diabetestalk.net

When Fructose And Glucose Are Bonded Together What Do They Form?

Synthesis Of Biological Macromolecules

Synthesis Of Biological Macromolecules

Biological macromolecules, the large molecules necessary for life, include carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins. Identify the four major classes of biological macromolecules Biological macromolecules are important cellular components and perform a wide array of functions necessary for the survival and growth of living organisms. The four major classes of biological macromolecules are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. polymer: A relatively large molecule consisting of a chain or network of many identical or similar monomers chemically bonded to each other. monomer: A relatively small molecule that can form covalent bonds with other molecules of this type to form a polymer. Nutrients are the molecules that living organisms require for survival and growth but that animals and plants cannot synthesize themselves. Animals obtain nutrients by consuming food, while plants pull nutrients from soil. Sources of biological macromolecules: Foods such as bread, fruit, and cheese are rich sources of biological macromolecules. Many critical nutrients are biological macromolecules. The term macromolecule was first coined in the 1920s by Nobel laureate Hermann Staudinger. Staudinger was the first to propose that many large biological molecules are built by covalently linking smaller biological molecules together. Living organisms are made up of chemical building blocks: All organisms are composed of a variety of these biological macromolecules. Biological macromolecules play a critical role in cell structure and function. Most (but not all) biological macromolecules are polymers, which are any molecules constructed by linking together many smaller molecules, called monomers. Typically all the monomers in a polymer tend to be the same, or at least very si Continue reading >>

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

Monosaccharides Carbohydrates are the most abundant biomolecule on Earth. Living organisms use carbohydrates as accessible energy to fuel cellular reactions and for structural support inside cell walls. Cells attach carbohydrate molecules to proteins and lipids, modifying structures to enhance functionality. For example, small carbohydrate molecules bonded to lipids in cell membranes improve cell identification, cell signaling, and complex immune system responses. The carbohydrate monomers deoxyribose and ribose are integral parts of DNA and RNA molecules. To recognize how carbohydrates function in living cells, we must understand their chemical structure. The structure of carbohydrates determines how energy is stored in carbohydrate bonds during photosynthesis and how breaking these bonds releases energy during cellular respiration. Biomolecules meet specific structural criteria to be classified as carbohydrates. Simple carbohydrates are modifications of short hydrocarbon chains. Several hydroxyls and one carbonyl functional group modify these hydrocarbon chains to create a monosaccharide, the base unit of all carbohydrates. Monosaccharides consist of a carbon chain of three or more carbon atoms containing a hydroxyl group attached to every carbon except one. The lone carbon atom is double-bonded to an oxygen atom, and this carbonyl group may be in any position along the carbon chain. Therefore, one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms are present for every carbon atom in a monosaccharide. Consequently, we can define monosaccharides as possessing the molecular formula (CH2O)n, where n equals the number of carbon atoms and must be greater than or equal to three. Monosaccharides (Greek, meaning “single sugar”) are simple sugars and are frequently named using the suffix Continue reading >>

