unlocking The Energy In Foods

Unlocking The Energy In Foods

The foods we eat supply the energy needed by the body to drive its complex chemical, mechanical and electrical systems. Where does this energy come from, how is it locked into food molecules and how is it released? The energy content of all food molecules can be traced back to the Sun. It is the process of photosynthesis that locks the Suns energy into simple carbohydrates like glucose. Although the photosynthetic process, which is carried out in the chloroplasts present in plant cells, involves numerous steps, it can be summarised in the following equation. Energy from sunlight trapped by chlorophyll present in the chloroplasts This reaction only proceeds with an input of solar energy, and the product glucose stores this energy as chemical potential energy. Plants are able to convert some of the glucose formed into starch and other macronutrients such as proteins and lipids. The origin of the energy locked into these molecules is from the Sun. The purpose of this animation is to show visually how glucose molecules can be assembled to form simple sugars and large macromolecular carbohydrates such as starch and cellulose. To use this interactive, select any of the labelled boxes 15 to obtain more information. The food we eat supplies the body with energy-rich molecules like glucose. On entering the cells of the body, these molecules are broken down in a series of steps to reform carbon dioxide and water, releasing energy to be used by the body. Adenosine triphosphates structure shows 3 phosphate groups linked to ribose, a 5-carbon sugar, which, in turn, is bonded to adenine. Some of the chemical potential energy locked into these molecules is transferred within the cell to a substance called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is often referred to as the energy currency o Continue reading >>

Role Of Glucose In Cellular Respiration

Role Of Glucose In Cellular Respiration

This lesson is on the role of glucose in cellular respiration. In this lesson, we'll explain what cellular respiration is and what we need to start with to get the end products. We'll specifically look at the importance of glucose in this process. What Is Cellular Respiration? Sugar is everywhere in our world, from packaged foods in our diet, like tomato sauce, to homemade baked goods, like pies. In fact, sugar is even the main molecule in fruits and vegetables. The simplest form of sugar is called glucose. Glucose is getting a bad rap lately and many people are cutting sugar out from their diet entirely. However, glucose is the main molecule our bodies use for energy and we cannot survive without it. The process of using glucose to make energy is called cellular respiration. The reactants, or what we start with, in cellular respiration are glucose and oxygen. We get oxygen from breathing in air. Our bodies do cellular respiration to make energy, which is stored as ATP, and carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is a waste product, meaning our bodies don't want it, so we get rid of it through exhaling. To start the process of cellular respiration, we need to get glucose into our cells. The first step is to eat a carbohydrate-rich food, made of glucose. Let's say we eat a cookie. That cookie travels through our digestive system, where it is broken down and absorbed into the blood. The glucose then travels to our cells, where it is let inside. Once inside, the cells use various enzymes, or small proteins that speed up chemical reactions, to change glucose into different molecules. The goal of this process is to release the energy stored in the bonds of atoms that make up glucose. Let's examine each of the steps in cellular respiration next. Steps of Cellular Respiration There are Continue reading >>

What Is The Difference Between Sucrose, Glucose & Fructose?

What Is The Difference Between Sucrose, Glucose & Fructose?

What Is the Difference Between Sucrose, Glucose & Fructose? Written by Kimberly Ancira; Updated April 06, 2018 Sugar cane is a natural source of sucrose, or table sugar. Sucrose, glucose and fructose are important carbohydrates, commonly referred to as simple sugars. Sugar is found naturally in whole foods and is often added to processed foods to sweeten them and increase flavor. Your tongue can't quite distinguish between these sugars, but your body can tell the difference. They all provide the same amount of energy per gram, but are processed and used differently throughout the body. Simple carbohydrates are classified as either monosaccharides or disaccharides. Monosaccharides are the simplest, most basic units of carbohydrates and are made up of only one sugar unit. Glucose and fructose are monosaccharides and are the building blocks of sucrose, a disaccharide. Thus, disaccharides are just a pair of linked sugar molecules. They are formed when two monosaccharides are joined together and a molecule of water is removed -- a dehydration reaction. The most important monosaccharide is glucose, the bodys preferred energy source. Glucose is also called blood sugar, as it circulates in the blood, and relies on the enzymes glucokinase or hexokinase to initiate metabolism. Your body processes most carbohydrates you eat into glucose, either to be used immediately for energy or to be stored in muscle cells or the liver as glycogen for later use. Unlike fructose, insulin is secreted primarily in response to elevated blood concentrations of glucose, and insulin facilitates the entry of glucose into cells. Fructose is a sugar found naturally in many fruits and vegetables, and added to various beverages such as soda and fruit-flavored drinks. However, it is very different from oth Continue reading >>

