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# What Is The Range Of Estimated Average Glucose?

## Estimated Average Glucose (eag)

An average blood glucose level, expressed in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl), based on a person’s glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level. Estimated average glucose (eAG) is considered easier for people with diabetes and their doctors to work with than HbA1c, since it is given in the same units as everyday blood glucose readings. The HbA1c test is currently considered the best measure of overall blood glucose control and of the risk of developing diabetic complications in the future. The test measures the percentage of hemoglobin molecules in the blood that have glucose attached to them. People without diabetes typically have an HbA1c level under 6%, and the American Diabetes Association recommends that people with diabetes strive for an HbA1c level below 7% (below 6% in certain individuals). In a study recently published in the journal Diabetes Care, researchers sought to define the relationship between HbA1c and average blood glucose level. Over a period of three months, they recorded continuous glucose monitor readings and seven-times-daily blood glucose meter readings in 268 people with Type 1 diabetes, 159 with Type 2 diabetes, and 80 without diabetes. The researchers compared these data with the HbA1c levels of the participants at the end of the three-month period. Based on the relationship between the two, they designed a mathematical formula for translating HbA1c into eAG. Someday, eAG may be printed alongside HbA1c in laboratory reports. Until then, there are a few ways to calculate eAG yourself: You can log on to the American Diabetes Association’s Web site at www.diabetes.org/ag, where you’ll find a conversion calculator as well as a chart showing equivalent values of HbA1c and eAG. You can also use the formula directly, using a calculator: 28.7 x HbA1c Continue reading >>

## Translating The A1c Assay Into Estimated Average Glucose Values

Abstract OBJECTIVE—The A1C assay, expressed as the percent of hemoglobin that is glycated, measures chronic glycemia and is widely used to judge the adequacy of diabetes treatment and adjust therapy. Day-to-day management is guided by self-monitoring of capillary glucose concentrations (milligrams per deciliter or millimoles per liter). We sought to define the mathematical relationship between A1C and average glucose (AG) levels and determine whether A1C could be expressed and reported as AG in the same units as used in self-monitoring. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—A total of 507 subjects, including 268 patients with type 1 diabetes, 159 with type 2 diabetes, and 80 nondiabetic subjects from 10 international centers, was included in the analyses. A1C levels obtained at the end of 3 months and measured in a central laboratory were compared with the AG levels during the previous 3 months. AG was calculated by combining weighted results from at least 2 days of continuous glucose monitoring performed four times, with seven-point daily self-monitoring of capillary (fingerstick) glucose performed at least 3 days per week. RESULTS—Approximately 2,700 glucose values were obtained by each subject during 3 months. Linear regression analysis between the A1C and AG values provided the tightest correlations (AGmg/dl = 28.7 × A1C − 46.7, R2 = 0.84, P < 0.0001), allowing calculation of an estimated average glucose (eAG) for A1C values. The linear regression equations did not differ significantly across subgroups based on age, sex, diabetes type, race/ethnicity, or smoking status. CONCLUSIONS—A1C levels can be expressed as eAG for most patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The A1C assay is widely accepted and used as the most reliable means of assessing chronic glycemia ( Continue reading >>

## Hba1c And Estimated Average Glucose (eag)

Why is relating HbA1c to glucose important? We are frequently asked about the relationship between HbA1c and plasma glucose levels. Many patients with diabetes mellitus now perform self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in the home setting, and understanding the relationship between HbA1c and glucose can be useful in setting goals for day-to-day testing. HbA1c: A "Weighted" Average Many studies have shown that HbA1c is an index of average glucose (AG) over the preceding weeks-to-months. Erythrocyte (red blood cell) life-span averages about 120 days. The level of HbA1c at any point in time is contributed to by all circulating erythrocytes, from the oldest (120 days old) to the youngest. However, HbA1c is a "weighted" average of blood glucose levels during the preceding 120 days, meaning that glucose levels in the preceding 30 days contribute substantially more to the level of HbA1c than do glucose levels 90-120 days earlier. This explains why the level of HbA1c can increase or decrease relatively quickly with large changes in glucose; it does not take 120 days to detect a clinically meaningful change in HbA1c following a clinically significant change in AG. How does HbA1c relate to average glucose (AG)? In the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial or DCCT (New Engl J Med 1993;329:977-986) study of patients with Type 1 diabetes, quarterly HbA1c determinations were the principal measure of glycemic control; study subjects also performed quarterly 24-hour, 7-point capillary-blood glucose profiles. Blood specimens were obtained by subjects in the home setting, pre-meal, 90 minutes post-meal, and at bed-time. In an analysis of the DCCT glucose profile data (Diabetes Care 25:275-278, 2002), mean HbA1c and AG were calculated for each study subject (n= 1439). Results showed Continue reading >>