Biochemistry/carbohydrates

Biochemistry/carbohydrates

"Carbohydrates" are chemically defined as "polyhydroxy aldehyde or polyhydroxy ketones or complex substances which on hydrolysis yield polyhydroxy aldehyde or polyhydroxy ketone." Carbohydrates are one of the fundamental classes of macromolecules found in biology. Carbohydrates are commonly found in most organisms, and play important roles in organism structure, and are a primary energy source for animals and plants. Most carbohydrates are sugars or composed mainly of sugars. By far, the most common carbohydrate found in nature is glucose, which plays a major role in cellular respiration and photosynthesis. Some carbohydrates are for structural purposes, such as cellulose (which composes plants' cell walls) and chitin (a major component of insect exoskeletons). However, the majority of carbohydrates are used for energy purposes, especially in animals. Carbohydrates are made up of a 1:2:1 ratio of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen (CH2O)n These are used only for energy in living organisms. Simple carbohydrates are also known as "Monosaccharides".The chemical formula for all the monosaccharides is CnH2nOn. They are all structural isomers of each other. There are two main types of monosaccharides. The first type are aldoses, containing an aldehyde on the first carbon, and the second type are ketoses, which have a ketone on the second carbon (This carbonyl group is always located on the second carbon). Name Formula Aldoses Ketoses Trioses C3 H6 O3 Glycerose Dihydroxyacetone Tetroses C4 H8 O4 Erythrose Erythrulose Pentoses C5 H10 O5 Ribose Ribulose Hexoses C6 H12 O6 Glucose Fructose Heptose C7 H14 O7 Glucoheptose Sodoheptulose The suffix -oses is kept for the aldoses & the suffix -uloses is kept for the ketoses. Except fructose ketoses are as common as aldoses.The most abundant m Continue reading >>

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

The stuff of life is amazingly diverse and complex, but it is all based on combinations of simple biological molecules. Biological molecules are often made from chains & rings of carbon. These molecular structures can be represented by "stick drawings" that show the component atoms (e.g., C, H, N, O for carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen respectively) and show the bonds between them as dashes. A single dash ( - ) represents a single bond, and a double dash (=) represents a double bond. Note that some common "groups" are depicted without showing the bonds between them. For example, the hydroxyl group (-OH) consists of a hydrogen atom bonded to an oxygen atom: The hydoxyl group will commonly be bonded to a carbon atom in this fashion: And this structure might be found, for example, as part of a glucose molecule, depicted below. consists of 6 carbon atoms bonded together as a chain with additional atoms of oxygen and hydrogen. Note that the previous structure (a carbon to which two hydrogens and one hydroxyl group are bound) is located at the bottom of this glucose chain where it is written using the notation CH2OH. This glucose chain forms a ring in aqueous solutions, e.g., in body fluids, as shown below. Fructose is another sugar that also has 6 carbons, 12 hydrogens, and 6 oxygen atoms. However, the arrangement of the atoms is different, and this makes it much sweeter than glucose and also affects its ability to combine with other molecules. Another important theme is that single units of biological molecules (monomers) can join to form increasingly complex molecules (polymers). For example, two monosaccharide sugars can also become bound together chemically to form a disaccharide. Sucrose is the disaccharide in common sugar that we buy at the grocery store. The st Continue reading >>

Complex Carbohydrates Are Formed By Linkage Of Monosaccharides

Complex Carbohydrates Are Formed By Linkage Of Monosaccharides

Because sugars contain many hydroxyl groups, glycosidic bonds can join one monosaccharide to another. Oligosaccharides are built by the linkage of two or more monosaccharides by O-glycosidic bonds (Figure 11.10). In maltose, for example, two d-glucose residues are joined by a glycosidic linkage between the α-anomeric form of C-1 on one sugar and the hydroxyl oxygen atom on C-4 of the adjacent sugar. Such a linkage is called an α-1,4-glycosidic bond. The fact that monosaccharides have multiple hydroxyl groups means that various glycosidic linkages are possible. Indeed, the wide array of these linkages in concert with the wide variety of monosaccharides and their many isomeric forms makes complex carbohydrates information-rich molecules. Go to: 11.2.1. Sucrose, Lactose, and Maltose Are the Common Disaccharides A disaccharide consists of two sugars joined by an O-glycosidic bond. Three abundant disaccharides are sucrose, lactose, and maltose (Figure 11.11). Sucrose (common table sugar) is obtained commercially from cane or beet. The anomeric carbon atoms of a glucose unit and a fructose unit are joined in this disaccharide; the configuration of this glycosidic linkage is α for glucose and β for fructose. Sucrose can be cleaved into its component monosaccharides by the enzyme sucrase. Lactose, the disaccharide of milk, consists of galactose joined to glucose by a β-1,4-glycosidic linkage. Lactose is hydrolyzed to these monosaccharides by lactase in human beings (Section 16.1.12) and by β-galactosidase in bacteria. In maltose, two glucose units are joined by an α-1,4 glycosidic linkage, as stated earlier. Maltose comes from the hydrolysis of starch and is in turn hydrolyzed to glucose by maltase. Sucrase, lactase, and maltase are located on the outer surfaces of epith Continue reading >>

