Example of an unsaturated fat triglyceride (C55H98O6). Left part: glycerol; right part, from top to bottom: palmitic acid, oleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid. A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride). Triglycerides are the main constituents of body fat in humans and other animals, as well as vegetable fat. They are also present in the blood to enable the bidirectional transference of adipose fat and blood glucose from the liver, and are a major component of human skin oils. There are many different types of triglyceride, with the main division between saturated and unsaturated types. Saturated fats are "saturated" with hydrogen — all available places where hydrogen atoms could be bonded to carbon atoms are occupied. These have a higher melting point and are more likely to be solid at room temperature. Unsaturated fats have double bonds between some of the carbon atoms, reducing the number of places where hydrogen atoms can bond to carbon atoms. These have a lower melting point and are more likely to be liquid at room temperature. Chemical structure Triglycerides are chemically tri esters of fatty acids and glycerol. Triglycerides are formed by combining glycerol with three fatty acid molecules. Alcohols have a hydroxyl (HO–) group. Organic acids have a carboxyl (–COOH) group. Alcohols and organic acids join to form esters. The glycerol molecule has three hydroxyl (HO–) groups. Each fatty acid has a carboxyl group (–COOH). In triglycerides, the hydroxyl groups of the glycerol join the carboxyl groups of the fatty acid to form ester bonds: HOCH2CH(OH)CH2OH + RCO2H + R′CO2H + R″CO2H → RCO2CH2CH(O2CR′)CH2CO2R″ + 3H2O The three fatty acids Continue reading >>
The Difference Between Triglycerides And Blood Sugar
Video of the Day Triglycerides, also called triacylglycerols, are comprised of a glycerol backbone with three fatty acids attached. Nearly 95 percent of dietary fat comes from triglycerides. They are a highly concentrated form of energy and are important in transferring that energy from food to cells. Like cholesterol, triglycerides are another type of fat in the blood which can be checked to measure risk of developing heart disease. Ideally, triglycerides should measure less than 150 mg/dL in the blood. Carbohydrates are broken down into sugar in the blood. Unless you are glucose intolerant or have been diagnosed with diabetes, you don’t need to regularly monitor your blood sugar. It is important to maintain blood sugar levels however by eating regularly spaced meals throughout the day. Eating too many refined carbohydrates, simple sugars, or drinking too much alcohol can increase blood levels of triglycerides. It is recommended to maintain a healthy weight, exercise, and cut back on simple carbohydrates and alcohol. Eating a diet low in both saturated and trans fats and high in fiber is also beneficial. Continue reading >>
Differences Between Triglycerides And Cholesterol
Triglycerides vs Cholesterol Triglycerides and cholesterol are two terms that are dreaded by health buffs. They have been portrayed as detrimental to the human body, and having high levels of these can lead to coronary heart disease. It’s common nowadays for people to check out the contents of the food that they buy in the supermarket for indications that it has a high cholesterol content. The ironic thing is that food in which it is present, especially meats that taste really good, like pork and beef, contain high levels of cholesterol. A lot of people have difficulty swearing off cholesterol. It certainly enjoys more exposure than its counterpart, the triglycerides. However, both of them are classified as lipids, and though they may be harmful when ingested in high amounts for a long period of time, they still contribute to the overall makeup of the human body. In fact, lipids have a lot of uses, including cell production, energy storing, and energy consumption. Unknown to most people, the cholesterol that they’ve come to hate, along with triglycerides, play important roles in body development. Let’s start by exploring the similarities between triglycerides and cholesterol. As mentioned earlier, they are both lipids. They flow along the bloodstream and are guided by lipoproteins for distribution in various blood vessels. They can be either derived from ingested food, or produced inside the body. You heard that correctly, the human body produces its own cholesterol and triglycerides. While the cholesterol amount produced by the body is usually sufficient, more triglycerides are needed, and the body derives this mainly from ingested food. With regards to body function, the triglycerides and cholesterol differ in their role as lipids. Cholesterol serves as the buil Continue reading >>
Why Do High Triglycerides Matter?
