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What Is The Chemical Formula For A Molecule Of Glucose?

What Is Glucose? - Formula, Definition & Regulation

What Is Glucose? - Formula, Definition & Regulation

The glucose molecule is an important carbohydrate, essential for the production of ATP, or the molecule of energy in the body. Glucose is tightly regulated, and both excessive and inadequate glucose levels result in disease states. What Is Glucose? The name glucose is from the Greek word for 'sweet' , which is 'glukus.' Glucose is a monosaccharide, which is another term for a simple sugar. It is one of three monosaccharides that are used by the body, but it is the only one that can be used directly to produce ATP. ATP is used by the body for energy; in fact, ATP is the only molecule that can be used for energy. Thus, adequate glucose levels are essential. Glucose is both helpful and harmful to organisms. As mentioned, glucose is used by cells to make ATP and power the body. Hyperglycemia (high blood glucose), however, is cytotoxic (cell-killing) and can induce severe inflammation throughout the body. Hypoglycemia (low blood glucose) occurs when there is not enough glucose in the blood. This too is harmful and potentially deadly. The body has several ways to detect changing glucose levels and mechanisms to correct harmful situations. When the body cannot regulate glucose levels, diseases such as diabetes occur. Regulation When you eat, the carbohydrates in your food are either already simple sugars or are re-broken down into simple sugars. The simple sugars are readily absorbed into your bloodstream from your digestive system, causing your blood glucose level to rise. Your pancreas detects rising blood glucose and responds by secreting insulin. Insulin is a regulatory molecule whose purpose is to control carbohydrate and fat metabolism. Once released into the blood, insulin directs cells of the liver, skeletal muscle, and fat tissue to absorb glucose from the blood. Once Continue reading >>

Quia - Science 9: Basic Chemistry (chemical Formulas And Reactions)

Quia - Science 9: Basic Chemistry (chemical Formulas And Reactions)

Java Games: Flashcards, matching, concentration, and word search. Science 9: Basic Chemistry (Chemical formulas and reactions) The element that forms the backbone of organic molecules is ___. Two or more elements bond together to form ____. A compound which has bonds formed by sharing electrons is called a ___. molecule (technically, a molecule like oxygen which is made of two oxygen atoms is also a molecule because it is held together with covalent bonds, but it is not a compound because it does not have two or more different elements in it) How many oxygen atoms are in H20? (The two is supposed to be a small subscript) What is the chemical formula for a molecule of glucose? In a chemical equation, the _____ are on the left side of the arrow. In a chemical equation, the ___ are on the right side of the arrow. The process of using energy from the sun to make food molecules like glucose is called ____. What are the products of photosynthesis?, What are the reactants of photosynthesis?, Which two molecules are needed for photosynthesis to occur?, What are the waste products of cellular respiration?, What are the reactants of cellular respiration?, A reaction that gives off energy (loses energy) is called an _____ reaction A reaction that requires more energy than it gives off is called an ___ reaction. Cellular respiration is an example of an ___ reaction, Burning wood is an example of an ____ reaction. exothermic (because it gives off more energy than is needed to get it started), Photosynthesis is an example of an ___ reaction., endothermic (because it requires more energy than it gives off), How many phosphorus atoms are in the compound whose chemical formula is shown below?, One (The subscripts that come after the element's chemical symbol tell you how many atoms the Continue reading >>

Equations | Gondar Design Chemistry

Equations | Gondar Design Chemistry

Word Equations & Balanced Chemical Equations. If you are doing the basic level biology you only need to know the word equations. If you are doing the higher level you really ought to know the balanced chemical equations given below. In your tissues energy is needed for growth, repair, movement, excretion and so on. This energy is obtained from glucose supplied to the tissues by your blood. Aerobic respiration also requires Oxygen. The products of tissue respiration are Carbon Dioxide and water. Glucose + Oxygen = Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy The first one is a word equation. All it says is glucose and Oxygen are turned into Carbon Dioxide and water releasing energy. If you still dont understand this, just pretend that you are a parrot and memorise it. The second one is a balanced chemical equation. C6H12O6 means one molecule of glucose, but we are much too lazy to put a figure 1 in front of the glucose molecule. The C6 .means that the glucose molecule contains 6 atoms of Carbon. The H12 .means that the glucose molecule contains 12 atoms of Hydrogen. The O6 . means that the glucose molecule contains 6 atoms of Oxygen. 6O2 means 6 molecules of Oxygen, and each molecule contains 2 atoms of Oxygen. The left-hand side of the equation shows 6 atoms of Carbon, 12 atoms of Hydrogen and a total of 18 atoms of Oxygen. So does the right-hand side. The two sides of the equation must balance. 6CO2 means 6 molecules of Carbon Dioxide. The 6 multiplies the Carbon and the Oxygen. The C means one atom of Oxygen, but again we are ever so lazy and do not bother to put a little figure 1 after the Carbon atom. So all together there are 6 atoms of Carbon. ( 6 times 1). The same number of Carbon atoms on each side. The O2 means that every molecule of C Continue reading >>