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

These are the 'building blocks' or subunits of carbohydrate molecules. -Each of these sugars is used in our body for energy. -They are broken down from a larger sugar molecule. -These molecules can bind together through dehydration synthesis to form dissaccharide (two sugars) or polysaccharide (multiple sugars) molecules. A disaccharide is formed when two monosaccharides join together. There are three main examples sucrose, lactose, and maltose that are all made up of monosaccharides from the previous page. The image shows many monomers (glucose) linked together to form the polysaccharide, starch. These are multiple monosaccharides linked together. These molecules store energy in plants and animals and can also be used for structure. Examples are glycogen, starch, and cellulose. The monosaccharides link together and form a bond through the process of dehydration synthesis. This involves a water molecule being released from two monosaccharides to form a new bond between them. The new molecule formed is a chain of monosaccharides bonded together to form a disaccharide or polysaccharide. A simplified diagram of dehydration synthesis. Continue reading >>

Simple Sugars: Fructose, Glucose And Sucrose

Simple Sugars: Fructose, Glucose And Sucrose

Simple sugars are carbohydrates. Glucose and fructose are monosaccharides and sucrose is a disaccharide of the two combined with a bond. Glucose and fructose have the same molecular formula (C6H12O6) but glucose has a six member ring and fructose has a five member ring structure. Fructose is known as the fruit sugar as its make source in the diet is fruits and vegetables. Honey is also a good source. Glucose is known as grape sugar, blood sugar or corn sugar as these are its riches sources. Listed in food ingredients as dextrose. Sucrose is the sugar we know as sugar or table sugar. Typically extracted as cane or beet sugar. If sucrose is treated with acid or heat, it hydrolyzes to form glucose and fructose. This mixture of sucrose, glucose and fructose is also called invert sugar. Nutritionally, these sugars are the same as they all provide 4 Cal/g. This is true for starch and other digestible carbohydrates too. Of the three sugars, fructose is the sweetest and glucose the least sweet, so typically less fructose can be used than table sugar (sucrose) – if sucrose has a sweetness of one, fructose is 1.7 and glucose 0.74 Fructose is more soluble than other sugars and hard to crystallize because it is more hygroscopic and holds onto water stronger than the others. This means that fructose can be used to extend the shelf life of baked products more than other sugars. Wikipedia has lots information on sugars, including information on the three I am interested in fructose, glucose and sucrose. Continue reading >>

Background On Carbohydrates & Sugars

Background On Carbohydrates & Sugars

Carbohydrates and Sugars Carbohydrates are one of three basic macronutrients needed to sustain life (the other two are proteins and fats). They are found in a wide range of foods that bring a variety of other important nutrients to the diet, such as vitamins and minerals, phytochemicals, antioxidants, and dietary fiber. Fruits, vegetables, grain foods, and many dairy products naturally contain carbohydrates in varying amounts, including sugars, which are a type of carbohydrate that can add taste appeal to a nutritious diet. Carbohydrate Classification Carbohydrates encompass a broad range of sugars, starches, and fiber. The basic building block of a carbohydrate is a simple union of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The chemical definition of a carbohydrate is any compound containing these three elements and having twice as many hydrogen atoms as oxygen and carbon. Sugars in Foods When people hear the word “sugar” they often think of the familiar sweetener in the sugar bowl. That sugar is sucrose and is the most familiar form of sugar to home bakers. But there are many types of sugars, which scientists classify according to their chemical structure. Sugars occur naturally in a wide variety of fruits, vegetables, and dairy foods. They can also be produced commercially and added to foods to heighten sweetness and for the many technical functions they perform, including: contributing to foods’ structure and texture, sweetening and flavor enhancement, controlling crystallization, providing a medium for the growth of yeast in baked goods, and preventing spoilage. The sweetening ability of sugar can promote the consumption of nutrient-rich foods that might not be otherwise be consumed. Some examples are a sprinkle of sugar added to oatmeal or adding sugar to cranberries in Continue reading >>

