diabetestalk.net

What Would Cause High Glucose Level In A Cat?

Feline Diabetes

Feline Diabetes

Insulin injections are the preferred method of managing diabetes in cats. Figure 1: To administer an injection, pull the loose skin between the shoulder blades with one hand. With the other hand, insert the needle directly into the indentation made by holding up the skin, draw back on the plunger slightly, and if no blood appears in the syringe, inject gently. Tips for Treatment 1. You can do it! Treating your cat may sound difficult, but for most owners it soon becomes routine. 2. Work very closely with your veterinarian to get the best results for your cat. 3. Once your cat has been diagnosed, it's best to start insulin therapy as soon as possible. 4. Home glucose monitoring can be very helpful. 5. Tracking your cat's water intake, activity level, appetite, and weight can be beneficial. 6. A low carbohydrate diet helps diabetic cats maintain proper glucose levels. 7. With careful treatment, your cat's diabetes may well go into remission. 8. If your cat shows signs of hypoglycemia (lethargy, weakness, tremors, seizures, vomiting) apply honey, a glucose solution, or dextrose gel to the gums and immediately contact a veterinarian. Possible Complications Insulin therapy lowers blood glucose, possibly to dangerously low levels. Signs of hypoglycemia include weakness, lethargy, vomiting, lack of coordination, seizures, and coma. Hypoglycemia can be fatal if left untreated, so any diabetic cat that shows any of these signs should be offered its regular food immediately. If the cat does not eat voluntarily, it should be given oral glucose in the form of honey, corn syrup, or proprietary dextrose gels (available at most pharmacies) and brought to a veterinarian immediately. It is important, however, that owners not attempt to force fingers, food, or fluids into the mouth of a Continue reading >>

Your First Vet Visit: Diagnosing Feline Diabetes

Your First Vet Visit: Diagnosing Feline Diabetes

Your first vet visit: diagnosing feline diabetes Your veterinarian can diagnose diabetes with a simple, in-office physical examination of the cat and laboratory tests, which will determine if there is an abnormally high level of sugar in the bloodstream and urine. Your veterinarian may ask if your cat has exhibited any of the following symptoms, indicating a possibility of feline diabetes: Increased thirst Sudden increase in appetite Sudden weight loss (despite an increase in appetite) Increased urination Increased lethargy Understanding your cat's diagnosis The food your cat eats is broken down into glucose during the digestion process. Glucose is the fuel that provides energy needed by the cells of the body to sustain life. As glucose enters the bloodstream, the cat's pancreas secretes insulin. Insulin is a hormone released in small amounts to properly balance the blood sugar (glucose) levels in the blood. Feline diabetes is similar to human diabetes, and occurs when your pet either doesn't produce or is unable to process insulin, a hormone that helps regulate glucose or sugar in the bloodstream. Just like humans, diabetic cats are diagnosed primarily with Type 2 diabetes.The types of diabetes in cats are based on the human classification system. Type 1 Diabetes Type 1 form of diabetes is defined as an absolute insulin deficiency. In this form, the pancreas is not able to produce enough insulin to regulate the glucose in the bloodstream, leading to persistent high glucose levels in the blood. This type of diabetes is very rare in the cat. Type 2 Diabetes Type 2 diabetes, the most common form of diabetes in cats, occurs when the cells in the cat's body don't respond to the insulin that is being provided. As a result, the cat becomes hyperglycemic (high blood sugar), wh Continue reading >>

[stress Hyperglycemia In Cats].

[stress Hyperglycemia In Cats].