Although it's unclear how, high triglycerides may contribute to hardening of the arteries or thickening of the artery walls (atherosclerosis) — which increases the risk of stroke, heart attack and heart disease. Extremely high triglycerides — for example, levels above 1000 mg/dL (11.29 mmol/L) — can also cause acute pancreatitis. High triglycerides are often a sign of other conditions that increase the risk of heart disease and stroke as well, including obesity and metabolic syndrome — a cluster of conditions that includes too much fat around the waist, high blood pressure, high triglycerides, high blood sugar and abnormal cholesterol levels. Sometimes high triglycerides are a sign of poorly controlled type 2 diabetes, low levels of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism), liver or kidney disease, or rare genetic conditions that affect how your body converts fat to energy. High triglycerides could also be a side effect of taking medications such as beta blockers, birth control pills, diuretics or steroids. What's the best way to lower triglycerides? Healthy lifestyle choices are key: Lose weight. If you're overweight, losing 5 to 10 pounds can help lower your triglycerides. Motivate yourself by focusing on the benefits of losing weight, such as more energy and improved health. Cut back on calories. Remember that extra calories are converted to triglycerides and stored as fat. Reducing your calories will reduce triglycerides. Avoid sugary and refined foods. Simple carbohydrates, such as sugar and foods made with white flour, can increase triglycerides. Choose healthier fats. Trade saturated fat found in meats for healthier monounsaturated fat found in plants, such as olive, peanut and canola oils. Substitute fish high in omega-3 fatty acids — such as mackerel and sal Continue reading >>
Difference Between Glucose And Fructose
Similarities of glucose and fructose Before going through the differences, it is important to note that there are some common characteristics of glucose and fructose, exerting varied effects on the body, and undergoing different metabolic processes. Both fructose and glucose are monosaccharides, have the same caloric values (roughly 4Cal/g), and the same molecular formula of CC6H1206. Differences between glucose and fructose Fructose: is poorly absorbed and can cause fructose intolerance. It is moved to the colon, where it undergoes fermentation by bacteria producing gas, bloating and diarrhea. Glucose: is well absorbed. Brain interaction (4) Fructose: is slowly up taken through the brain barrier, causing the reduction of neural activity. Glucose: is up taken quickly to the brain barrier where it is metabolised using most of the oxygen available in the brain. Glucose raises the level of neural activity for about 20 minutes after its consumption. Fructose: is mainly (but not exclusively) metabolised by the liver. Other cells that accept fructose (although to a much lesser extent) are testicles, kidneys, skeletal muscles, fat tissue and brain. Fructose is up taken to the cells via a transporter called GLUT5 and also via GLUT2, to a smaller extent, which accepts fructose to the liver cells. Glucose: is up taken to most of the cells in the body for metabolism. It uses the following transporters to distribute glucose to corresponding cells: GLUT1 (to all cells), GLUT2 (to gut, liver and pancreas), GLUT3 (to central nervous system and brain), GLUT4 (to cells that need insulin to be up-taken such as skeletal muscles, fatty tissue and heart). Diabetics risk (7) Fructose: presents a long term risk for diabetics. Fructose only slightly increases blood glucose levels and insulin p Continue reading >>
Detecting Alterations Of Glucose And Lipid Components In Human Serum By Near-infrared Raman Spectroscopy
Introduction Raman spectroscopy may become a tool for the analysis of glucose and triglycerides in human serum in real time. This study aimed to detect spectral differences in lipid and glucose components of human serum, thus evaluating the feasibility of Raman spectroscopy for diagnostic purposes. Methods A total of 44 samples of blood serum were collected from volunteers and submitted for clinical blood biochemical analysis. The concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density and high-density lipoproteins (LDL and HDL) were obtained using standard biochemical assays. Serum samples were placed in Eppendorf tubes (200 µL), kept cooled (5 °C) and analyzed with near-infrared Raman spectroscopy (830 nm, 250 mW, 50 s accumulation). The mean spectra of serum with normal or altered concentrations of each parameter were compared to determine which Raman bands were related to the differences between these two groups. Results Differences in peak intensities of altered sera compared to normal ones depended on the parameter under analysis: for glucose, peaks were related to glucose; for lipid compounds the main changes occurred in the peaks related to cholesterol, lipids (mainly triolein) and proteins. Principal Components Analysis discriminated altered glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides from the normal serum based on the differences in the concentration of these compounds. Conclusion Differences in the peak intensities of selected Raman bands could be seen in normal and altered blood serum samples, and may be employed as a means of diagnosis in clinical analysis. Key words: Raman spectroscopy; Human serum; Glucose; Lipids; Cholesterol; Triglycerides Continue reading >>
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What Are The Differences And Similarities Between Carbohydrates And Lipids?
