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What Should Be Sugar Level In Blood Fasting

Diabetes In Pregnancy

Diabetes In Pregnancy

Gestational diabetes does not increase the risk of birth defects or the risk that the baby will be diabetic at birth. Also called gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), this type of diabetes affects between 3% and 20% of pregnant women. It presents with a rise in blood glucose (sugar) levels toward the end of the 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy. In 90% if cases, it disappears after the birth, but the mother is at greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the future. Cause It occurs when cells become resistant to the action of insulin, which is naturally caused during pregnancy by the hormones of the placenta. In some women, the pancreas is not able to secrete enough insulin to counterbalance the effect of these hormones, causing hyperglycemia, then diabetes. Symptoms Pregnant women generally have no apparent diabetes symptoms. Sometimes, these symptoms occur: Unusual fatigue Excessive thirst Increase in the volume and frequency of urination Headaches Importance of screening These symptoms can go undetected because they are very common in pregnant women. Women at risk Several factors increase the risk of developing gestational diabetes: Being over 35 years of age Being overweight Family members with type 2 diabetes Having previously given birth to a baby weighing more than 4 kg (9 lb) Gestational diabetes in a previous pregnancy Belonging to a high-risk ethnic group (Aboriginal, Latin American, Asian or African) Having had abnormally high blood glucose (sugar) levels in the past, whether a diagnosis of glucose intolerance or prediabetes Regular use of a corticosteroid medication Suffering from ancanthosis nigricans, a discoloration of the skin, often darkened patches on the neck or under the arms Screening The Canadian Diabetes Association 2013 Clinical Practice Gui Continue reading >>

What’s Normal Blood Sugar?

What’s Normal Blood Sugar?

Thank you for dropping in! If you need help lowering your blood sugar level, check out my books at Amazon or Smashwords. If you’re outside of the U.S., Smashwords may be the best source. —Steve Parker, M.D * * * Physicians focus so much on disease that we sometimes lose sight of what’s healthy and normal. For instance, the American Diabetes Association defines “tight” control of diabetes to include sugar levels as high as 179 mg/dl (9.9 mmol/l) when measured two hours after a meal. In contrast, young adults without diabetes two hours after a meal are usually in the range of 90 to 110 mg/dl (5.0–6.1 mmol/l). What Is a Normal Blood Sugar Level? The following numbers refer to average blood sugar (glucose) levels in venous plasma, as measured in a lab. Portable home glucose meters measure sugar in capillary whole blood. Many, but not all, meters in 2011 are calibrated to compare directly to venous plasma levels. Fasting blood sugar after a night of sleep and before breakfast: 85 mg/dl (4.7 mmol/l) One hour after a meal: 110 mg/dl (6.1 mmol/l) Two hours after a meal: 95 mg/dl (5.3 mmol/l) Five hours after a meal: 85 mg/dl (4.7 mmol/l) (The aforementioned meal derives 50–55% of its energy from carbohydrate) ♦ ♦ ♦ Ranges of blood sugar for young healthy non-diabetic adults: Fasting blood sugar: 70–90 mg/dl (3.9–5.0 mmol/l) One hour after a typical meal: 90–125 mg/dl (5.00–6.9 mmol/l) Two hours after a typical meal: 90–110 mg/dl (5.00–6.1 mmol/l) Five hours after a typical meal: 70–90 mg/dl (3.9–5.00 mmol/l) Blood sugars tend to be a bit lower in pregnant women. ♦ ♦ ♦ What Level of Blood Sugar Defines Diabetes and Prediabetes? According to the 2007 guidelines issued by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists: Prediabetes: Continue reading >>