How Food Works

How Food Works

You have probably heard of "carbohydrates" and "complex carbohydrates." Carbohydrates provide your body with its basic fuel. Your body thinks about carbohydrates like a car engine thinks about gasoline. The simplest carbohydrate is glucose. Glucose, also called "blood sugar" and "dextrose," flows in the bloodstream so that it is available to every cell in your body. Your cells absorb glucose and convert it into energy to drive the cell. Specifically, a set of chemical reactions on glucose creates ATP (adenosine triphosphate), and a phosphate bond in ATP powers most of the machinery in any human cell. If you drink a solution of water and glucose, the glucose passes directly from your digestive system into the bloodstream. The word "carbohydrate" comes from the fact that glucose is made up of carbon and water. The chemical formula for glucose is: You can see that glucose is made of six carbon atoms (carbo...) and the elements of six water molecules (...hydrate). Glucose is a simple sugar, meaning that to our tongues it tastes sweet. There are other simple sugars that you have probably heard of. Fructose is the main sugar in fruits. Fructose has the same chemical formula as glucose (C6H12O6), but the atoms are arranged slightly differently. The liver converts fructose to glucose. Sucrose, also known as "white sugar" or "table sugar," is made of one glucose and one fructose molecule bonded together. Lactose (the sugar found in milk) is made of one glucose and one galactose molecule bonded together. Galactose, like fructose, has the same chemical components as glucose but the atoms are arranged differently. The liver also converts galactose to glucose. Maltose, the sugar found in malt, is made from two glucose atoms bonded together. Glucose, fructose and galactose are monosa Continue reading >>

When Fructose And Glucose Are Bonded Together They Form?

When Fructose And Glucose Are Bonded Together They Form?

When fructose and glucose are bonded together do they form milk sugar? When fructose and glucose are bonded together do they form milk sugar? Would you like to merge this question into it? already exists as an alternate of this question. Would you like to make it the primary and merge this question into it? Answers.com is making the world better one answer at a time. When fructose and glucose are bonded together they form? Sucrose, it is the organic compound commonly known as table sugar and sometimes called saccharose. A white, odorless, crystalline powder with a sweet taste, it is best known for its role in human nutrition. The molecule is a disaccharide derived from glucose and fructose... What do fructose and glucose bond to form? They form sucrose . Sucrose, (table sugar). Don't ingest it, fructose is bad for you, it's addictive and makes you fat. Furctose is not necessarily bad for you if it comes from a naturally occuring source such as a whole apple or other raw fruit. The food industry sometimes concentrates this particular sugar and adds it to corn syrup. The result is high fructose corn syrup. This is not a naturally occuring sugar! High fructose corn syrup may not be processed by the body in the same way that other naturally occuring sugars are processed. This is why some believe it causes additional body fat as mentioned above. You should probably avoid this man-made additive found in some in sodas and in some fruit cocktail drinks. Natural fructose is found in the whole fruit which can be found in the produce department of the grocery store (or in the orchard!). The whole fruit contains lots of fiber which helps to mitigate the sugar spikes in your blood. Fruit juice, which is a processed form of the natural fruit, loses much of the fiber content that sho Continue reading >>