## Convert Hba1c To Average Blood Sugar Level

Tweet Use this calculator to convert HbA1c to Average Blood Sugar Level. The HbA1c level in your blood indicates what your average blood glucose level has been in the past 2 to 3 months. Everyone, whether non-diabetic, pre-diabetic, type 1 diabetic or type 2 diabetic has some degree of sugar in their blood. To convert between mg/dl and mmol/L, use our blood sugar converter. You can then convert average blood glucose levels back to HbA1c units with the calculator below. mmol/L Recommended HbA1c ranges The recommended HbA1c range for most with diabetes is to keep the value under 48 mmols/mol (under 6.5% in the old percentage units). People at risk of hypoglycemia, or for whom such tight blood glucose regulation is not advised, may be advised to keep their HbA1c below 59 mmols/mol (under 7.5% in the old percentage units). Because the two tests measure two different things, the calculator can only give an estimate and therefore there will always be some discrepancy between the value provided by the calculator and actual lab test results. How accurate are the results? The calculator looks to provide an estimate of what your HbA1c value may be based upon your average blood glucose results and vice versa. It’s important to note that HbA1c and blood glucose tests measure different things. Blood glucose tests measure the concentration of glucose molecules in the blood at a single point in time. The HbA1c test measures the proportion of haemoglobin molecules in the blood that have become chemically bonded with glucose over a period of up to 3 months. However, the calculator serves as a useful guide which can give you a close indication of what your HbA1c result might be based on your blood glucose results? What can I learn from converting my average blood glucose level to HbA1c Continue reading >>

## Understanding Your Average Blood Sugar

A1c is an average of all your blood sugars. It does not tell you your blood sugar patterns. Use it only as yet another indicator of how well you’re doing. Glysolated Hemoglobin (or A1c) is a measure of your average blood glucose control over the previous three months. Glucose attaches to hemoglobin the oxygen carrying molecule in red blood cells. The glucose-hemoglobin unit is called glycosolated hemoglobin. As red blood cells live an average of three months, the glycosolated hemoglobin reflects the sugar exposure to the cells over that time. The higher the amount of glucose in the blood, the higher the percentage of hemoglobin molecules that will have glucose attached. Think of the A1c as a long-term blood glucose measure that changes very gradually as red blood cells die and are replaced by new cells. The A1c doesn’t replace self blood-glucose monitoring. Because the A1c is an average of all your blood sugars, it does not tell you your blood sugar patterns. For example, one person with frequent highs and lows can have the same A1c as another person with very stable blood sugars that don’t vary too much. So what’s the point? A1c is yet another indicator of how well you’re doing. An A1c measurement between 4-6% is considered the range that someone without diabetes will have. The American Diabetes Association goal is an A1c less than 7%. Research has shown that an A1c less than 7% lowers risk for complications. The American College of Endocrinology goal is an A1c less than 6.5%. For some people with diabetes an A1c goal of less than 6% is appropriate. Talk with your doctor about your A1c goal. Use this chart to view A1c values and comparable blood glucose values: A1c Estimated Average Glucose mg/dL 5% 97 6% 126 7% 154 8% 183 9% 212 10% 240 11% 269 12% 298 A not Continue reading >>

## The A1c Test & Diabetes

What is the A1C test? The A1C test is a blood test that provides information about a person’s average levels of blood glucose, also called blood sugar, over the past 3 months. The A1C test is sometimes called the hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c, or glycohemoglobin test. The A1C test is the primary test used for diabetes management and diabetes research. How does the A1C test work? The A1C test is based on the attachment of glucose to hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. In the body, red blood cells are constantly forming and dying, but typically they live for about 3 months. Thus, the A1C test reflects the average of a person’s blood glucose levels over the past 3 months. The A1C test result is reported as a percentage. The higher the percentage, the higher a person’s blood glucose levels have been. A normal A1C level is below 5.7 percent. Can the A1C test be used to diagnose type 2 diabetes and prediabetes? Yes. In 2009, an international expert committee recommended the A1C test as one of the tests available to help diagnose type 2 diabetes and prediabetes.1 Previously, only the traditional blood glucose tests were used to diagnose diabetes and prediabetes. Because the A1C test does not require fasting and blood can be drawn for the test at any time of day, experts are hoping its convenience will allow more people to get tested—thus, decreasing the number of people with undiagnosed diabetes. However, some medical organizations continue to recommend using blood glucose tests for diagnosis. Why should a person be tested for diabetes? Testing is especially important because early in the disease diabetes has no symptoms. Although no test is perfect, the A1C and blood glucose tests are the best tools available to diagnose diabetes—a serious and li Continue reading >>

## Estimated Average Glucose: A New Term In Diabetes Control

To the Editor: Glycated or glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels have been used in planning and assessing the management of diabetic patients for the past couple of decades. Clinical trials have established the correlation between HbA1c and the development of diabetes complications and patient outcomes.1,2 HbA1c results are expressed as the percentage of hemoglobin that is glycated and reflects the average blood glucose control over a period of approximately three months. In contrast, blood glucose levels are expressed in milligrams per deciliter and are used for daily monitoring by the patient and healthcare professionals. The discrepancy between HbA1c and blood glucose level units has been problematic and has created some confusion among patients. To reduce this confusion, researchers have determined and reported a linear correlation between HbA1c and self-monitored glucose levels obtained by frequent fingerstick capillary glucose testing and continuous glucose monitoring. A mathematical relationship between the average glucose level over the preceding three months and levels of HbA1c has been established,3 resulting in the translation of HbA1c results into estimated average glucose (eAG). This approach was adopted by the American Diabetes Association (ADA).4,5 The estimated average glucose (eAG) converts the diabetic patient's HbA1c percentage point into an average blood glucose level in the units of measure seen by the patient on glucose meters for daily self-monitoring (mg/dL). Similar to HbA1c, eAG evaluates a patient's overall success at controlling glucose levels and helps patients understand the monitoring of their long-term treatment. The relationship and association between HbA1c and eAG has been supported by several studies with the largest being published Continue reading >>