Differences based on :- 1) Solubility in water- Carbohydrates dissolve in water and travel easily through your bloodstream and tissues. Whereas lipids do not dissolve in water. That is why lipids get coated with water-soluble proteins to form microscopic complexes called lipoproteins which helps it travel through your blood stream. 2) Digestion and absorbtion- The enzymes in your saliva, pancreas and small intestine break down carbohydrates into simple sugars called monosaccharides, which pass into your bloodstream for distribution to your organs and tissues. Lipids require a more complex digestive process. Liver produces bile juice which is released into small intestine by gallbladder. Bile breaks down large lipid globules into microscopic droplets, which are then digested by enzymes in pancreas. 3) Structure- Lipids are made up of triglyceride molecules, which are phosphate molecules with 3 long alkyl chains bound to it. Carbohydrate is a biological molecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O). Carbohydrates are also called saccharides (A group that includes sugar, starch and cellulose). Saccharides are divided into four groups- monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Similarity :- Energy Provision- Both Carbohydrates and lipids (fats) are important sources of energy. Carbohydrates are quickly broken down quickly broken down into glucose which fuels all muscles. Carbohydrates can also be stored as glycogen in the muscles and liver for later use. Lipids are either stored in various fat deposits throughout the body for later energy use or are available in the bloodstream for immediate use. For an appropriate answer, it will be better for you to consult a Biochemistry Text Book ( undergraduate level will be fine Continue reading >>
Acute Effects Of Morning Light On Plasma Glucose And Triglycerides In Healthy Men And Men With Type 2 Diabetes
In the present study, bright light did not affect plasma glucose levels in healthy men but increased fasting and postprandial plasma triglyceride levels. In men with type 2 diabetes, bright light increased fasting and postprandial glucose levels, postprandial triglyceride levels, and appetite scores. Bright light increased fasting glucose levels in men with type 2 diabetes, which is due to either increased endogenous glucose production or decreased tissue glucose uptake during the first hour of bright light. Animal data suggest that bright light may increase hepatic glucose production, because in rats bright light caused increased expression of liver PEPCK, a rate-limiting gluconeogenetic enzyme (Cailotto et al., 2009). This effect of light on PEPCK was mediated by the autonomic nervous system (Cailotto et al., 2009), which is in line with other studies indicating that increased sympathetic signaling increases hepatic glucose production (Perseghin et al., 1997; Yi et al., 2009). Since bright light increased heart rate and tended to increase LF:HF ratio in men with type 2 diabetes in our study, we hypothesize that also in men with type 2 diabetes the light signal is transmitted from the brain to the liver via the autonomic nervous system. In addition to considering the potential role of the autonomic nervous system, we considered the glucocorticoid hormone cortisol as a candidate to transfer the light signal from the brain to the liver, because bright light increases glucocorticoid release via the SCN in rodents (Ishida et al., 2005). Human studies investigating the effects of bright morning light on cortisol yielded conflicting results; some studies showed increased cortisol levels after morning bright light (Scheer and Buijs, 1999; Leproult et al., 2001), whereas other Continue reading >>
Magnitude Of The Difference Between Fasting And Non-fasting Triglycerides, And Its Dependent Factors
1Department of Environmental Health, Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA 2Department of Pathology of Laboratory Medicine, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA Citation: Yang S, Liu M, Wu T (2015) Magnitude of the Difference between Fasting and Non-fasting Triglycerides, and Its Dependent Factors Running Title: Fasting and Non-fasting Triglycerides. J Community Med Health Educ 5:375. doi:10.4172/2161-0711.1000375 Copyright: © 2015 Yang S, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Visit for more related articles at Journal of Community Medicine & Health Education Abstract Background: It is largely unknown about the magnitude of the difference between fasting and non-fasting triglycerides, and whether this difference is dependent on certain potential cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 8,073 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2010. Fasting status was classified into two groups: fasting (≥8 hours) and non-fasting status (<8 hours). The difference between fasting and non-fasting triglycerides its dependent CVD risk factors were estimated with linear regression model. Results: Overall, fasting participants had lower triglycerides than non-fasting participants after adjusting for covariates (difference=4.22 mg/dL; P=0.049). Triglycerides levels at fasting status was interacted with hypertension (P=0.05), antihyperlipidemic agent use (P=0.07) and LDL cholesterol (P=0.04). In the separate Continue reading >>