Two-hour Postprandial Glucose

Two-hour Postprandial Glucose

Does this test have other names? Glucose, postprandial; glucose, two-hour postprandial; two-hour PPG; two-hour postprandial blood sugar What is this test? This is a blood test to check for diabetes. If you have diabetes, your body doesn't make enough insulin to keep your blood sugar in check. This means your blood sugar levels are too high, and over time this can lead to serious health problems including nerve and eye damage. This test is done to see how your body responds to sugar and starch after you eat a meal. As you digest the food in your stomach, blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels rise sharply. In response, your pancreas releases insulin to help move these sugars from the blood into the cells of muscles and other tissues to be used for fuel. Within two hours of eating, your insulin and blood glucose levels should return to normal. If your blood glucose levels remain high, you may have diabetes. Why do I need this test? You may need this test if your healthcare provider wants to see if you have diabetes or another insulin-related disorder, especially if you have symptoms such as: Frequent urination Unusual thirst Blurred vision Tiredness Repeated infections Sores that heal slowly If you're pregnant, you may have this test to screen for gestational diabetes, diabetes that can develop during pregnancy. Treating gestational diabetes reduces the risk for health problems for you and your baby. What other tests might I have with this test? Your healthcare provider may order other tests to confirm or evaluate whether you have diabetes. These may include: Fasting blood glucose test. This measures the amount of sugar in your blood. A1C (glycosylated hemoglobin) test. This measures your average blood sugar level over the last 2 to 3 months. Glucose tolerance test. This m Continue reading >>

What To Do If Your Blood Sugar Is Too Low

What To Do If Your Blood Sugar Is Too Low

You'll need to test your blood sugar if you think you have hypoglycemia.(ARTIGA PHOTO/CORBIS)Although type 2 diabetes is characterized by blood sugar that is too high, some people take insulin and others medications (such as sulfonylureas) that can occasionally drive blood sugar too low. When blood sugar is too lowgenerally less than 70 mg/dLit's called hypoglycemia, and it can become a medical emergency. (The normal range for fasting blood sugar is 70 to 99 mg/dL, though it varies somewhat with age, and is lower during pregnancy and in children.) You can lose consciousness Hypoglycemia is more likely to occur when you start taking a new medication (it can take practice to match your food intake to your insulin dose, for example) or if you exercise more than usual. As blood sugar drops to low levels, you may feel: Shaky Irritable Sweaty This can occur within 10 to 15 minutes, and in extreme cases you can even lose consciousness and experience seizures if you don't consume some glucose (though hypoglycemia is usually mild in people with type 2 diabetes, and readily fixed by drinking juice or eating other sugar-containing items, such as glucose tablets or four to six pieces of hard candy). Hypoglycemia"My blood sugar was really plummeting" Watch videoMore about blood sugar monitoring You'll need to test your blood sugar to confirm that you're having hypoglycemiasome people become irritable if blood sugar is too high, so it's not always obvious. If you drink sugar-containing juice, or some other form of carbohydrate, it should bring blood sugar back into the normal range. You can also purchase glucose pills or gels in the pharmacy that can get blood sugar back on track. “You should always have a glucose source in the car,” says Yvonne Thigpen, RD, diabetes program coor Continue reading >>

Fasting Blood Glucose: An Introduction

Fasting Blood Glucose: An Introduction

SHARE RATE★★★★★ Fasting blood glucose is the fastest and simplest test used to diagnose diabetes. It also plays a role in ongoing monitoring of blood glucose control if you have type 2 diabetes. The test measures the level of glucose (a type of sugar) in your blood. Having high blood glucose can be a sign that your body is not functioning normally and that you may have diabetes. If you have high blood glucose and it is not treated, it can lead to a range of dangerous health complications. However, finding out that you have elevated blood glucose is powerful information that you can use to keep yourself healthy. If you know that your blood glucose is high, you can take steps to lower it, by losing weight (if you are overweight or obese), getting regular moderate physical activity, and taking a medication that lowers blood glucose.1 Why measuring blood glucose is important in diagnosing type 2 diabetes Our bodies require energy to function properly and we get that energy from the foods we eat. Our diet (everything we eat and drink) includes three main sources of energy (also known as calories): protein, fat, and carbohydrates (sugars, starches, and fibers).When the body digests most sources of carbohydrates, they are transformed through digestion into a very important source of instant energy, a form of sugar called glucose. Our bodies depend on the action of a number of different natural body chemicals called hormones, including insulin, amylin, incretins, and glucagon, working together in conjunction, to control how we use glucose. In type 2 diabetes, these hormones no longer work in the way they should and this results in elevated blood glucose.2-6 How is a fasting blood glucose test done? A fasting blood glucose test requires taking a sample of blood. Before Continue reading >>

What Is A Healthy Blood Sugar Level?