Abstract It may be difficult to differentiate the possible causes of hyperglycemia in the cat. The following investigation was on transient hyperglycemia in 320 cats. The frequency and degree of stress-hyperglycemia and its relation to different types of primary diseases was proven. Animals with overt diabetes mellitus or pancreatic diseases were not included in this study. Plasma glucose was analyzed with the o-Toluidine- or with the glucose oxidase-method. Plasma immune-reactive insulin (IRI) was estimated by RIA. A glucose concentration of greater than or equal to 140 mg/dl (7.77 mmol/l) in the fasted animal was defined as hyperglycemia. The results of the retrospective investigation show in cats transient hyperglycemia occurs more often (3.2%) than permanent hyperglycemia (0.57%). Contrary to overt diabetes mellitus there is no sex- or age-related predisposition. Glucose values above 300 mg/dl (16.65 mmol/l) with maximal values up to 620 mg/dl (34.42 mmol/l) were estimated in 12% of the animals. In 12 from 19 hyperglycemic animals the basal IRI values were between 4 and 14 microU/ml, 11 animals had a lowered I/G ratio. In the following order of frequency the primary diseases found in combination with transient hyperglycemia were: dys- and stranguria, viral and bacterial infections, gastrointestinal diseases, neoplasia, renal insufficiency, cardiopathies etc. With improvement of the underlying disturbance the stress-related hyperglycemia normalized without insulin therapy within a few days. In conclusion, it is necessary to initially identify basic diseases that may trigger the onset of stress-hyperglycemia in the cat. Neither the extent of the glucose level nor a single plasma-insulin-value are valid indicators of confirming the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus.(ABSTR Continue reading >>

Feline Diabetes – Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

Feline Diabetes – Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

What is diabetes? Which cats are at risk? Causes Effects of diabetes on the cat Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment What is the prognosis for cats diagnosed with diabetes? Diabetes at a glance Diabetes is a common disease where the cells build up a resistance to insulin, a hormone necessary for glucose to enter the cells. As a result, glucose levels build up in the bloodstream. There are a number of causes such as obesity, genetic predisposition, Cushing’s syndrome and pancreatitis. Symptoms of diabetes can include increased thirst and urination, increased appetite, weight loss. Elevated blood sugar levels can confirm diagnosis. Treatment includes dietary modification, increase exercise, drugs to reduce glucose levels or administration of insulin. What is feline diabetes? Diabetes mellitus (sugar diabetes/DM) is a common endocrine disorder in cats. There are two types of diabetes, type 1 — in which the pancreas doesn’t produce enough insulin — or type 2 — in which the body’s cells don’t respond appropriately to insulin. Most cats have type 2 diabetes. Type I diabetes – Cells of the immune system attack and destroy islet cells which result in a decreased number of cells producing insulin. Type II diabetes – Cells build up a resistance to insulin (known as insulin resistance) and despite the pancreas producing enough insulin, it is unable to unlock the cells as efficiently. Pancreatic islet cells produce the hormone insulin. Food is broken down into organic compounds in the small intestine, one of which is glucose, which is taken up by the cells for energy, growth, and repair. As glucose enters the bloodstream, the pancreas matches it with the correct amount of insulin. Insulin acts as a key, unlocking cells which enables glucose to enter them. When insulin arr Continue reading >>

Your Cat And Diabetes: Everything You Need To Know

Your Cat And Diabetes: Everything You Need To Know

Diabetes is a very serious issue – and not just in people either. That’s right, this chronic and potentially debilitating condition also affects cats (and dogs). And while it’s difficult to know the exact incidence of diabetes in cats, best estimates put it somewhere in the range of 1 cat in every 100-200 cats will become diabetic. What’s even sadder is that this incidence seems to be on the increase. Fortunately, armed with some good information, important tips, and a good working relationship with your veterinarian, you can give your cats the best chance at avoiding this frustrating condition. And if they’ve already developed it, know that these same tools can help you best manage your cat’s diabetic state; avoiding the potential complications and perhaps even getting them into diabetic remission. What is diabetes? In the most basic sense, diabetes mellitus is a disorder where blood sugar, or glucose, cannot be effectively utilized and regulated within the body. There are several hormones within the body that play important roles in glucose metabolism. Insulin is one of the most important, if not the most important, and it’s the hormone most central to the development and control of the diabetic state. Glucose fuels the body and insulin is the hormone that helps to get it into most cells within the body. Diabetes is often easily diagnosed and controllable. However, when undiagnosed or poorly managed, diabetes can be devastating. Diabetes can absolutely be managed and your cat can still lead a long and happy life. Routine veterinary care and evaluation are important, as is achieving and maintaining an appropriate weight in your cat and feeding him an appropriate diet. There are two types of diabetes – Type I and Type II. In Type I diabetes, the pancreas Continue reading >>