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates have the general molecular formula CH2O, and thus were once thought to represent "hydrated carbon". However, the arrangement of atoms in carbohydrates has little to do with water molecules. Starch and cellulose are two common carbohydrates. Both are macromolecules with molecular weights in the hundreds of thousands. Both are polymers (hence "polysaccharides"); that is, each is built from repeating units, monomers, much as a chain is built from its links. The monomers of both starch and cellulose are the same: units of the sugar glucose. Sugars Monosaccharides Three common sugars share the same molecular formula: CHO. Because of their six carbon atoms, each is a hexose. They are: glucose, "blood sugar", the immediate source of energy for cellular respiration galactose, a sugar in milk (and yogurt), and fructose, a sugar found in honey. Although all three share the same molecular formula (C6H12O6), the arrangement of atoms differs in each case. Substances such as these three, which have identical molecular formulas but different structural formulas, are known as structural isomers. Glucose, galactose, and fructose are "single" sugars or monosaccharides. Two monosaccharides can be linked together to form a "double" sugar or disaccharide. Disaccharides Three common disaccharides: sucrose — common table sugar = glucose + fructose lactose — major sugar in milk = glucose + galactose maltose — product of starch digestion = glucose + glucose Although the process of linking the two monomers is rather complex, the end result in each case is the loss of a hydrogen atom (H) from one of the monosaccharides and a hydroxyl group (OH) from the other. The resulting linkage between the sugars is called a glycosidic bond. The molecular formula of each of these disacchar Continue reading >>

What Is Fructose Powder?

What Is Fructose Powder?

Kirstin Hendrickson is a writer, teacher, coach, athlete and author of the textbook "Chemistry In The World." She's been teaching and writing about health, wellness and nutrition for more than 10 years. She has a Bachelor of Science in zoology, a Bachelor of Science in psychology, a Master of Science in chemistry and a doctoral degree in bioorganic chemistry. White powder and sugar cubes.Photo Credit: Amarita/iStock/Getty Images Fructose powder is pure, powdered fructose. It looks quite a bit like table sugar, though the granules are typically slightly smaller, and tastes significantly sweeter than table sugar. You can purchase fructose powder at many grocery stores and most health food stores, and use it as a substitute for table sugar in foods and baked goods. Fructose is a chemical component of table sugar. Sucrose, the chemical name for table sugar, is a large molecule made up of a fructose molecule chemically bonded to a glucose molecule. Both fructose and glucose are monosaccharides, which means single sugar unit. Bonded together in the form of sucrose, they form a disaccharide, which means double sugar unit. Since fructose tastes quite a bit sweeter than glucose, when they're combined in the form of sucrose, the combination has a sweetness between that of glucose and fructose. Pure fructose isn't common in nature -- most of the fructose you consume from natural sources is chemically combined with glucose in the form of sucrose. Fruit does contain some pure fructose, however. Through the process of photosynthesis, plants make both glucose and fructose. Some of these monosaccharides, the plant leaves unmodified in pure form -- this is the source of pure fructose in fruit. It's possible, but not particularly practical, to isolate pure fructose from fruit. Most of t Continue reading >>

Disaccharides

Disaccharides

Disaccharides are formed by the condensation reactions of two simple sugar molecules. Condensation is the loss of water in a chemical reaction. Two OH groups, one from each sugar molecule, come together to release water and form an oxygen bridge between. One of the OH groups is attached to the anomeric carbon (the carbon that has 2 oxygens bonded to it). Here you see the formation of sucrose from the 6-membered form of glucose and the 5-membered form of fructose. Note that linear fructose has a ketone rather than an aldehyde group. Which carbon in glucose and in fructose would be the carbonyl carbon in the linear form? Another example is the condensation of 2 molecules of glucose. Sucrose is the disaccharide of glucose and fructose.This is common table sugar and it comes from sugar cane and sugar beets. Maple syrup also contains sucrose. Maltose is derived from the coupling of two molecules of glucose.It is produced when the enzyme amylase breaks down starch. Maltose is formed in germinating cereal grains and is important in the production of alcohol by fermentation. This is a disaccharide of galactose and glucose.Lactose is also called milk sugar and it makes up between 2 and 8 % of milk. Most reactions involve the combination of an electrophile and a nucleophile. Remember that a strongly electrophilic carbon is formed by the protonation of a simple sugar. The cation on carbon is stabilized by the adjacent oxygen atom. The empty p orbital on carbon can overlap with the filled p orbital on oxygen. The carbon is still electron-poor though and will react rapidly with nucleophiles. Most reactions can be viewed as the addition of a nucleophile to an electrophile. In acid-base reactions, the base is also a nucleophile and combines with the proton, an electrophile. When carb Continue reading >>