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Type 2 Diabetes And Triglycerides
What is a triglyceride, and why do somephysicians refer to it as the “ugly fat”? Most people who read the news or watchtelevision know about cholesterol. There areconstant warnings about high cholesterolas a very important risk factor for heartdisease, and we are continually bombardedwith advertisements for foods and pills andexercise programs that promise to lower ourcholesterol levels. But few people have heard about orunderstand much about triglycerides.Triglycerides are bundles of fats found in theblood stream especially after we eat. Thebody manufactures triglycerides from thecarbohydrates and fatty foods that we eat.Almost 90 percent of the fat content of mostnon-lean meats is triglyceride. What are the function and importance oftriglycerides? Triglycerides account for about 99 percentof the fat stored in our bodies. Thesetriglyceride-laden fats serve as the mostimportant source of long-term energy for thebody, since they are stored in a much denserform than starches or muscle proteins.Formation of fat requires the presence ofinsulin. Triglyceride in fat is converted toenergy between meals and overnight, or anytime when we are fasting or insulin levelsare low. Fat cells have a tremendous storagecapacity, which may contribute to obesity.With extended fasting or absolute insulindeficiency, the liver converts fat breakdownproducts to ketones. High triglyceride levels in the blood tendto coexist with low levels of HDL (“good”)cholesterol, contributing to a condition calleddiabetic dyslipidemia. The third componentof this “dangerous trio” is a tendency forpatients with this condition to have thesmall, dense, undesirable (more atherogenic)type of LDL cholesterol in their blood (eventhough their LDL cholesterol level may benormal). The combination of high tri Continue reading >>
Ask The Doctor: What's The Difference Between Blood Sugar And Hemoglobin A1c?
Ask the doctor Q. In your article on blood sugar control, you kept talking about hemoglobin A1c. I measure my blood sugar all the time, but my meter doesn't have a setting for a percentage reading. Is there a simple connection between blood sugar and hemoglobin A1c? A. I'm sorry we confused you. Blood sugar and hemoglobin A1c are connected, but they are different, too. Your blood sugar meter measures the concentration of glucose in the bloodstream at the instant you prick your finger. The reading is in milligrams of glucose per deciliter (a tenth of a liter) of blood, abbreviated as mg/dL. Blood sugar levels vary throughout the day. In people with diabetes, they can range from below 70 mg/dL to above 200. Continue reading >>
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How Triglycerides Affect Your Risk Of Diabetes
No one wants type 2 diabetes. It’s a condition that affects your whole body and gets progressively worse, possibly leading to loss of vision and feeling (especially in your feet and fingertips), as well as kidney disease and heart disease. Having high triglycerides makes it more likely that you will develop diabetes, though. Luckily, with some effort, you have a good chance of lowering your triglycerides -- which, at the same time, can help you lower your chance of getting diabetes. High triglycerides don't cause diabetes. Instead, their levels indicate that your system for turning food into energy isn't working properly. Normally, your body makes insulin, which “escorts” glucose -- the type of sugar in your blood --inside your cells. There, your body turns glucose into energy. Insulin also allows your body to use triglycerides for energy. A common cause of high triglycerides is excess carbohydrates in your diet. High TG’s signals insulin resistance; that’s when you have excess insulin and blood sugar isn’t responding in normal ways to insulin. This results in higher than normal blood sugar levels. If you have insulin resistance, you’re one step closer to type 2 diabetes. If you also are overweight, eat a lot of sugary and starchy foods, or don’t exercise, your insulin resistance can be worse. You can reverse your tracks by following the exercise and meal plan your doctor recommends to lower your triglycerides and by taking prescribed medicine. Your doctor can check your blood sugar (also called glucose) levels, by taking a sample of your blood after you’ve fasted, which means you haven’t eaten for at least 8 hours. The doctor may also test the level of glucose in your blood with a special blood test called A1c. The result shows the average level of Continue reading >>
Questions And Answers About Fructose