Cat Diabetes And Glucose Fluctuations

Cat Diabetes And Glucose Fluctuations

Dr. Neely, My 15 year old cat was just diagnosed with feline diabetes. I check his glucose level twice a day. It can vary from as low as 57 to as high as 395 in a single day. He usually gets 2 things of insulin, but when it is really low I just skip it. The insulin he is on is Lantus. He has already had an ultrasound, full body xrays, blood panel checking his pancreas and thyroid, etc., and urine tests. But there seems to be no underlying cause. What to do? Could there be something wrong with the glucose meter? I really am at wits end. My vet has not come up with any answers. Can you help??? It doesn’t sound to me as though there is anything very wrong with your cat’s diabetes treatment thus far. Fluctuation in the blood glucose levels of a diabetic cat is normal, but there are many ways now to help regulate your cat. As time has progressed with treating diabetic felines, we have learned that we should actually be treating our cats more similarly to how we would treat a person with diabetes. The best thing to do is to feed a low carbohydrate diet, test multiple times daily, and make insulin dosage adjustments according to your cat’s blood glucose readings. Skipping doses when your cat is low can certainly create a significantly higher reading later on, especially if there has been 12 hours between your readings. Generally, if your cat is low, according to a tight regulation protocol, you would test again in a few hours to catch your cat before he gets too high again. But even if that is not the cause of your cat’s high readings, sometimes giving too much insulin can cause these spikes as well. What happens in this case is that your cat’s glucose actually gets too low, and it causes rebound effect, creating a skyrocketing blood glucose level later in the day. R Continue reading >>

Feline Diabetes

Feline Diabetes

Help and Hope Starts With Getting Informed Learning a cat has diabetes is stressful for any pet owner. But with the right knowledge, veterinary care and home treatment, pet owners can help their cats live long, happy lives. We’ll help you along the way. Let’s start with the information below. Symptoms of cat diabetes Feline diabetes occurs when a cat's body doesn't produce enough insulin or respond effectively to insulin. Symptoms include: Increased thirst. Urinating more than usual. Increased appetite. Weight loss, even with increased food intake. Weakness in the back of legs. You may notice your cat's stance is different. How cat diabetes is diagnosed After drawing blood and collecting a urine sample, a veterinarian will conduct these tests: High blood glucose (sugar) or hyperglycemia test. In the U.S., blood glucose is measured in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). The glucose concentration that may raise suspicion of diabetes is 200-300 mg/dL, depending on symptoms. Fructosamine test. This provides a long-term view of blood glucose over the previous one to three weeks. Fructosamine is measured in micromoles per liter (μmol/L). A fructosamine measurement above 400 μmol/L could suggest diabetes. Urinalysis test. Glucose in the urine indicates a failure of the kidneys to filter the glucose out of the blood, which suggests the cat is hyperglycemic and may have diabetes. Learn about insulin needs Facts on insulin production in healthy and diabetic cats Insulin is a hormone for regulating blood glucose (sugar), a critical metabolic process. However, diabetic cats have difficulties producing and using insulin and fall into three main categories: Some cats with diabetes produce enough of their own insulin. An exercise plan or special diet can help them respond to their Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Cats