What Is A Healthy Blood Sugar Level?

If you don't have diabetes, a healthy blood sugar is less than 126, says Holly Anderson, Outpatient Diabetes Coordinator at Reston Hospital Center. Watch this video to find out the healthy level for someone with diabetes. A healthy blood sugar level, obtained in a fasting state, is less than 100. A fasting blood sugar of greater than 126 is diabetic. A fasting blood sugar between 100 and 126 is considered "prediabetic". Prediabetes can be associated with increased risk for heart disease and should lead to lifestyle changes. Trinity Health is a Catholic health care organization that acts in accordance with the Catholic tradition and does not condone or support all practices covered in this site. In case of emergency call 911. This site is educational and not a substitute for professional medical advice, always seek the advice of a qualified healthcare provider. According to the American Diabetes Association, normal blood glucose ranges between 70 to 99 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). In a person without diabetes, the body keeps its blood-glucose level between meals in a range of about 70 to 99 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). This level will rise after eating, depending on the type and amount of food consumed, but it will not exceed 139 mg/dL. It also quickly returns to the between-meal range. After you have fasted overnight or for an eight-hour period, your doctor can measure your blood glucose levels with a basic blood test. Blood sugar levels of under 100 are considered normal after an eight-hour fast. However, fasting blood glucose levels between 100-125 mg/dl could signal prediabetes. Continue reading >>

When “normal” Blood Sugar Isn’t Normal (part 2)

When “normal” Blood Sugar Isn’t Normal (part 2)

In the last article I explained the three primary markers we use to track blood sugar: fasting blood glucose (FBG), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and hemoglobin A1c (A1c). We also looked at what the medical establishment considers as normal for these markers. The table below summarizes those values. In this article, we’re going to look at just how “normal” those normal levels are — according to the scientific literature. We’ll also consider which of these three markers is most important in preventing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Marker Normal Pre-diabetes Diabetes Fasting blood glucose (mg/dL) <99 100-125 >126 OGGT / post-meal (mg/dL after 2 hours) <140 140-199 >200 Hemoglobin A1c (%) <6 6-6.4 >6.4 But before we do that, I’d like to make an important point: context is everything. In my work with patients, I never use any single marker alone to determine whether someone has a blood sugar issue. I run a full blood panel that includes fasting glucose, A1c, fructosamine, uric acid and triglycerides (along with other lipids), and I also have them do post-meal testing at home over a period of 3 days with a range of foods. If they have a few post-meal spikes and all other markers or normal, I’m not concerned. If their fasting BG, A1c and fructosamine are all elevated, and they’re having spikes, then I’m concerned and I will investigate further. On a similar note, I’ve written that A1c is not a reliable marker for individuals because of context: there are many non-blood sugar-related conditions that can make A1c appear high or low. So if someone is normal on all of the other blood sugar markers, but has high A1c, I’m usually not concerned. With all of that said, let’s take a look at some of the research. Fasting blood sugar According to cont Continue reading >>

How Intermittent Fasting Can Help You Live Healthier, Longer

How Intermittent Fasting Can Help You Live Healthier, Longer

Fasting has a number of health benefits, including improved cardiovascular health, reduced cancer risk, gene repair, and increased longevity Research shows that you can get most if not all of the same benefits of severe calorie restriction through intermittent fasting, where you feast on some days and cut calories on others One of the primary mechanisms that makes intermittent fasting so beneficial for health is related to its impact on your insulin sensitivity Intermittent fasting helps reset your body to burn fat for fuel Mounting evidence shows that when your body becomes adapted to burning fat instead of sugar as your primary fuel you dramatically reduce your risk of chronic disease People that would be best served to avoid fasting include those living with chronic stress (adrenal fatigue), and those with cortisol dysregulation. Pregnant or nursing mothers should also avoid fasting By Dr. Mercola In the featured documentary, Eat, Fast, and Live Longer,1 British author and journalist Dr. Michael Mosley documents his journey as he decides to try fasting, to see if it might improve his health. At the outset, his blood work revealed he was borderline diabetic and his cholesterol was high, which his doctor wanted to treat with medication. Concerned by this diagnosis—especially as he considers himself somewhat of an expert on conventional health strategies—Dr. Mosley sets out to investigate his alternatives. "I have always been interested in self-experimentation as a research device because so many of the most important discoveries came from scientists and doctors who used themselves as test subjects," he says, "but I had never before performed a series of trials on my own health." His journey takes him across the United States, where he meets with both long-lived, he Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Level