2.4 Chemical Formulas

2.4 Chemical Formulas

By the end of this section, you will be able to: Symbolize the composition of molecules using molecular formulas and empirical formulas Represent the bonding arrangement of atoms within molecules using structural formulas A molecular formula is a representation of a molecule that uses chemical symbols to indicate the types of atoms followed by subscripts to show the number of atoms of each type in the molecule. (A subscript is used only when more than one atom of a given type is present.) Molecular formulas are also used as abbreviations for the names of compounds. The structural formula for a compound gives the same information as its molecular formula (the types and numbers of atoms in the molecule) but also shows how the atoms are connected in the molecule. The structural formula for methane contains symbols for one C atom and four H atoms, indicating the number of atoms in the molecule ( Figure 1 ). The lines represent bonds that hold the atoms together. (A chemical bond is an attraction between atoms or ions that holds them together in a molecule or a crystal.) We will discuss chemical bonds and see how to predict the arrangement of atoms in a molecule later. For now, simply know that the lines are an indication of how the atoms are connected in a molecule. A ball-and-stick model shows the geometric arrangement of the atoms with atomic sizes not to scale, and a space-filling model shows the relative sizes of the atoms. Figure 1. A methane molecule can be represented as (a) a molecular formula, (b) a structural formula, (c) a ball-and-stick model, and (d) a space-filling model. Carbon and hydrogen atoms are represented by black and white spheres, respectively. Although many elements consist of discrete, individual atoms, some exist as molecules made up of two or mo Continue reading >>

Glucose

Glucose

Glucose, also called dextrose, one of a group of carbohydrates known as simple sugars (monosaccharides). Glucose (from Greek glykys; “sweet”) has the molecular formula C6H12O6. It is found in fruits and honey and is the major free sugar circulating in the blood of higher animals. It is the source of energy in cell function, and the regulation of its metabolism is of great importance (see fermentation; gluconeogenesis). Molecules of starch, the major energy-reserve carbohydrate of plants, consist of thousands of linear glucose units. Another major compound composed of glucose is cellulose, which is also linear. Dextrose is the molecule d-glucose. A related molecule in animals is glycogen, the reserve carbohydrate in most vertebrate and invertebrate animal cells, as well as those of numerous fungi and protozoans. See also polysaccharide. Continue reading >>

Chemical Formulae

Chemical Formulae

Molecules are aggregates of individual atoms held together by chemical bonds (to be discussed in the next chapter).Thus, a symbolic representation of a molecule should be composed ofthe chemical symbols for the individual atoms that comprise themolecule. There are two types of chemical formulae that are commonlyused to represent a molecule: The molecular formula for a molecule expresses the precise number ofeach type of atom in that molecule. is the formula for a molecule of carbon dioxide. O is the formula for a molecule of water. Note that the molecular formula is also the formula for the(bulk) substance, itself. That is, we say H O is themolecular formula for water or ice, indicating bulk water or ice.This is true as long as the bulk substance has well defined molecular subunits. The empirical formula is the simplest formula for a molecule that stillexpresses the correct relative numbers or ratios of numbers of atoms in the molecule. Example: The numbers of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms inglucose (C Hence, the empirical formula for glucose is This is a correct empirical formula for the following molecules: or any other molecule for which the number of carbon atoms and thenumber of hydrogen atoms are in the ratio of 1:2. From this example,it is clear that the molecular formula carries more informationand is clearly preferable to an empirical formula. Put another way, an empirical formula specifies a class of molecules,in which the numbers of atoms are in certain basic ratios, while themolecular formula precisely identifies a particular molecule. Although preferable, a molecular formula is not always possible. For example,in liquids and solids, it may not always be possible to define precisemolecular units, in which case an empirical formula is the only possible c Continue reading >>