Diabetes In Cats

This article is about diabetes mellitus in cats. For other uses, see Diabetes (disambiguation). Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease in cats, whereby either insufficient insulin response or insulin resistance lead to persistently high blood glucose concentrations. Diabetes could affect up to 1 in 230 cats,[1] and may be becoming increasingly common. Diabetes mellitus is less common in cats than in dogs. 80-95% of diabetic cats experience something similar to type-2 diabetes, but are generally severely insulin-dependent by the time symptoms are diagnosed. The condition is treatable, and treated properly, the cat can experience a normal life expectancy. In type-2 cats, prompt effective treatment may lead to diabetic remission, in which the cat no longer needs injected insulin. Untreated, the condition leads to increasingly weak legs in cats, and eventually malnutrition, ketoacidosis and/or dehydration, and death. Symptoms[edit] Cats will generally show a gradual onset of the disease over a few weeks or months, and it may escape notice for even longer.[citation needed] The first outward symptoms are a sudden weight loss (or occasionally gain), accompanied by excessive drinking and urination; for example, cats can appear to develop an obsession with water and lurk around faucets or water bowls. Appetite is suddenly either ravenous (up to three-times normal) or absent. These symptoms arise from the body being unable to use glucose as an energy source. A fasting glucose blood test will normally be suggestive of diabetes at this point. The same home blood test monitors used in humans are used on cats, usually by obtaining blood from the ear edges or paw pads. As the disease progresses, ketone bodies will be present in the urine, which can be detected with the same urine stri Continue reading >>

High Blood Sugar In Cats

High Blood Sugar In Cats

Hyperglycemia in Cats The term hyperglycemia refers to higher than normal levels of glucose in the blood. A simple carbohydrate sugar that circulates in the blood, glucose is a major source of energy for the body, of which normal levels range between 75-120mg. Insulin, a hormone that is produced and released by the pancreas into the bloodstream when glucose levels rise, plays a pivotal role in maintaining the blood sugar levels within normal limits. If insulin concentration is too low or there is absolute deficiency of insulin, levels of glucose rise sharply leading to hyperglycemia. Some of the causes for hyperglycemia may be pancreatitis, and the resulting inability to produce insulin; normally occurring hormones, especially in female cats; diet; and infections of the body (such as teeth, or urinary tract). Middle aged and older cats are more at risk for developing hyperglycemia, but otherwise, no breed is particularly disposed to this condition. Neutered male cats are at increased risk. Cats in general are prone to high blood sugar, typically during times of stress, where glucose levels may reach 300-400mg. This is often a temporary increase in blood sugar, and while it warrants further observation, it may not be cause to diagnose chronic hyperglycemia or diabetes mellitus. Symptoms and Types Clinical symptoms may vary depending on the underlying disease/condition. Your cat may not be showing any serious symptoms, especially those if the increased sugar is thought to be temporary, hormonal, or stress induced hyperglycemia. Some of the more common symptoms include: Depression Weight loss Excessive hunger Dehydration Bloodshot eyes (due to inflamed blood vessels) Liver enlargement Nerve damage in legs Severe depression (in cases of very high blood sugar levels) Non-hea Continue reading >>

Diabetes And The Somogyi Effect

Diabetes And The Somogyi Effect

I have had some interesting diabetic cases in the last month. Both cases were diagnosed with diabetes at other clinics and found their way to Four Lakes Veterinary Clinic. Generally, the diagnosis of diabetes is pretty straightforward. A dog or cat will be brought to the clinic because it is eating a lot, but losing weight, drinking a lot and possibly having urine accidents in the house, or looks skinny and is having problems walking or jumping. Blood and urine samples are taken to look for possible causes and, if diabetic, the blood glucose will be very high (often above 500, when the normal range is 80-120) and there will be glucose in the urine. If the pet is really sick, there may be ketones in the urine, too. In a diabetic animal, the body isn't producing enough insulin. Insulin is the substance produced by the pancreas (an organ near the stomach) that helps glucose, a simple sugar, get into the cells of the body. Without insulin to "unlock" the door into the cell, the sugar molecules go right by. Now the body thinks it is starving, so it starts breaking down protein and fat to provide the body with glucose. But without insulin, the cells still think they are starving, even though there is now a lot of glucose in the blood stream. Extra glucose is excreted in the urine. So the blood and urine glucose levels from an untreated diabetic animal will be very high. Once we diagnose diabetes, we start the pet on insulin injections. This insulin allows the cells to take in glucose again. Insulin produced by our pancreas is continuous and dependent on how much glucose is circulating in our blood. After a meal, more insulin is released to get the extra glucose into the cells; once the blood glucose level is normal, then no more insulin is released. But with insulin injection Continue reading >>

Why Is My Dog's Blood Glucose Level Abnormal ?