Chemistry Ii: Water And Organic Molecules

Chemistry Ii: Water And Organic Molecules

Table of Contents It can be quite correctly argued that life exists on Earth because of the abundant liquid water. Other planets have water, but they either have it as a gas (Venus) or ice (Mars). This relationship is shown in Figure 1. Recent studies of Mars reveal the presence sometime in the past of running fluid, possibly water. The chemical nature of water is thus one we must examine as it permeates living systems: water is a universal solvent, and can be too much of a good thing for some cells to deal with. Figure 1. Water can exist in all three states of matter on Earth, while only in one state on our two nearest neighboring planets. The above graph is from Water is polar covalently bonded within the molecule. This unequal sharing of the electrons results in a slightly positive and a slightly negative side of the molecule. Other molecules, such as Ethane, are nonpolar, having neither a positive nor a negative side, as shown in Figure 2. Figure 2. The difference between a polar (water) and nonpolar (ethane) molecule is due to the unequal sharing of electrons within the polar molecule. Nonpolar molecules have electrons equally shared within their covalent bonds. Image from Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition, by Sinauer Associates (www.sinauer.com) and WH Freeman (www.whfreeman.com), used with permission. These link up by the hydrogen bond discussed earlier. Consequently, water has a great interconnectivity of individual molecules, which is caused by the individually weak hydrogen bonds, shown in Figure 3, that can be quite strong when taken by the billions. Figure 3. Formation of a hydrogen bond between the hydrogen side of one water molecule and the oxygen side of another water molecule. Image from Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology, Continue reading >>

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates (also called saccharides) are molecular compounds made from just three elements: carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Monosaccharides (e.g. glucose) and disaccharides (e.g. sucrose) are relatively small molecules. They are often called sugars. Other carbohydrate molecules are very large (polysaccharides such as starch and cellulose). Carbohydrates are: a source of energy for the body e.g. glucose and a store of energy, e.g. starch in plants building blocks for polysaccharides (giant carbohydrates), e.g. cellulose in plants and glycogen in the human body components of other molecules eg DNA, RNA, glycolipids, glycoproteins, ATP Monosaccharides Monosaccharides are the simplest carbohydrates and are often called single sugars. They are the building blocks from which all bigger carbohydrates are made. Monosaccharides have the general molecular formula (CH2O)n, where n can be 3, 5 or 6. They can be classified according to the number of carbon atoms in a molecule: n = 3 trioses, e.g. glyceraldehyde n = 5 pentoses, e.g. ribose and deoxyribose ('pent' indicates 5) n = 6 hexoses, e.g. fructose, glucose and galactose ('hex' indicates 6) There is more than one molecule with the molecular formula C5H10O5 and more than one with the molecular formula C6H12O6. Molecules that have the same molecular formula but different structural formulae are called structural isomers. Glyceraldehyde's molecular formula is C3H6O3. Its structural formula shows it contains an aldehyde group (-CHO) and two hydroxyl groups (-OH). The presence of an aldehyde group means that glyceraldehyde can also be classified as an aldose. It is a reducing sugar and gives a positive test with Benedict's reagent. CH2OHCH(OH)CHO is oxidised by Benedict's reagent to CH2OHCH(OH)COOH; the aldehyde group is oxidised to Continue reading >>

More in blood sugar