Chemical Or Molecular Formula For Glucose

Chemical Or Molecular Formula For Glucose

Chemical or Molecular Formula for Glucose Science Photo Library - MIRIAM MASLO. / Getty Images The molecular formula for glucose is C6H12O6 or H-(C=O)-(CHOH)5-H. Its empirical or simplest formula is CH2O, which indicates there are two hydrogen atoms for each carbon and oxygen atom in the molecule. Glucose is the sugar that is produced by plants during photosynthesis and that circulates in the blood of people and other animals as an energy source. Glucose is also known as dextrose, blood sugar , corn sugar, grape sugar,or by its IUPAC systematic name(2R,3S,4R,5R)-2,3,4,5,6-Pentahydroxyhexanal. The name "glucose" comes from the French and Greek words for "sweet", in reference to must, which is the sweet first press of grapes when they are used to make wine. The -ose ending in glucose indicates the molecule is a carbohydrate . Because glucose has 6 carbon atoms, it is classified as a hexose. Specifically, it is an example of an aldohexose. It is a type of monosaccharide or simple sugar. It may be found in either linear form or cyclic form (most common). The hydrogen and -OH groups are able to rotate around the carbon atoms in glucose, leading to isomerization. The D-isomer, D-glucose, is found in nature and is used for cellular respiration in plants and animals. The L-isomer, L-glucose, is not common in nature, although it may be prepared in a lab. Pure glucose is a white or crystalline powder with a molar mass of 180.16 grams per mole and density of 1.54 grams per cubic centimeter. The melting point of the solid depends on whether it is in the alpha or beta conformation.The melting point of-D-glucose is146C (295F; 419K). The melting point of-D-glucose is150C (302 F; 423 K). Why do organisms use glucose for respiration and fermentation rather than another carbohydrate? Th Continue reading >>

Bbc - Gcse Bitesize: Photosynthesis

Bbc - Gcse Bitesize: Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis captures energy for life on Earth. Many chemicals are made to allow life processes to occur in plants. These chemicals can move in and out of cells by the process of diffusion. Osmosis is a specific type of diffusion. Photosynthesis is a process used by plants in which energy from sunlight is used to convert carbon dioxide and water into molecules needed for growth. These molecules include sugars, enzymes and chlorophyll. Light energy is absorbed by the green chemical chlorophyll. This energy allows the production of glucose by the reaction between carbon dioxide and water. Oxygen is also produced as a waste product. This reaction can be summarised in the word equation: The chemical equation for photosynthesis is: Glucose is made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Glucose made by the process of photosynthesis may be used in three ways: It can be converted into chemicals required for growth of plant cells such as cellulose It can be converted into starch, a storage molecule, that can be converted back to glucose when the plant requires it It can be broken down during the process of respiration, releasing energy stored in the glucose molecules Plants cells contain a number of structures that are involved in the process of photosynthesis: Diagram of a plant cell involved in production of glucose from photosynthesis Chloroplasts - containing chlorophyll and enzymes needed for reactions in photosynthesis. Nucleus - containing DNA carrying the genetic code for enzymes and other proteins used in photosynthesis Cell membrane - allowing gas and water to pass in and out of the cell while controlling the passage of other molecules Vacuole - containing cell sap to keep the cell turgid Cytoplasm - enzymes and other proteins used in photosynthesis made here Continue reading >>

Molecular Structure Of Glucose

Molecular Structure Of Glucose

What I wanted to do in this video is familiarize ourselves with one of the most important molecules in biology And that is Glucose sometimes referred to as Dextrose and the term Dextrose comes from the fact that the form of Glucose typically Typically found in nature if you form a solution of it, it's going to polarize light to the right and Dextre means Right But the more typical term glucose this literally means sweet in greek if you ask a greek friend to say sweet it sounds like Lucas or I'm not saying it perfectly, but it sounds a lot like a glucose And that's because that's where the word comes from and it is super important because it is it is it is how energy [is] stored and transferred in biological systems in fact right [now] when if someone were to talk about your blood your blood sugar they're talking about the glucose content, so when people talk about blood blood sugar they're talking about your they're talking about your glucose content the whole process of photosynthesis this is all about plants using harnessing the [sun's] energy and storing that energy in the form of glucose when we talk about when we talk about things like respiration in our in our cells cellular respiration that's all about taking glucose and using it to full and to create atp's which are the molecular currency of energy Inside of our body, so these are in credit is an incredibly important molecule We can start wreaking chains of glucose to form Glycogen to form Starches this along with another similar another simple sugar fructose you can use to form our table sugar But even glucose by itself is sweet so let's get familiar with it as a molecule so immediately When you look at this is it kind of drawn as a as an open chain we see that we have one two three Actually, let me number thes Continue reading >>