Glucose, Fructose & Sucrose

Glucose, Fructose & Sucrose

Kristin Janney is a registered dietitian with a passion for helping others make positive lifestyle changes through sound nutrition. She completed her bachelor's and master's degrees in dietetics and community nutrition. Cancer prevention, diabetes management and prevention, weight management, and program planning are amongst her highest interests. Which Fruits Have the Most Natural Sugar? Americans consume vast amounts of sugar, with an estimated intake of 180 pounds per person per year. Sugar makes food taste sweeter and last longer, and helps improve texture, but the carbohydrate may not be so sweet for your health. Sugar is a broad term that encompasses many small groups of sweeteners. Glucose, fructose and sucrose are three types of sugar. Sugar comes in many forms. Some sugars come from natural sources such as fruits, vegetables, sugar cane and sugar beets. Sugars can supply many of the calories you eat. A sugar is a carbohydrate and contains 4 calories per gram. Simple sugars, known as monosaccharides, are made of single molecules. Disaccharides are two monosaccharides bonded together. Many sugars we eat are made up of multiple types of basic sugar. For example, an apple contains both fructose and glucose. Glucose, also known as dextrose, is the most common sugar and the type of sugar that your body uses for fuel. It is the sugar measured in your blood during a fasting blood glucose test. This sugar is commonly found in fruits, vegetables and honey and it is a component of corn syrup. Fructose is the natural sugar that sweetens fruits and it is also present in honey and some vegetables. It is most commonly known as a component of high-fructose corn syrup. Fructose, which is the sweetest of all granulated sugars, is about 1.2 times as sweet as table sugar, reports Continue reading >>

How Is Glucose Produced?

How Is Glucose Produced?

Your body thrives on glucose, which is the sugar it uses to synthesize energy. Carbohydrates supply glucose and other sugars that are converted into glucose. But it's such a vital source of energy that the body has a back-up system called gluconeogenesis. This metabolic pathway produces new glucose from noncarbohydrate sources. Video of the Day Carbohydrates are made from molecules of sugar connected together. Simple sugars consist of one to three sugar molecules, while starches contain hundreds to thousands of molecules, reports Colorado State University. The small intestine only absorbs single sugar molecules, which is why digestive enzymes break carbs down into the three monosaccharides: glucose, galactose and fructose. The monosaccharides travel to the liver, where glucose is generated when the liver turns galactose and fructose into glucose. The liver may send glucose into the bloodstream, where it’s transported to cells that need it for energy. If blood levels of glucose are high enough to meet your energy needs, the liver stores glucose by turning it into glycogen or fat. New Glucose Synthesis When the body produces glucose from something other than carbohydrates, the process is called gluconeogenesis. Most gluconeogenesis occurs in the liver, but a small amount also takes place in the kidneys and small intestine. Like carbs, fats and proteins are digested into smaller units. Glycerol from fats and amino acids from proteins may be used to make glucose. All amino acids except leucine and lysine can enter the gluconeogenesis pathway, but glutamine is the only one used in the kidneys and small intestine, according to Medical Biochemistry Page. Lactate is another substance used to synthesize new glucose. The boost in energy metabolism during intense exercise result Continue reading >>