Blood Sugar Level

The fluctuation of blood sugar (red) and the sugar-lowering hormone insulin (blue) in humans during the course of a day with three meals. One of the effects of a sugar-rich vs a starch-rich meal is highlighted.[1] The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals. Glucose is a simple sugar and approximately 4 grams of glucose are present in the blood of humans at all times.[2] The body tightly regulates blood glucose levels as a part of metabolic homeostasis.[2] Glucose is stored in skeletal muscle and liver cells in the form of glycogen;[2] in fasted individuals, blood glucose is maintained at a constant level at the expense of glycogen stores in the liver and skeletal muscle.[2] In humans, glucose is the primary source of energy, and is critical for normal function, in a number of tissues,[2] particularly the human brain which consumes approximately 60% of blood glucose in fasted, sedentary individuals.[2] Glucose can be transported from the intestines or liver to other tissues in the body via the bloodstream.[2] Cellular glucose uptake is primarily regulated by insulin, a hormone produced in the pancreas.[2] Glucose levels are usually lowest in the morning, before the first meal of the day, and rise after meals for an hour or two by a few millimoles. Blood sugar levels outside the normal range may be an indicator of a medical condition. A persistently high level is referred to as hyperglycemia; low levels are referred to as hypoglycemia. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by persistent hyperglycemia from any of several causes, and is the most prominent disease related to failure of blood sugar regulation. There are different methods of testing and measuring blood sugar le Continue reading >>

Diabetes The Basics: Blood Sugars: The Nondiabetic Versus The Diabetic

Diabetes The Basics: Blood Sugars: The Nondiabetic Versus The Diabetic

BLOOD SUGARS: THE NONDIABETIC VERSUS THE DIABETIC Since high blood sugar is the hallmark of diabetes, and the cause of every long-term complication of the disease, it makes sense to discuss where blood sugar comes from and how it is used and not used. Our dietary sources of blood sugar are carbohydrates and proteins. One reason the taste of sugar—a simple form of carbohydrate—delights us is that it fosters production of neurotransmitters in the brain that relieve anxiety and can create a sense of well-being or even euphoria. This makes carbohydrate quite addictive to certain people whose brains may have inadequate levels of or sensitivity to these neurotransmitters, the chemical messengers with which the brain communicates with itself and the rest of the body. When blood sugar levels are low, the liver, kidneys, and intestines can, through a process we will discuss shortly, convert proteins into glucose, but very slowly and inefficiently. The body cannot convert glucose back into protein, nor can it convert fat into sugar. Fat cells, however, with the help of insulin, do transform glucose into fat. The taste of protein doesn’t excite us as much as that of carbohydrate— it would be the very unusual child who’d jump up and down in the grocery store and beg his mother for steak or fish instead of cookies. Dietary protein gives us a much slower and smaller blood sugar effect, which, as you will see, we diabetics can use to our advantage in normalizing blood sugars. The Nondiabetic In the fasting nondiabetic, and even in most type 2 diabetics, the pancreas constantly releases a steady, low level of insulin. This baseline, or basal, insulin level prevents the liver, kidneys, and intestines from inappropriately converting bodily proteins (muscle, vital organs) into g Continue reading >>

What Is Normal Blood Sugar?

What Is Normal Blood Sugar?