Balanced Chemical Equation For Cellular Respiration: Meaning & Function

Balanced Chemical Equation For Cellular Respiration: Meaning & Function

Balanced Chemical Equation For Cellular Respiration: Meaning & Function An overview of the process of cellular respiration. Photo: Pearson Education Cellular respiration is the process by which cells convert nutrients into the energy that is used to power a variety of functions like transportation, locomotion, and the synthesization of macromolecules. The job of cellular respiration is to form adenosine triphosphate, a molecule used for energy. How does this transition between nutrients and adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, take place? What are the steps of cellular respiration? The Chemical Equation For Cellular Respiration The equation that represents cellular respiration is: Glucose + oxygen > water + carbon dioxide + energy Essentially, this means that in cellular respiration glucose and oxygen are transformed to make water, carbon dioxide, and energy. Your body is utilizing the oxygen you breathe in as well as the food you eat to produce energy. The oxygen you breathe in breaks down the sugars from your food and produces heat energy, similar to burning wood to release energy. In cellular respiration, the oxygen is used to break down the sugar, the energy of the sugar is released, and as a byproduct carbon dioxide is produced. The released energy is stored within your cells for later use. The process of aerobic cellular respiration. Photo: archive.cnx.org Some of the ATP used by cells comes directly from the reactions that caused the transformation of glucose. However, a large amount of ATP is produced later on during a phase of cellular respiration called oxidative phosphorylation. The process of aerobic respiration (aerobic meaning that it uses oxygen) is divided into four separate steps. Oxidative phosphorylation can be thought of as the final step of the cellular Continue reading >>

Molecular Weight Of Glucose

Molecular Weight Of Glucose

Calculate the molecular weightof a chemical compound Browse the list of common chemical compounds . More information onmolar mass and molecular weight In chemistry, the formula weight is a quantity computed by multiplying the atomic weight (in atomic mass units) of each element in a chemical formula by the number of atoms of that element present in the formula, then adding all of these products together. A common request on this site is to convert grams to moles . To complete this calculation, you have to know what substance you are trying to convert. The reason is that the molar mass of the substance affects the conversion. This site explains how to find molar mass. If the formula used in calculating molar mass is the molecular formula, the formula weight computed is the molecular weight. The percentage by weight of any atom or group of atoms in a compound can be computed by dividing the total weight of the atom (or group of atoms) in the formula by the formula weight and multiplying by 100. Formula weights are especially useful in determining the relative weights of reagents and products in a chemical reaction. These relative weights computed from the chemical equation are sometimes called equation weights. The atomic weights used on this site come from NIST, the National Institute of Standards and Technology. We use the most common isotopes. This is how to calculate molar mass (average molecular weight), which is based on isotropically weighted averages. This is not the same as molecular mass, which is the mass of a single molecule of well-defined isotopes. For bulk stoichiometric calculations, we are usually determining molar mass, which may also be called standard atomic weight or average atomic mass. Using the chemical formula of the compound and the periodic tab Continue reading >>

Glucose

Glucose

This article is about the naturally occurring D-form of glucose. For the L-form, see L-Glucose. Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6, which means that it is a molecule that is made of six carbon atoms, twelve hydrogen atoms, and six oxygen atoms. Glucose circulates in the blood of animals as blood sugar. It is made during photosynthesis from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight. It is the most important source of energy for cellular respiration. Glucose is stored as a polymer, in plants as starch and in animals as glycogen. With six carbon atoms, it is classed as a hexose, a subcategory of the monosaccharides. D-Glucose is one of the sixteen aldohexose stereoisomers. The D-isomer, D-glucose, also known as dextrose, occurs widely in nature, but the L-isomer, L-glucose, does not. Glucose can be obtained by hydrolysis of carbohydrates such as milk sugar (lactose), cane sugar (sucrose), maltose, cellulose, glycogen, etc. It is commonly commercially manufactured from cornstarch by hydrolysis via pressurized steaming at controlled pH in a jet followed by further enzymatic depolymerization.[3] In 1747, Andreas Marggraf was the first to isolate glucose.[4] Glucose is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.[5] The name glucose derives through the French from the Greek γλυκός, which means "sweet," in reference to must, the sweet, first press of grapes in the making of wine.[6][7] The suffix "-ose" is a chemical classifier, denoting a carbohydrate. Function in biology[edit] Glucose is the most widely used aldohexose in living organisms. One possible explanation for this is that glucose has a lower tendency than other aldohexoses to react nonspecific Continue reading >>