Biology Flashcards | Quizlet

Biology Flashcards | Quizlet

Equation that shows how ADP is changed into ATP Which molecule stores more than 90 times the energy in ATP? How are these cell used How do animal cells store glucose for later? How do plants store glucose for later? 2. Strach - storage energy - storage energy 3. Glvogen- animals, stored sugar in animal cell. Liver plus muscle Jan van helmont, Jan ingenhousz, Joseph priestly, Melvin Calvin What was "wrong" about the van helmont's conclusion that when plants grow, their increase in mass comes from water Grew in mass size because the soil made the plant bigger, process of photosynthesis creating the plant to grow Write the chemical equation for photosynthesis What is a pigment? Why is the main pigment used by green plants to absorb energy? Molecule that absorbs light energy. Cloraphl- used blue and red light Which wavelength of light are the best absorbed by chlorophyll a & b? Which are reflected? How are carotene pigments different from chlorophyll? Fwy do plants have these other pigments besides chlorophyll? Why do plants look green Orange, yellow, some reds. To help the plant to get more light Be able to label the parts of a chloroplast and tell where the reactions for photosynthesis happen What is NADP? What does it do? How does it change into NADPH NADPH is an electron carrier molecule, carries exited electrons to the stroma used in the Calvin cycle. Ex: little kids energy Where does the H that ends up in NADPH ultimately come from Pick up from the water as it carries energized electrons Describe the 2 sets of reactions involved in photosynthesis Where are they located and what happens in each Lights absorbed, electrons get exited, heading to photosynthesis one. Join an electron carrier and makes NADP - goes to the light independent- stroma attached to NADP now makes Continue reading >>

Sandwalk: Where Did The Glucose Come From?

Sandwalk: Where Did The Glucose Come From?

Strolling with a skeptical biochemist Currently there are two distinct views on the origin of life. The majority of scientists think that life arose in a prebiotic soup of complex organic molecules. Most of them think this "warm little pond" was the ocean (!) and most of them have bought into the stories about asteroids and comets delivering complex organic molecules to create a soup of amino acids and sugars. Presumably, all the earliest forms of life had to do was to join together the amino acids to make proteins and hook up the nucleotides to make RNA. The energy for these reactions was derived from breaking down all the glucose in the sweet ocean. The other view is the one supported by the majority of experts and people who make a serious study of the origin of life. It proposes a "metabolism first" view where the initial products of non-enzymatic reactions were small molecules like pyruvate and glycine and gradually pathways evolved to make the more complex molecules like glucose, more complex amino acids, and nucleotides. The energy for these reactions came from proton gradients in the pores of hydrothermal vents. In this view, life arose in tiny compartments, where concentrations could be significant, then spread to the ocean. [ Changing Ideas About The Origin Of Life ] [ Was the Origin of Life a Lucky Accident? ] [ Why Are Cells Powered by Proton Gradients? ] [ Metabolism First and the Origin of Life ]. In biochemistry courses we distinguish between catabolic pathways where something is broken down or degraded (= catabolism) and anabolic pathways where complex molecules are synthesised (= biosynthesis, anabolism). Glycolyisthe breakdown of glucose to pyruvateis the classic example of catabolism. Gluconeogenesisthe synthesis of glucose from pyruvateis the classi Continue reading >>

Molecular Structure Of Glucose

Molecular Structure Of Glucose

What I wanted to do in this video is familiarize ourselves with one of the most important molecules in biology And that is Glucose sometimes referred to as Dextrose and the term Dextrose comes from the fact that the form of Glucose typically Typically found in nature if you form a solution of it, it's going to polarize light to the right and Dextre means Right But the more typical term glucose this literally means sweet in greek if you ask a greek friend to say sweet it sounds like Lucas or I'm not saying it perfectly, but it sounds a lot like a glucose And that's because that's where the word comes from and it is super important because it is it is it is how energy [is] stored and transferred in biological systems in fact right [now] when if someone were to talk about your blood your blood sugar they're talking about the glucose content, so when people talk about blood blood sugar they're talking about your they're talking about your glucose content the whole process of photosynthesis this is all about plants using harnessing the [sun's] energy and storing that energy in the form of glucose when we talk about when we talk about things like respiration in our in our cells cellular respiration that's all about taking glucose and using it to full and to create atp's which are the molecular currency of energy Inside of our body, so these are in credit is an incredibly important molecule We can start wreaking chains of glucose to form Glycogen to form Starches this along with another similar another simple sugar fructose you can use to form our table sugar But even glucose by itself is sweet so let's get familiar with it as a molecule so immediately When you look at this is it kind of drawn as a as an open chain we see that we have one two three Actually, let me number thes Continue reading >>