What is fructose? Fructose is a monosaccharide, or single sugar, that has the same chemical formula as glucose but a different molecular structure. Sometimes called fruit sugar, fructose is found in fruit, some vegetables, honey, and other plants. Fructose and other sugars are carbohydrates, an important source of energy for the body. What other types of sugars are there? The food supply contains a variety of sugars called monosaccharides (single sugar units like fructose and glucose) and disaccharides (two monosaccharides linked together). Glucose is the main source of energy for the body because most complex sugars and carbohydrates break down into glucose during digestion. Starches contain many single sugar units linked together. The various sugars perform different functions in the body, but they all can provide energy. Sucrose is a disaccharide that contains equal parts of glucose and fructose. Known as table or white sugar, sucrose is found naturally in sugar cane and sugar beets. Other sugars in foods and beverages include: Lactose Disaccharide containing glucose and galactose Naturally occurring in milk Maltose Disaccharide containing two glucoses Crystallized from starch Dextrose Another name for glucose Crystallized from sugar cane, sugar beets and starches Corn Syrup Primarily single glucose units Produced from corn starch High Fructose Corn Syrup Primarily a mixture of glucose and fructose single units Produced from corn starch Is fructose safe? High fructose corn syrup and all other sugars are “generally recognized as safe” by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The Surgeon General's Report on Nutrition and Health, the National Academy of Sciences report Diet and Health, and Healthy People 2000: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objec Continue reading >>
Fructose Vs Glucose: What’s Worse?
Fructose vs. glucose? What is worse when it comes to accumulating body fat and reducing our insulin sensitivity? Today we review a study that attempts to answer this question. Many of you have probably seen the pro-high fructose corn syrup ads (if not, here is a link to one on YouTube). They drive me crazy — partially because they are incredibly cheesy, but also because they try to comfort you by telling you that high fructose corn syrup is no worse for you than sugar. Up until now which is worse was unclear. One study says high fructose corn syrup is worse, while another finds no difference. But are we asking the right question? Should “which is worse” be the question? While people worry about which is worse the real problem is how much sugar you eat. The average American diet in 2000 was 15.8% sugar (by calories). That’s average — meaning that there are a lot of people who are eating more than that. That’s what I don’t understand. We know that excessive sugar is bad for you regardless of what kind, but that hasn’t stopped people from eating/drinking a lot of it. The real issue, then, is sugar consumption. The study I’m reviewing this week compares how bad glucose is compared to fructose, but if you forget about the differences you find out how bad it is to eat a lot (25% of your diet) as sugar. This week’s study wants to answer a few questions about sugars: Does eating fructose cause more weight gain than glucose? Is where the weight is gained different between the two sugars? Does eating fructose cause dyslipidemia (negative changes in blood lipids) compared to glucose? Does eating fructose decrease glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity? Stanhope KL, et al. Consuming fructose-sweetened, not glucose sweetened, beverages increase visceral adi Continue reading >>
Triglycerides Triglyceride increases up to 2–3-fold after a meal, and so samples should be taken after an overnight (> 12 h) fast in order to obviate difficulties of interpretation resulting from the presence of chylomicrons or chylomicron remnants. Most triglyceride methods involve hydrolysis of triglycerides and measurement of the free glycerol released. Glycerol blanking is not routinely performed. In certain circumstances, such as patients with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, on haemodialysis, or with the rare X-linked recessive disorder glycerol kinase deficiency, the glycerol content of the sample may be significantly raised. In these situations, high concentrations of glycerol in the plasma will produce falsely high triglyceride results, and glycerol blanking is essential to obtain a valid result. Plasma triglyceride concentration has a much greater biological variation than does that of cholesterol, at ~ 20% even in fasting samples. Fate of blood triacylglycerol Absorbed triacylglycerol is carried in the lymph as droplets partially coated with protein, known as chylomicrons (see Ch. 8). The triacylglycerol synthesized from glucose in the liver is released to circulate in the blood, but as components of very low density lipoproteins. The blood enters the adipose tissue where the lipids present in both very low density lipoproteins and chylomicrons, are hydrolysed to fatty acids and glycerol by a lipoprotein lipase present in the endothelial surfaces of the capillaries. Most of the fatty acids produced are taken up into the adipose cells (adipocytes) by passive diffusion, although a small fraction circulates to other tissues. The glycerol produced is either taken up by the adipose tissue cells or transported to other tissues. In adipocytes, the fatty acids and g Continue reading >>