Equation For Glucose Metabolism

Equation For Glucose Metabolism

The cells in your body can break down or metabolize glucose to make the energy they need. Rather than merely releasing this energy as heat, however, cells store this energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate or ATP; ATP acts as a kind of energy currency that's available in a convenient form to meet the cell's needs. Overall Chemical Equation Since the breakdown of glucose is a chemical reaction, it can be described using the following chemical equation: C6H12O6 + 6 O2 --> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O, where 2870 kilojoules of energy are released for each mole of glucose that's metabolized. Although this equation does describe the overall process, its simplicity is deceptive, because it conceals all the details of what's really taking place. Glucose isn't metabolized in a single step. Instead, the cell breaks glucose down in a series of small steps, each of which releases energy. The chemical equations for these appear below. Glycolysis The first step in glucose metabolism is glycolysis, a ten-step process where a molecule of glucose is lysed or split into two three-carbon sugars which are then chemically altered to form two molecules of pyruvate. The net equation for glycolysis is as follows: C6H12O6 + 2 ADP + 2 [P]i + 2 NAD+ --> 2 pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2 NADH, where C6H12O6 is glucose, [P]i is a phosphate group, NAD+ and NADH are electron acceptors/carriers and ADP is adenosine diphosphate. Again, while this equation gives the overall picture, it also conceals a lot of the dirty details; since glycolysis is a ten-step process each step could be described using a separate chemical equation. Citric Acid Cycle The next step in glucose metabolism is the citric acid cycle (also called the Krebs cycle or the tricarboxylic acid cycle). Each of the the two molecules of pyruvate formed by gly Continue reading >>

Bio 93 Lecture 2 Flashcards | Quizlet

Bio 93 Lecture 2 Flashcards | Quizlet

coils and folds result from hydrogen bonds between repeating constituents of the polypeptide backbone. ex) Helix or pleated sheet is determined by interactions between R groups, rather than interactions between backbone constituents. These interactions between R groups include hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, hydrophobic interactions, and van der Waals interactions Strong covalent bonds called disulfide bridges may reinforce the protein's structure results when two or more polypeptide chains form one macromolecule is a globular protein consisting of four polypeptides: two alpha and two beta chains in pH, salt concentration, temperature, or other environmental factors can cause a protein to unravel`\ This loss of a protein's native structure is called are protein molecules that assist the proper folding of other proteins Diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and mad cow disease are associated with misfolded proteins scientists use X-ray crystallography to determine a protein's structure Another method is nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, which does not require protein crystallization Bioinformatics uses computer programs to predict protein structure from amino acid sequences The amino acid sequence of a polypeptide is programmed by a unit of inheritance called a gene Genes are made of DNA, a nucleic acid made of monomers called nucleotides provides directions for its own replication Nucleic acids are polymers called polynucleotides Each nucleotide consists of a nitrogenous base, a pentose sugar, and one or more phosphate groups The portion of a nucleotide without the phosphate group is called a nucleoside Continue reading >>

Sugar Molecule: Structure & Formula

Sugar Molecule: Structure & Formula

Watch short & fun videos Start Your Free Trial Today An error occurred trying to load this video. Try refreshing the page, or contact customer support. You must create an account to continue watching Start Your Free Trial To Continue Watching As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 70,000 lessons in math, English, science, history, and more. Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you succeed. Coming up next: Biochemical Reactions: Synthesis and Decomposition Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. Custom Courses are courses that you create from Study.com lessons. Use them just like other courses to track progress, access quizzes and exams, and share content. Organize and share selected lessons with your class. Make planning easier by creating your own custom course. Create a new course from any lesson page or your dashboard. Click "Add to" located below the video player and follow the prompts to name your course and save your lesson. Click on the "Custom Courses" tab, then click "Create course". Next, go to any lesson page and begin adding lessons. Edit your Custom Course directly from your dashboard. Name your Custom Course and add an optional description or learning objective. Create chapters to group lesson within your course. Remove and reorder chapters and lessons at any time. Share your Custom Course or assign lessons and chapters. Share or assign lessons and chapters by clicking the "Teacher" tab on the lesson or chapter page you want to assign. Students' quiz scores and video views will be trackable in your "Teacher" tab. You can share your Custom Course by copying and pasting the course URL. Only Study.com members will be able to access the entire course. Create an account to start this course today Continue reading >>

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