How Our Bodies Turn Food Into Energy

How Our Bodies Turn Food Into Energy

All parts of the body (muscles, brain, heart, and liver) need energy to work. This energy comes from the food we eat. Our bodies digest the food we eat by mixing it with fluids (acids and enzymes) in the stomach. When the stomach digests food, the carbohydrate (sugars and starches) in the food breaks down into another type of sugar, called glucose. The stomach and small intestines absorb the glucose and then release it into the bloodstream. Once in the bloodstream, glucose can be used immediately for energy or stored in our bodies, to be used later. However, our bodies need insulin in order to use or store glucose for energy. Without insulin, glucose stays in the bloodstream, keeping blood sugar levels high. Insulin is a hormone made by beta cells in the pancreas. Beta cells are very sensitive to the amount of glucose in the bloodstream. Normally beta cells check the blood's glucose level every few seconds and sense when they need to speed up or slow down the amount of insulin they're making and releasing. When someone eats something high in carbohydrates, like a piece of bread, the glucose level in the blood rises and the beta cells trigger the pancreas to release more insulin into the bloodstream. When insulin is released from the pancreas, it travels through the bloodstream to the body's cells and tells the cell doors to open up to let the glucose in. Once inside, the cells convert glucose into energy to use right then or store it to use later. As glucose moves from the bloodstream into the cells, blood sugar levels start to drop. The beta cells in the pancreas can tell this is happening, so they slow down the amount of insulin they're making. At the same time, the pancreas slows down the amount of insulin that it's releasing into the bloodstream. When this happens, Continue reading >>

Glucose

Glucose

Glucose is a carbohydrate, and is the most important simple sugar in human metabolism. Glucose is called a simple sugar or a monosaccharide because it is one of the smallest units which has the characteristics of this class of carbohydrates. Glucose is also sometimes called dextrose. Corn syrup is primarily glucose. Glucose is one of the primary molecules which serve as energy sources for plants and animals. It is found in the sap of plants, and is found in the human bloodstream where it is referred to as "blood sugar". The normal concentration of glucose in the blood is about 0.1%, but it becomes much higher in persons suffering from diabetes. When oxidized in the body in the process called metabolism, glucose produces carbon dioxide, water, and some nitrogen compounds and in the process provides energy which can be used by the cells. The energy yield is about 686 kilocalories (2870 kilojoules) per mole which can be used to do work or help keep the body warm. This energy figure is the change in Gibbs free energy ΔG in the reaction, the measure of the maximum amount of work obtainable from the reaction. As a primary energy source in the body, it requires no digestion and is often provided intravenously to persons in hospitals as a nutrient. Energy from glucose is obtained from the oxidation reaction C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O where a mole of glucose (about 180 grams) reacts with six moles of O2 with an energy yield ΔG = 2870 kJ. The six moles of oxygen at STP would occupy 6 x 22.4L = 134 liters. The energy yield from glucose is often stated as the yield per liter of oxygen, which would be 5.1 kcal per liter or 21.4 kJ per liter. This energy yield could be measured by actually burning the glucose and measuring the energy liberated in a calorimeter. But in living org Continue reading >>

How Does Eating Affect Your Blood Sugar?

How Does Eating Affect Your Blood Sugar?

Part 1 of 8 What is blood sugar? Blood sugar, also known as blood glucose, comes from the food you eat. Your body creates blood sugar by digesting some food into a sugar that circulates in your bloodstream. Blood sugar is used for energy. The sugar that isn’t needed to fuel your body right away gets stored in cells for later use. Too much sugar in your blood can be harmful. Type 2 diabetes is a disease that is characterized by having higher levels of blood sugar than what is considered within normal limits. Unmanaged diabetes can lead to problems with your heart, kidneys, eyes, and blood vessels. The more you know about how eating affects blood sugar, the better you can protect yourself against diabetes. If you already have diabetes, it’s important to know how eating affects blood sugar. Part 2 of 8 Your body breaks down everything you eat and absorbs the food in its different parts. These parts include: carbohydrates proteins fats vitamins and other nutrients The carbohydrates you consume turn into blood sugar. The more carbohydrates you eat, the higher the levels of sugar you will have released as you digest and absorb your food. Carbohydrates in liquid form consumed by themselves are absorbed more quickly than those in solid food. So having a soda will cause a faster rise in your blood sugar levels than eating a slice of pizza. Fiber is one component of carbohydrates that isn’t converted into sugar. This is because it can’t be digested. Fiber is important for health, though. Protein, fat, water, vitamins, and minerals don’t contain carbohydrates. These components won’t affect your blood sugar levels. If you have diabetes, your carbohydrate intake is the most important part of your diet to consider when it comes to managing your blood sugar levels. Part 3 Continue reading >>

More in blood sugar