Why Is My Dog's Blood Glucose Level Abnormal ?

Why Is My Cat's Blood Glucose Level Abnormal ? To see what normal blood and urine values are for your pet, go here For an explanation of causes of most abnormal blood and urine tests go here To see how tests are often grouped, go here Ron Hines DVM PhD Lots of my articles are plagiarized and altered on the web to market products and services. There are never ads running or anything for sale with my real articles. Try to stay with the ones with in the URL box or find all my articles at ACC.htm. Your Pet's Blood Sugar Level Glucose , GLU Your pet’s blood sugar level (glucose level) needs to remain in a narrow corridor or bad things begin to happen. Glucose (dextrose is a form of glucose) is the primary fuel that runs your pet's body (Fatty acids can also provide some fuel energy). Without sufficient blood glucose (=hypoglycemia), cells cannot live very long. With too much blood glucose (the common cause being diabetes mellitus) the body begins to rely on fats rather than glucose to meet its energy needs (=ketoacidosis). If blood glucose remains high in your pet; with time, urinary tract infections, decreased disease resistance, kidney failure, nerve-related weakness (neuropathies) and eye damage can occur. Why Your Pet’s Blood Glucose Level Could Be Too High (hyperglycemia) : Stress and excitement – especially in cats and toy dog breeds is the most common cause of a single high reading. When your pet's lab glucose values are repeatedly high in a non-stressed situation, diabetes mellitus and Cushing’s disease are the most common causes. Corticosteroid tablets or injections, acute pancreatitis, IV fluids containing dextrose or a blood samples collected too soon after eating (post-prandial blood sample) can all cause the glucose level to be high. Glucose levels can b Continue reading >>

The Many Causes Of Hypoglycemia In Dogs And Cats

The Many Causes Of Hypoglycemia In Dogs And Cats

Hypoglycemia is when your pet's blood sugar drops and becomes too low. Find out here the causes, symptoms and treatment options available to pets whose glucose levels tend to rise and fall. Hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, is a potentially life-threatening situation for a dog or cat. Your pet’s blood sugar, or glucose, is their primary source of energy. When glucose levels drop below normal, it results in a loss of energy and decreased ability to function. In severe cases, a pet may lose consciousness or even die. Hypoglycemia is not a disease. It is instead a symptom that points to an underlying medical condition. Here we will look at the causes of hypoglycemia in dogs and cats, and what symptoms to watch for in your pet. There are many causes of hypoglycemia in pets, but the most common is related to diabetes treatment. Diabetes occurs when the body is not able to properly produce or process insulin, the hormone that allows glucose to travel to cells and transform into energy. Without insulin, the glucose remains in the bloodstream, and this is what is referred to as high blood sugar. Insulin injections are given to diabetic pets in order to even out blood sugar levels. However, if a pet parent accidentally gives their pet too much of the drug, it can cause the body to metabolize too much glucose, resulting in low blood sugar, or hypoglycemia. Glucose can also be over-metabolized as a result of insulin-secreting tumors or conditions that require a great deal of energy from the pet, including certain cancers, infection, sepsis, and pregnancy. While the most common, over-metabolization of glucose is not the only cause of hypoglycemia. Low blood sugar can also occur due to decreased production of glucose by the liver (often caused by liver disease, liver shunts, or Ad Continue reading >>