Thank you for visiting my website! If you need help lowering your blood sugar level, check out my books at Amazon or Smashwords. If you’re outside of the U.S., Smashwords may be the best source. —Steve Parker, M.D. * * * Physicians focus so much on disease that we sometimes lose sight of what’s healthy and normal. For instance, the American Diabetes Association defines “tight” control of diabetes to include sugar levels as high as 179 mg/dl (9.94 mmol/l) when measured two hours after a meal. In contrast, young adults without diabetes two hours after a meal are usually in the range of 90 to 110 mg/dl (5.00–6.11 mmol/l). What Is a Normal Blood Sugar Level? The following numbers refer to average blood sugar (glucose) levels in venous plasma, as measured in a lab. Portable home glucose meters measure sugar in capillary whole blood. Many, but not all, meters in 2010 are calibrated to compare directly to venous plasma levels. Fasting blood sugar after a night of sleep and before breakfast: 85 mg/dl (4.72 mmol/l) One hour after a meal: 110 mg/dl (6.11 mmol/l) Two hours after a meal: 95 mg/dl (5.28 mmol/l) Five hours after a meal: 85 mg/dl (4.72 mmol/l) (The aforementioned meal derives 50–55% of its energy from carbohydrate) ♦ ♦ ♦ Ranges of blood sugar for young healthy non-diabetic adults: Fasting blood sugar: 70–90 mg/dl (3.89–5.00 mmol/l) One hour after a typical meal: 90–125 mg/dl (5.00–6.94 mmol/l) Two hours after a typical meal: 90–110 mg/dl (5.00–6.11 mmol/l) Five hours after a typical meal: 70–90 mg/dl (3.89–5.00 mmol/l) Blood sugars tend to be a bit lower in pregnant women. ♦ ♦ ♦ What Level of Blood Sugar Defines Diabetes and Prediabetes? According to the 2007 guidelines issued by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinol Continue reading >>

Normal Blood Sugar Goals And Why 3

Normal Blood Sugar Goals And Why 3

My blood sugar goals: truly normal blood sugars. In other words, normal blood sugar for non-diabetics. It’s common sense right? Who would want ab-normal blood sugar levels? The devil is in the details. What are truly normal blood sugar ranges What happens when you exceed normal ranges Our bodies are designed to maintain a very tight range of glucose in our blood. If we exceed a certain level, insulin is secreted. If we go below certain levels, glucose is secreted. Why is our body designed to maintain such a tight range of blood sugar levels? Elevated blood sugars, hyperglycemia is toxic to every cell Truly low blood sugars , hypoglycemia can lead to death Note: I will periodically update a list at the end of this post with studies showing the advantages of maintaining ‘truly’ normal blood sugars. These studies are under the ‘Additional References” section. Complications of Elevated Blood Sugar We know that diabetes related complications occur at higher levels of blood sugar. High blood sugar is toxic to every cell in the body. Toxic levels of blood sugar harm all of our cells and our organs. This toxicity causes retinopathy, neuropathy, organ failure, amputations, heart disease, etc. Why in the hell would I want diabetic blood sugar levels? Our bodies are designed to run at a certain narrow blood sugar range. I want that range. Below we will look at studies showing the effects not ‘just’ for diabetic levels of blood sugar, but for higher levels of so-called normal blood sugar ranges. Blood Sugar and Dementia In this Article, “Dementia risk tied to blood sugar level, even with no diabetes” “A Joint Group Health-University of Washington (UW) study in the New England Journal of Medicine has found that higher blood sugar levels are associated with higher Continue reading >>