About Glucose Curves

About Glucose Curves

Go to site For Pet Owners The glucose curve is a great tool to differentiate between an insufficient insulin dose and the Somogyi effect. It helps to determine insulin effectiveness and the maximum and minimum levels of glycemia, which ideally should be between 120–300 mg/dL (5.6–16.7mmol/L) for cats for most of the day.8 Try our online glucose curve generator. Veterinarians commonly adjust the insulin dose based on a blood glucose curve. When creating a glucose curve, remember that stress can affect the reliability of results, and the glucose curve is only one tool among others that can help diagnose and monitor diabetes mellitus. Take clinical signs (or lack thereof) into account when contemplating any change in the insulin therapy. The ultimate goal in regulating the diabetic cat is to control the clinical signs adequately so that the patient enjoys a good quality of life. How to complete a glucose curve The procedure is as follows: shortly after the animal has been given its first meal (preferably at home), the first blood sample is taken just prior to the insulin injection in the morning. Thereafter, blood samples are collected every 2 hours throughout the day for 12 hours, if possible. These data are then plotted on a graph to generate a curve. Veterinarians can determine based on the nadir whether the dose needs to be increased or decreased (or remain as is). How to interpret a glucose curve The aim of treatment is to alleviate clinical signs of diabetes. To achieve this goal, keep blood glucose concentrations below the renal threshold and avoid hypoglycemia. Thus, the goal is to maintain blood glucose concentrations roughly between 120 to 300 mg/dL in cats for the majority of the day.8 The duration of insulin action is measured from the time of Vetsulin® (p Continue reading >>

Normal Blood Glucose Ranges For Cats

Normal Blood Glucose Ranges For Cats

Maintaining a proper blood glucose level can be tricky business, as even a healthy cat's glucose level changes throughout the day. If the vet detects a higher than normal blood glucose level in your cat, she'll require a few more tests to determine the cause. If she has diabetes, you and your vet will have to work together to ensure her glucose level remains in a normal range throughout the day. According to The Cat Practice in Birmingham, Michigan, the normal blood glucose range for a cat is between 75 and 159 mg/dL, though the number may climb higher if the cat is stressed or frightened. Blood glucose levels are ruled by insulin, the hormone produced by the pancreas. If your cat's pancreas isn't producing sufficient insulin, her glucose levels rise. In addition to stress, pancreatitis, diet and infection also can cause higher than normal glucose readings; if your vet detects a high level, he'll conduct other tests to gain a more clear picture. The vet will first consider if your cat's showing symptoms of diabetes, including weight gain or loss and increased thirst, urination and appetite. Since the stress of the vet visit can cause her glucose level to spike, he'll want to determine that the high level isn't a stress reaction. A complete blood count as well as a blood chemistry profile will help the vet to determine if there are other potential illnesses present that could cause an elevated glucose level. An urinalysis also is helpful because when a cat's glucose level is higher than 240 mg/dL, sugar is present in the urine. As well, urine may contain other hints of diabetes, including pus, bacteria and high numbers of ketone bodies. Tests, symptoms and medical history will help confirm a diagnosis of diabetes, as well as whether it's related to an underlying conditio Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus In Cats - Overview

Diabetes Mellitus In Cats - Overview

By Ernest Ward, DVM & Robin Downing, DVM, DAAPM, DACVSMR, CVPP Emergency Situations, Medical Conditions What is diabetes mellitus? Diabetes mellitus is a disease of the pancreas, a small organ located near the stomach. The pancreas has two different types of cells that have very different functions. One group of cells produces the enzymes necessary for proper digestion. The other group, called beta cells, produces the hormone insulin, which regulates the level of glucose (sugar) in the bloodstream and controls the delivery of glucose to the tissues of the body. In simple terms, diabetes mellitus is caused by the failure of the pancreas to regulate blood sugar. The clinical signs of diabetes mellitus are related to elevated concentrations of blood glucose and the inability of the body to use glucose as an energy source. What are the clinical signs of diabetes mellitus in cats? The four main symptoms of diabetes mellitus are increased thirst, increased urination, weight loss, and increased appetite. Because of the nature of cats, these signs may go unnoticed, especially in the early stages of disease or if a cat spends a lot of time outdoors. Cats that are fed canned or semi-moist diets receive much of their water intake from their food, and increased water intake will be harder to recognize. Are there different types of diabetes mellitus in cats? Diabetes mellitus is usually classified into 2 types of disease: Type I diabetes mellitus results from total or near-complete destruction of the beta cells. This appears to be a rare type of diabetes in the cat. Type II diabetes mellitus is different because some insulin-producing cells remain, but the amount of insulin produced is insufficient, there is a delayed response in secreting it, or the tissues of the cat's body are re Continue reading >>

More in blood sugar