Blood Glucose Test

Blood Glucose Test

What is a blood glucose test? A blood glucose test measures the amount of glucose in your blood. Glucose, a type of simple sugar, is your body’s main source of energy. Your body converts the carbohydrates you eat into glucose. Glucose testing is primarily done to check for type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. Diabetes is a condition that causes your blood glucose level to rise. The amount of sugar in your blood is usually controlled by a hormone called insulin. However, if you have diabetes, your body either doesn’t make enough insulin or the insulin produced doesn’t work properly. This causes sugar to build up in your blood. Increased levels of blood sugar can lead to severe organ damage if left untreated. In some cases, blood glucose testing may also be used to test for hypoglycemia. This condition occurs when the levels of glucose in your blood are too low. Watch a great review of the iHealth blood glucose meter » Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and teenagers whose bodies aren’t able to produce enough insulin. It’s a chronic, or long-term, condition that requires continuous treatment. Late-onset type 1 diabetes has been shown to affect people between the ages of 30 and 40. Type 2 diabetes is usually diagnosed in overweight and obese adults, but it can develop in younger people as well. This condition occurs when your body doesn’t make enough insulin or when the insulin you produce doesn’t work properly. The impact of type 2 diabetes may be reduced through weight loss and healthy eating. Gestational diabetes occurs if you develop diabetes while you’re pregnant. Gestational diabetes usually goes away after you give birth. After receiving a diagnosis of diabetes, you may have to get blood glucose tests to determin Continue reading >>

How Blood Sugar Affects Your Body

How Blood Sugar Affects Your Body

When you have diabetes, your blood sugar (glucose) levels may be consistently high. Over time, this can damage your body and lead to many other problems. How much sugar in the blood is too much? And why is high glucose so bad for you? Here’s a look at how your levels affect your health. They're less than 100 mg/dL after not eating (fasting) for at least 8 hours. And they're less than 140 mg/dL 2 hours after eating. During the day, levels tend to be at their lowest just before meals. For most people without diabetes, blood sugar levels before meals hover around 70 to 80 mg/dL. For some people, 60 is normal; for others, 90. What's a low sugar level? It varies widely, too. Many people's glucose won't ever fall below 60, even with prolonged fasting. When you diet or fast, the liver keeps your levels normal by turning fat and muscle into sugar. A few people's levels may fall somewhat lower. Doctors use these tests to find out if you have diabetes: Fasting plasma glucose test. The doctor tests your blood sugar levels after fasting for 8 hours and it’s higher than 126 mg/dL. Oral glucose tolerance test. After fasting for 8 hours, you get a special sugary drink. Two hours later your sugar level is higher than 200. Random check. The doctor tests your blood sugar and it’s higher than 200, plus you’re peeing more, always thirsty, and you’ve gained or lost a significant amount of weight. He’ll then do a fasting sugar level test or an oral glucose tolerance test to confirm the diagnosis. Any sugar levels higher than normal are unhealthy. Levels that are higher than normal, but not reaching the point of full-blown diabetes, are called prediabetes. According to the American Diabetes Association, 86 million people in the U.S. have this condition, which can lead to diabetes Continue reading >>

Impact Of Time Since Last Caloric Intake On Blood Glucose Levels

Impact Of Time Since Last Caloric Intake On Blood Glucose Levels

Go to: Introduction The measurement of blood glucose is a well established procedure routinely used for many clinical and research purposes. In epidemiological studies blood glucose is an often measured parameter be it as a risk factor, mediator or confounder. Measuring blood glucose requires standardized procedures to minimize variability and bias, both in terms of required analytical methods and biological variability. Blood glucose levels are influenced by external factors, like caloric intake resulting in an increase of blood glucose or metabolic demands like muscle activity resulting in a decline of blood glucose. In an attempt to obtain unbiased blood glucose measurements one of the routinely requested basic requirements for pre-analytical blood sampling is the fasting state. However the fasting state is not well defined, i.e. the WHO recommends an 8–14 h (h) fast [1], the American Diabetes Association (ADA) defines fasting as “no caloric intake for at least 8 h” [2] or “an overnight 8- to 10-h fast” [3]. Moreover, evidence-based recommendations for the definition of the duration of the fasting status are missing—perhaps one reason, why blood glucose measurements in epidemiological and clinical studies are carried out inconsistently with regard to fasting duration. Pre-analytical blood sampling schemes range from overnight fast, fasting duration between 8 h and >12 h, ≥12 h, random sampling to even no information at all. In the clinical as well as in the research environment, the required fasting status—however defined—is a challenging task. For clinicians and patients it would be much simpler if a blood sample could be taken at any time of the day, irrespective of the fasting duration. In studies, especially epidemiological studies, fasting requ Continue reading >>

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